Chapter 65 Assessment of Neurologic Function

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Terms in this set (21)
Functions to regulates activities of internal organs and to maintain and restore internal homeostasis
Sympathetic nervous system
"Fight or flight" responses
Main neurotransmitter is norepinephrine
Parasympathetic nervous system
Controls mostly visceral functions
Regulated by centers in the spinal cord, brainstem, and hypothalamus
Consciousness and cognition: mental status, intellectual function, thought content, emotional status, language ability, impact on lifestyle
Cranial nerves
Motor system: muscle size, muscle tone and strength, coordination and balance, Romberg test
Sensory system: tactile sensation, superficial pain, temperature, vibration and position sense (proprioception)
Reflexes: DTRs, biceps, triceps, brachioradialis, patellar Achilles, superficial, pathologic, plantar (Babinski)
Computed tomography (CT)
Positron emission tomography (PET)
Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
Cerebral angiography
Noninvasive carotid flow studies
Transcranial Doppler
Electroencephalography (EEG)
Electromyography (EMG)
Nerve conduction studies, evoked potential studies
Lumbar puncture, Queckenstedt test, and analysis of cerebrospinal fluid
Babinski reflex (sign):a reflex action of the toes; in adults is indicative of abnormalities in the motor control pathways leading from the cerebral cortexclonus:abnormal movement marked by alternating contraction and relaxation of a muscle occurring in rapid successiondelirium:an acute, confused state that begins with disorientation and if not recognized and treated early can progress to changes in level of consciousness, irreversible brain damage, and sometimes deathflaccidity:displaying lack of muscle tone; limp, floppy parasympathetic nervous system: division of the autonomic nervous system active primarily during nonstressful conditions, controlling mostly visceral functionsdendrite:portion of the neuron that conducts impulses toward the cell bodyposition (postural) sense:awareness of position of parts of the body without looking at them; also referred to as proprioceptionrigidity:increase in muscle tone at rest characterized by increased resistance to passive stretchRomberg test:test for cerebellar dysfunction that can be done with the patient seated or standing; inability to maintain position for 20 seconds is a positive testspasticity:sustained increase in tension of a muscle when it is passively lengthened or stretchedsympathetic nervous system:division of the autonomic nervous system with predominantly excitatory responses; the "fight-or-flight" systemvertigo:illusion of movement in which the individual or the surroundings are sensed as moving