8th Grade Final 2020/2021

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Terms in this set (79)
17th President of the United States, A Southerner form Tennessee, as V.P. when Lincoln was killed, he became president. He opposed radical Republicans who passed Reconstruction Acts over his veto. The first U.S. president to be impeached, he survived the Senate removal by only one vote. He was a very weak president.
Military Reconstruction Act1867; divided the South into five districts and placed them under military rule; required Southern States to ratify the 14th amendment; guaranteed freedmen the right to vote in convention to write new state constitutionsWade-Davis Bill1864 Proposed far more demanding and stringent terms for reconstruction; required 50% of the voters of a state to take the loyalty oath and permitted only non-confederates to vote for a new state constitution; Lincoln refused to sign the bill, pocket vetoing it after Congress adjourned.Ten Percent PlanLincoln's plan that allowed a southern state to form a new government after 10 percent of its voters swore an oath of loyalty to the United StatesFreedmen's Bureau1865 - Agency set up to aid former slaves in adjusting themselves to freedom. It furnished food and clothing to needy blacks and helped them get jobsSharecroppinga type of tenant farming, or farming land owned by someone else; a landowner provides the sharecropper with housing, food, farming tools, and seeds. Sharecroppers then pay for these items by selling a share of the crops they raise.Carpetbaggersused to describe Northerners who moved to the South for political or economic gain. The term came from carpetbags, which were small types of luggage made of old carpet fabric.tenant farmera person who lives on and farms land that is owned by someone elseAmendmenta formal change made in a document or a law by editing, deleting, and/or adding to the existing documentScalawagsSoutherners who supported the federal Reconstruction plan and the Republican Partydisenfranchisemeans taking away someone's right to voteWilliam Tecumseh Shermana general of the Union army during the US Civil War; during his "March to Sea" he inflicted significant damage on the SouthRobert E. Leecommander of the Confederate army during the US Civil War; surrendered to Grant at Appomattox Court HousePlessy v. Fergusona case in 1896 in which the Supreme Court ruled that racial segregation in public places was legal. This case created the doctrine of separate but equal. The justices determined that separate and supposedly equal facilities for white Americans and African Americans did not violate the Fourteenth Amendment requirement of equal protection of the lawsliteracy testA test given to persons to prove they can read and write before being allowed to register to votepoll taxA requirement that citizens pay a tax in order to register to voteElectoral CollegeA group of people named by each state legislature to select the president and vice presidentamnestya legal term that means official pardon or immunity from prosecutionRutherford B. Hayesthe 19th president of the United States; As president, he ended Reconstruction leading to the loss of most of the rights African Americans had gained during those years. However, he did attempt to create reforms.redeemerswere white politicians in Southern states who wanted to redeem their states from their newly formed governments, or return them to the way they had been before the Civil WarJim Crow Lawsstate and local laws in the South that made racial segregation legal.Radical Republicansa group of Republicans during and after the Civil War. This group was highly committed to emancipating and protecting the rights of African Americans. After the Civil War, they also wanted to enact harsh penalties against the former Confederate states"Separate but equal"segregating public facilities by race did not violate equal protection as long as the facilities for blacks and whites, though separate, were equivalent.NAACPNational Association for the Advancement of Colored Peoplereservationan area of land that has been set aside for native peopleHomestead Act of 1862signed on May 20, 1862; Under the terms of the act, anyone who was older than 21 or was the head of a household could file a claim for a land grant; homesteaders, had to work the land (an area of 160 acres) and live on it for five years. They were able to buy land for $1.25 an acre. After five years, the homesteader could pay a registration fee and apply for the deed to the land.assimilationthe process of one distinct culture taking on the cultural traits of anotherDawes Severalty Act (1887)passed on February 8, 1887; Under the terms of this law, President Grover Cleveland would assess Native Americans and grant each individual or family an area of land that they must farm for a minimum of 25 years and iIn return, they would become U.S. citizensTranscontinental Railroada train route across the US which was finished in 1869 and complete by two companies, the Union Pacific and the Central Pacific Railroad companiesWounded Kneea historic site located on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation in southwestern South Dakota. It was here that two conflicts between Native Americans and the U.S. government took place nearly a century apart.Sitting Bulla member of the Hunkpapa Teton Sioux nationChief Josepha leader of the Nez PercéJuneauCapital of Alaskanativisma policy of favoring native-born inhabitants over immigrantsChinese Exlusion Actpassed in 1882; prohibited all Chinese immigration into the United States for 10 yearsAngel Islandimmigration processing center located in San Francisco Bay, CAethnic enclavean area, often in a city, in which a culturally distinct group of people live separately from people of other groupsEllis Islandimmigration processing center located in New York Harborpull factorpositive conditions or events that are associated with a particular place and that make migrants choose to move to that placepush factornegative conditions or events that are associated with a particular place and that make migrants choose to leave that place and migrate elsewhereanarchismthe political theory based on the idea that government authority is not only unnecessary but also undesirableExamples of push factorspoverty, joblessness, famine overcrowding, no opportunity for education, political persecution, religious persecutionexamples of pull factorsfreedom, job opportunities, available land, family already settled here, stable government, and food suppliesHenry BessemerBessemer process for making steelHenry FordAutomobile manufacturer who is responsible for the assembly lineAlexander Graham Bellinvented the telephoneFred W. TaylorCame up with the idea of scientific managementGeorge StephensonDeveloped the first public railroadSamuel F.B. Morseinvented the first telegraph that had practical useGeorge WestinghouseInvented the air brakeJohn Deereinvented the first steel plow; known for tractorsChristopher Sholesdeveloped the first practical typewriterCyrus McCormickdeveloped the reaperThomas Edisoninvented the incandescent light bulbsharecropping developed becauseWithout slavery, there was no longer a profitable way to operate plantations, and a new source of cheap labor was needed. Landowners could not necessarily afford to pay workers wages.The Freedman's Bureau was established in order tohelp slaves transition to freedom; It provided food, clothing, and shelter and assisted with the reunification of families separated by slaveryLincoln's Reconstruction Plan1. amnesty to all but few southerners who took oath of loyalty 2. 10% percent of state voters (1860 elect.) taken oath could organize state gov. 3. members of conf. gov officers of army, former federal judges, members of congress could not receive amnestyJohnson's Reconstruction PlanA plan that gave pardon to all those who took loyalty oaths. It punished plantation owners and forced states to abolish slavery before readmittance.Congressional ReconstructionA process led by the Radical Republicans that led to the usage of military force to protect blacks' rights.Federal law is _____________________ over state or local law.supremeeffect of inventions in communicationsThese inventions made communication easier and faster. People became more interconnected around the country and businesses were able to expandeffect of Agricultural MechanizationFarm work became easier, required less labor, and expanded agricultural productioneffect of environmental pollutionPolluted water caused diseases that hurt human populations, and chemicals killed plants and animals Later, this destruction of the natural environment led to increased government regulation of industry and the creation of national parks.effect of the completion of the Transcontinental RailroadPeople, raw materials, and goods for sale could travel coast-to-coast in 8 to 10 days. This encouraged immigration and the development of mining, farming, and cattle ranching in the Western United States.effect of prospectingProspectors moved into towns with large amounts of mineral resources, causing the population to boom. When resources were depleted, prospectors would abandon the areas, leaving them "ghost towns"effect of loggingThe western United States provided most of the lumber for the United States. However, this took a toll on the environment, leading to problems such as deforestation, erosion, and contaminated drinking water.characteristics of tenementsNo running water, toilets, adequate fresh air, lighting, No privacy, Landlords could cram as many people as they wanted into each Breeding ground for diseasescharacteristics of factoriesPoorly lit and unsanitary, Not regulated by the govt., Workers, including women and children, were injured or died due to unsafe conditions, People worked 10 hours a day, 6 days a weeksupport systems established by immigrantsAfrican-American communities established their own churches, schools, newspapers, Immigrants established banks, grocery stores, libraries, religious centers, and other institutions in their ethnic neighborhoods, Helped provide public services such as fire safety and sanitation, Shared advice and friendshipssettlement housesHelped immigrants assimilate to life in the U.S., Provided shelter to new immigrants, Provided education in subjects such as history, literature, and art, and taught middle-class American values, Provided childcare and social services