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Presidents Test US History
Terms in this set (68)
(Review Questions) Which statement evaluates the impact of the Voting Rights Act of 1965 on democratic participation?
The act succeeded because it allowed more citizens to vote
(Review Questions) What Supreme Court decision were instrumental in achieving goals of the Civil Rights Movement?
- 1896: Plessy v. Ferguson upheld a law allowing "separate but equal" public facilities
- 1917: Buchanan v. Warley overturned a law requiring segregated residential areas
According to the information above, which issues were in conflict in these Supreme Court decisions?
Legalized discrimination and the 14th amendment
(Review Questions) Why did the Black Panthers and the American Indian Movement use different tactics in the pursuit of equal rights than the followers of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.?
They believed earlier tactics were ineffective in achieving goals
(Review Questions) How does the Brown v. Board of Education decision demonstrate that the Constitution is a living document?
The case overturned a previous Supreme Court ruling
(Review Questions) The 5th Amendment describes the principle of eminent domain.
...nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation
Which trend traces a long-term application of this principle?
Highways were built on land purchased from landowners
(Review Questions) In March 1964, President Lyndon Johnson went before Congress and announced his support for the Equal opportunity Act.
"It will give almost half a million underprivileged young Americans the opportunity to develop skills, continue education, and find useful work... First we will give high priority to helping young Americans who lack skills, who have not completed their education or who cannot complete it because they are too poor."
What was the purpose of President Johnson's proposed legislation?
To provide the means to escape poverty
(Review Questions) This list describes several events during the Civil Rights Movement.
- 1957: Federal troops enforce integration of an Arkansas high school
- 1964: Civil Rights Act forbids discrimination in public facilities
- 1965: Voting Rights Act forbids literacy tests for voters
What do these events indicate about the government response to the Civil Rights Movement?
The federal government actively secured constitutional guarantees
(Review Questions) Why did Stokely Carmichael's rhetoric differ from that of other civil rights advocates?
He was dissatisfied with the emphasis on civil disobedience in the face of violence as a means to achieve social equality
(Review Questions) The United Farm Workers union is a civil rights organization.
- In order to protect the rights of mostly immigrant workers, Cesar Chavez organized the United Farm Workers union. When the large companies that employed the minority workers refused to sign contracts with the organized workers, the workers went on strike. The workers then organized a boycott of the products produced by the companies.
Which statement correctly evaluates the effectiveness of this strategy?
It created awareness of the plight of agricultural laborers
(Review Questions) Why has the power of the federal government steadily grown since the writing of the United States Constitution?
Many complex developments in society have prompted federal action
(Review Questions) Why statement evaluates the impact of the Selma to Montgomery marches on the expansion of voting rights?
The marches aided the movement by rallying support among national politicians
What two countries needed peace in the Camp David Accords?
Egypt and Israel
What President achieved the Camp David Accords?
What is the most important achievement of Carter's Presidency?
The Camp David Accords
What is the Gulf War known as?
"Operation Desert Storm"
What was the country the Gulf War fought for the freedom of?
Some radical factions of this organization will use violence in order to protect the environment.
Female participation has increased dramatically over the past 20 years thanks to this law providing an equal number of scholarships to female athletes
Title IX (9)
Site of a nuclear power plant core meltdown. While no one received a harmful amount of radioactivity, it did increase safety standards in nuclear power plants and led to a temporary ban in their construction.
three mile island
President Nixon's attempt to cover up the break-in at this Democratic headquarters would eventually lead to his resignation before he is impeached.
Reagan was considered a leader of the _____________ Majority, which was a conservative political movement to restore traditional values.
One of the main reasons the US will fight in the 1991 Gulf War will be to protect the US _____ interests in the Middle East.
The Soviet Union will invade this Middle Eastern Country to support the communists government there. The US will secretly supply the muslim rebels (bad idea!!). US will protest this invasion by boycotting the 1980 Moscow Olympics in the USSR.
This oil tanker's spill of 11 million gallons of US oil near Alaska will be the largest man-made environmental disaster in history.
Pres. Clinton's reform law put time limits on how long some Americans could receive ____________ benefits. This was done so Americans wouldn't become dependent on the government.
This trade agreement passed by Pres. Clinton angered many Americans. They feared opening the borders between US, Canada, and Mexico would lead to a loss of American jobs to Mexico.
Reagan drastically cut taxes and federal spending on almost every federal program, but did spend an astronomical amount on ____________.
This crisis started with the taking of 52 Americans at the US embassy in Tehran (the capital). A US rescue attempt failed and the Americans were eventually released after 444 days.
President Carter's most impressive achievement was this peace treaty between Egypt and Israel.
Camp David Accords
UN will send aid to this African nation. When the convoys are attacked, Pres. Clinton will send 25,000 troops. This is an example of humanitarian missions leading to military conflict.
When Watergate prosecutor asked for the recorded White House tapes, Nixon refused claiming the President has this discretion to do what he wants. The Supreme Court would disagree claiming no one is above the law and the constitution.
Radical military proposal made by Pres. Reagan where the US would design lasers and bounce them off satellites to stop Soviet missiles from hitting the US. While the proposal was crazy, the Soviets believed it and would collapse believing we were so far ahead of them militarily.
Strategic Defense Initiative
The early 1980s will lead to an exodus of this "industrial region" of the country as some Americans will move South.
Reagan's administration secretly sold weapons to Iran (bad idea!!) in exchange for money and hostages, then used that money to give to these pro-US rebels in Nicaragua even though the US Congress prohibited giving them money.
This government agency is responsible for laws providing for clean water and air, with many laws dealing with cleaner disposal of corporate waste and car emissions.
Environmental Protection Agency
George HW Bush made the quote, "_____________, No New Taxes" while campaigning. As president, he would break this promise and increase taxes.
read my lips
Ford damaged his approval rating by granting ____________ to people who avoided the draft in Vietnam.
New Federalism (1968): Richard Nixon
Republican attitude of reducing the federal Government's role in the economy and a return of power to the states
Stagflation/New Economic Policy (1968-1971): Richard Nixon
Combination of rising unemployment and inflation (both are bad). Large problems with the federal deficit caused by Johnson's "War on Poverty" and Vietnam
Vietnamization begins (1969): Richard Nixon
War strategy of turning over fighting to South Vietnam and gradually pulling out US troops. Unpopular war. America read to get out after Ten Offensive
My Lai Massacre *village in South Vietnam (1969): Richard Nixon
An attack carried out in March 1968 by the US Army during the Vietnam War. 500 civilians were killed
Environmental Protection Agency -EPA- (1970): Richard Nixon
Started the first earth day celebration and continued to push for environmental legislation (air, water, recycling, conservation)
What amendment lowered the voting age? (Richard Nixon)
Pentagon Papers (1971): Richard Nixon
New York Times begins to publish a collection of secret government documents relating to war. The report showed that the US government had long been planning the Vietnam War without any exit strategy. It causes havoc in the US and leads to more protests. The documents showed the US was bombing North Vietnam before the Tonkin Gulf incident and had been bombing Laos and Cambodia (remember the Tonkin Gulf Resolution gave President Johnson broad military powers)
Nixon visits China (1972)
Nixon is best known for his China visit. He improved relations with China by lifting trade and travel restrictions
Vietnam Peace Accords (1973): Richard Nixon
Cease-fire in Vietnam in January 1973. In 1975, North Vietnam captures the South Vietnamese capital Saigon (now called Ho Chi Minh City). All US civilians are evacuated
Escobedo v. Illinois (1964): Richard Nixon
Grants the accused the right to have a lawyer present during police investigations
Miranda v. Arizona (1966): Richard Nixon
Accused persons must be informed of their rights at the time of their arrest. "You have the right to remain silent" (Miranda warning)
Roe v. Wade (1973): Richard Nixon
Right to choose. The Supreme Court said laws against abortion violate a constitutional right to privacy (abortion is OK). "Pro-Life vs. Pro-Choice"
Gideon v. Wainwright (1973): Richard Nixon
States must provide lawyers, at the public's expense, for poor defendants charged with serious crimes
OPEC/oil crisis (1973): Richard Nixon
US had become dependent on foreign oil since WWII. Arab nations cut off our oil for US support of Israel in Arab/Israeli conflict. The price of oil shot up 400%. The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) is formed. These are countries that got together to "monopolize oil prices."
Presidential Pardon for Nixon (1974): Gerald Ford
Once Nixon was pardoned, Ford's approval rating nosedived (reason he became unpopular)
Helsinki Accords *capital of Finland (1975): Gerald Ford
Agreement by the US, USSR, and 33 other nations to elevate human rights
Why did Jimmy Carter win the election?
He was not from Washington (an outsider) and not associated with Watergate or Vietnam. Very honest good person
What was a low point in Jimmy Carters presidency?
Iran Hostage Crisis/Ayatollah Khomeini
When were the American released from the Iran Hostage Crisis?
on the day Reagan became president
Soviet invasion of Afghanistan (1979): Jimmy Carter
Civil war erupted in Afghanistan between Communists and Muslims. The Soviets invaded the country to support the Communists. The US thought the muslims were better suited to rule than the Communists
What was Ronald Reagan?
What was Jimmy Carter?
What was Gerald Ford?
What was Richard Nixon?
Nicaraguan problems/Sandinistas v Contras (1981): Ronald Reagan
Civil war broke out in Nicaragua, Reagan will support the Contras (rebels). However, Congress prohibited aiding the Contras
What was George Herbert Walker Bush?
Tianamen Square/China (1989): George Bush
Chinese students rise up and protest against the communist Chinese government. Chinese troops and tanks kill 2000f protestors (shows oppression in China)
Who was president during the launch of the Hubble Space Telescope?
Who was president during the Gulf War?
What was Bill Clinton?
World Trade Organization (1999): Bill Clinton
The WTO was formed to promote trade and economic development with all countries. This caused some Americans to protest (also against NAFTA) because it would lead to jobs leaving the country to places where labor was cheaper. More protests followed because they believed these trade agreements lacked incentives to create better work conditions globally (like China)
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