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Patho Chapter 5 Outline
Terms in this set (19)
What is the body's primary line of defense?
- mechanical barrier such as skin or mucous membrane that blocks entry of bacteria or harmful substances into the tissues
What is the body's secondary line of defense?
- nonspecific processes of phagocytosis and inflammation
- process by which neutrophils (a leukocyte) and macrophages randomly engulf and destroy bacteria, cell debris, or foreign matter
What is the body's tertiary line of defense?
- provides protection by stimulating the production of unique antibodies or sensitized lymphocytes following exposure to specific substances
What is the purpose of inflammation?
- intended to localize and remove an injurious agent
- warning of a problem
How does inflammation differ from infection?
- With infection, microorganisms present at the site cause the inflammation
- With inflammation, microbes are not present
What are the steps of inflammation?
1.Bradykinin is released from the injured cells.
2. Bradykinin activates pain receptors.
3. Sensation of pain stimulates mast cells and basophils to release histamine.
4. Bradykinin and histamine cause capillary dilation. This results in an increase of blood flow and increased capillary permeability.
5. Break in skin allows bacteria to enter the tissue.
6. This results in the migration of neutrophils and monocytes to the site of injury.
7. Neutrophils phagocytize bacteria.
8. Macrophages leave the bloodstream and phagocytose microbes.
How does the body facilitate the movement of WBC's to the injured tissues? What is that process called?
How do neutrophils and macrophages contribute to inflammation?
Neutrophils - phagocytosis of microorganisms
Macrophages - Active in phagocytosis; these are mature monocytes that have migrated into tissues from the blood
How do platelets and fibrin contribute to inflammation?
Platelets - release chemical mediators including histamine, serotonin, prostaglandins, and leukotrienes into the interstitial fluid and blood
What is the role of mast cells in the inflammatory process?
- mast cells and platelets release chemical mediators including histamine, serotonin, prostaglandins, and leukotrienes into the interstitial fluid and blood
- comes from mast cell granules
- Immediate vasodilation and increased capillary permeability to form exudate
- comes from T lymphocytes, macrophages
- Increase plasma proteins, erythrocyte sedimentation rate
- comes from synthesis from arachidonic acid in mast cells
- Vasodilation, increased capillary permeability, pain, fever, potentiate histamine effect
- Comes from activation of plasma protein (kinogen)
- Vasodilation and increased capillary permeability, pain, chemotaxis
- Comes from activation of plasma protein cascade
- Vasodilation and increased capillary permeability, chemotaxis, increased histamine release
- Comes from mast cell granules
- attract neutrophils to sight
What are the signs of local inflammation? Systemic?
- Local Inflammation: redness, warmth, swelling, pain
- Systemic Inflammation: mild fever, malaise (feeling unwell), fatigue, headache, and anorexia
What are some examples of chronic inflammation?
- rheumatoid arthritis, smoking
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