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What does the name "COVID-19" stand for?
Coronavirus disease from 2019
Which of the following is NOT a type of Coronavirus?
Approximately, how many times more deadly than influenza is COVID-19?
COVID-19 is 10 to 30 times more deadly than influenza
At the time of this exam, approximately how many American have died from COVID-19?
Between 500,000 and 600,000
Which statement is TRUE regarding COVID-19 infection of the 18-29 year old age group?
People in this age group are less likely to show symptoms and die than older age groups
What is the general term for a version of the COVID-19 virus that has received a mutation that has caused it to become more virulent?
New forms of the virus have occurred that have mutations that change what protein in the virus that causes it to bind to human cells more easily?
Which version of COVID-19 has become the most prevalent in the US at the time of this exam?
The UK variant
What type of COVID-19 vaccine are the vaccines from Pfizer and Moderna?
How effective are the Pfizer and Moderna vaccines at protecting people from COVID-19 infection?
Greater than 90% effective
In general, how do vaccines work to protect us from viruses?
Harmless pieces of a virus are introduced to the body which causes the body to respond and be ready for the real virus
Why is it important to get vaccinated against COVID-19?
The vaccine will protect you from the virus
The vaccine will prevent you from spreading the virus because you cannot catch it
More people being vaccinated protects people that cannot get vaccinated themselves
Getting vaccinated prevents the virus from evolving into more harmful forms
why should a person be vaccinated for COVID-19 if they actually had the virus?
The vaccine provides longer lasting protection than a COVID-19 infection
The vaccine has been shown to help some long-term effects of COVID-19 infection
The vaccine may allow for more protection from COVID-19 variants
Which of the following is a valid excuse for not getting the COVID-19 vaccine?
My doctor advised me not to get it due to potential serious allergic reactions
How do we stop the COVID-19 pandemic?
Wash your hands regularly
Wear mask over mouth and nose
Socially distance where necessary
Cacti are native almost exclusively to dry areas of North America, though they could survive in Africa. Similarly, cactus-like Euphorbia are native to the dry areas of Africa though they could survive in North America. This is an example of ______________________ evidence for natural selection.
Which of these individuals is most likely to be considered successful in an evolutionary sense?
an individual who dies after 5 days of life but leaves 10 offspring, all of whom survive to reproduce
Darwin's theory of occurrence of decent with modification (adaptation) to explain evolution is also known as:
what is not natural selection
the domestication of chickens for more frequent production of larger eggs.
Who independently and simultaneously (to Charles Darwin) proposed natural selection as a mechanism for evolution?
Which scientist demonstrated that extinction occurred by studying fossils or preserved examples of giant sloths and mammoths while other followers of his believed in catastrophism?
Jean-Baptiste Lamarck's theory that "if a giraffe stretches its neck while reaching for higher leaves; it would produce offspring with longer necks as a result" is known as:
The inheritance of acquired characteristics
The classic text on the "Origin of Species" was authored by:
Analogous structures are not used as a line of evidence of evolution. Which of the following is an example of analogous structures?
Wings of insects and wings of birds
Which scientist/s demonstrated that mutations arise randomly and not as a result of specific selective forces?
Luria and Delbruck
Which of the following is NOT a mechanism of evolution
Allele frequency does not change from generation to generation
Which of the following statements is not true regarding Darwinism and Neo-Darwinism?
Both theories focus on the accumulation of favorable alleles in populations
Based on natural selection and the example of the pepper moths discussed in class, which moth would most likely become more prevalent if a volcano erupted and left dark ash all over the environment where the moths lived?
The dark colored moth
Which of these conditions is NOT among the requirements of the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium of allele frequencies in a population?
small population with genetic drift
Mutations that result in resistance to specific antibiotics in bacterial organisms occur:
at any time, even when the bacteria are not exposed to the drug.
Which statement is NOT true about the Founder Effect
The Founder Effect occurs when a population is subjected to near extinction and then recovers because of a few specific alleles in the survivors.
Which of the following is/are a biological "population"?
all of the corn plants in a cornfield
all of the variable-colored ladybird beetles of the species Harmonia axyridis in a forest
all of the human population of a rural western town
Social research indicates that a person is most likely to marry someone from the same village or city, or a high school or college classmate. Therefore, the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium does not apply well to human populations because:
individuals are not pairing up by chance across the whole population.
What is the frequency of the recessive allele in a population of 100 individuals with the following genotypes: 30 BB, 60 Bb, 10bb?
Which of the following best defines microevolution?
changes in allele frequencies within a population over time
If you know that the recessive (r) allele frequency is 0.8. What percentage of the population do you expect to have the homozygous dominant (RR) genotype?
If a homozygous dominant genotype produced red flowers, homozygous recessive genotype produced white flowers, and heterozygous genotype produced pink flowers, what percentage of the flowers would have pink flowers if the white flower allele frequency was 0.4?
Which of the following can cause the "bottleneck effect"?
Over-hunting an animal
In terms of microevolution, what is the meaning of "gene flow"?
groups entering or leaving a population
What is the definition of population genetics?
study of the diversity of members of a population in terms of allele differences
What is the term for "programmed cell death"?
If a cell is no longer dividing, what phase of the cell cycle is it in?
In what stage of mitosis do chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell before the cell divides?
What is the general term for a gene that could lead to cancer if a mutation occurs in the gene? (the mutation has not occurred yet)
What is the term for how bacteria (or other asexual organisms) replicate?
Normal somatic human cells are diploid and contain 46 chromosomes. Following meiosis in the testes, human sperm (gametes) are _____ and contain _____ chromosomes.
Which of the following best describes a human cell that contains 22 pairs of autosomes and two X chromosomes?
a normal female somatic cell
Which of the following is the BEST definition for meiosis?
Meiosis is division that results in sex cells.
Non-disjunction of sex-chromosomes is more tolerable than non-disjunction of autosomes because:
extra X chromosomes become inactive masses called Barr bodies.
_____________ results in haploid cells, while __________________ restores diploid cells.
When an organism has two different alleles at a gene locus, it is referred to as ______.
A cross between homozygous purple-flowered and homozygous white-flowered pea plants results in offspring with purple flowers. This demonstrates:
If two heterozygotes for a given trait are crossed, the probability of one of the offspring being homozygous dominant is?
A couple who are both carriers of the gene for cystic fibrosis have two children who have cystic fibrosis. What is the probability that the next child will be phenotypically normal?
Huntington's disease is a dominant trait. If one of your parents is heterozygous for the Huntington's disease allele, what is the probability that you too will develop the disease someday?
X-linked ichthyosis is inherited as an X-linked recessive disorder. A woman that is a carrier for ichthyosis and a man without ichthyosis have a new baby boy. What is the chance that this boy will be diagnosed with ichthyosis?
A 9:3:3:1 phenotypic ratio is most characteristic of:
A dihybrid cross
If a male has an X-linked dominant disease, what is the likelihood that his daughters would have the disease?
If a male has the blood type A has children with a woman that has the blood type O and one of these children has the blood type O, what must be the genotype of the male?
When individuals produce a mutant form of the extracellular matrix protein fibrillin, which affects many other different organs, the inheritance of this mutation is the result of ______.
According to Chargaff, a cell that has an adenine content of 15% must have a(n) _________ content of 15% also.
DNA is synthesized using a semi-conservative replication mechanism. What does this mean?
Each parental strand of DNA serves as a template for new strands of DNA
The experiments performed by Frederich Griffith were important for establishing which scientific principle?
Which scientist/s performed the experiments that determined that DNA forms a double helix structure?
Which group of scientists determined that DNA is the genetic material?
Avery, MacCleod, and McCarty
What is the name of the sugar that is found in DNA nucleotides?
Which of the following is the correct order of the central dogma of molecular biology?
DNA -> RNA -> Protein
Which of the following types of RNA serves as a template for synthesizing proteins?
What is the name of the enzyme that performs transcription?
What is the name of the process that cuts out introns from mRNA and connects exons?
What is the name of the location on the DNA where RNA polymerase will initially bind to begin transcription?
What is the purpose of the DNA sequence termed the "lac operator"?
The Lac repressor binds to the lac operator to block transcription of the lac operon
Which of the following is a point at which eukaryotic genes can be regulated?
What is the name of the type of point mutation in DNA that changes the correct amino acid to a different amino acid?
X rays are dangerous because they are capable of causing what kind of damage to DNA?
Double-stranded breaks in the DNA
You would like to clone the human insulin gene into bacteria and have just cut the bacterial plasmid DNA and the insulin gene out of the human genome with compatible restriction enzymes. Which of the following represents the next step for generating recombinant DNA?
Ligate the two DNA fragments together.
The process whereby cDNA is made from RNA templates is called ______________.
Transgenic organisms are organisms which:
have foreign genes inserted in them.
Small accessory rings of DNA found in bacteria and often used in cloning are called __________ .
Why is it possible to insert a foreign gene into an organism and the gene still code for the proper protein?
All living things share a common genetic code
Which of the following can be the composition of the chromosome for a virus?
The protein shell around viral genetic material is called what?
Which of the following is a possible shape of a bacterial cell?
What is the term for a bacterium that can live with or without oxygen in the environment?
What is the term for an archaeal organism that prefers to live in environments with high salt concentrations?
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