AP US History Ch 12 Vocab
Terms in this set (47)
Oliver Hazard Perry
Naval officer who led the US victory over the British on Lake Erie in 1813
Young naval captain who defeated a British fleet on Lake Champlain, forcing the British to retreat and saving New York and New England from conquest.
William Henry Harrison
was an American military leader, politician, and the first President to die in office. His death created a brief constitutional crisis, but ultimately resolved many questions about presidential succession left unanswered by the Constitution until passage of the 25th Amendment. Led US forces in the Battle of Tippecanoe.
Francis Scott Key
United States lawyer and poet who wrote a poem after witnessing the British attack on Baltimore during the War of 1812. The poem later became the Star Spangled Banner.
A general in the War of 1812 --defeated the British at New Orleans (1815). As president he opposed the Bank of America, objected to the right of individual states to nullify disagreeable federal laws, and increased the presidential powers. Seventh president.
Author, diplomat, wrote The Sketch Book, which included "Rip Van Winkle" and "The Legend of Sleepy Hollow," the first American to be recognized in England (and elsewhere) as a writer
His administration was marked by the acquisition of Florida; the Missouri Compromise, in which Missouri was declared a slave state; and the profession of the Monroe Doctrine, declaring U.S. opposition to European interference in the Americas. Fifth president.
James Fenimore Cooper
American novelist who is best remembered for his novels of indians and frontier life, such as The Last of the Mohicans (1826).
created the precedent of judicial review; ruled on many early decisions that gave the federal government more power, especially the supreme court. Chief jusctice of the supreme court.
John C. Calhoun
Leader of the Fugitive Slave Law, which forced the cooperation of Northern states in returning escaped slaves to the south. He also argued on the floor of the senate that slavery was needed in the south. believed society is supposed to have an upper ruling class that enjoys the profit of a working lower class.
John Quincy Adams
Democratic-Republican. Secretary of State under Monroe. Skilled diplomat as evidenced by the Adams-Onis Treaty and the Treaty of Ghent. Accused of winning the presidency with a "corrupt bargain" with Clay. Repealed the Gag Rule in 1845. Sixth president.
Famous American politician and orator. He advocated renewal and opposed the financial policy of Jackson. Many of the principles of finance he spoke about were later incorporated in the Federal Reserve System. Would later push for a strong union.
strong pride in one's country; the belief that your national culture and interests are superior to any other
A euphemism for slavery and the economic ramifications of it in the American South. Aimed to explain away the seeming contradiction of legalized slavery in a country whose Declaration of Independence states that "all men are created equal". It was one of the key causes of the Civil War.
protected bussinesses and manufaturers from foriegn competition
loyalty to a state or section rather than to the whole country
Having little to do with the political affairs of other nations
Part of the Monroe Doctrine, said that America was closed to anymore colonization,as it would be deemed a threat to the United States. It was created by the U.S. to protect the Western Hemisphere.
Program for building roads, canals, bridges, and railroads in and between the states. Was a dispute over whether the federal government should fund internal improvements, since it was not specifically given that power by the Constitution.
Associated with the Monroe Doctrine-- describes the United States decision regarding their decision to not get involved in European affairs.
the rush of people going West because of cheap land, especially European immigrants
Second Bank of the United States
Much like its predecessor of 1791 but with more capital; it could not forbid state banks from issuing notes, but its size and power enabled it to compel the state banks to issue only sound notes or risk being forced out of business.
Muculloch vs. Maryland
In this case, court ruled that states had no power to interfere with federal institutions; states cannot pass laws that violate federal laws.
Tariff of 1816
places 25% duty on most imported factory goods
Cohens vs. Virginia
This case upheld the Supreme Court's jurisdiction to review the state court's decision where the case involved breaking federal laws.
Economic program advanced by Henry Clay that included support for a national bank, high tariffs, and internal improvements; emphasized strong role for federal government in the economy.
Gibbons vs. Ogden
supreme court decision that ruled that the constitution gave control of interstate commerce to the U.S. Congress, not the individual states through which a route passed.
Bonus Bill of 1817
Would have parceled out $1.5 M to the states for internal improvements such as roads and canals
Battle of Horseshoe Bend
turning point during War of 1812 when General Andrew Jackson defeated 1,000 Red Sticks, killing 800
Fletcher vs. Peck
After a case involving Georgia and corrupt land claims, Marshall set the precedent that courts had the power to declare state laws unconstitutional.
Four of the first five Presidents are from Virginia. (Washington, Jefferson, Madison, Monroe)
Dartmouth College vs. Woodward
Case in which the supreme court ruled that states could not interfere with private contracts.
Era of good feelings
A name for President Monroe's two terms, a period of strong nationalism, economic growth, and territorial expansion. Federalist party dissolved after the War of 1812, leaving one political party and no partisan conflicts.
Treaty of 1818
Treaty between Britain and America; allowed the Americans to share the Newfoundland fisheries with Canada, and gave both countries a joint occupation of the Oregon Territory for the next 10 years.
Panic of 1819
A natural post-war depression caused by overproduction and the reduced demand for goods after the war. However, it was generally blamed on the National Bank.
Florida Purchase Treaty
In 1819 Spain ceded Florida and other claims to Oregon in exchange for Texas. This gave land to Mexico but later caused Americans to fight against Mexicans for their old land.
Harrison's victory over Tecumseh (Shawnee) in Indiana in 1811. It became the slogan of his presidential bid in 1840.
law determining the fundamental political principles of a government
Battle of Thames
Fight in which General Harrison defeated British forces in the Northwest, most famously known because Tecumseh died in it.
Land Act of 1820
authorized a buyer to purchase 80 virgin acres at a minimum of $1.25 per acre in cash. Also brought about cheap transportation and cheap money
forbid further colonization in the Americas and declaring that any attempt by a foreign country to colonize would be considered an act of hostility
This was an attempt to have no more slaves to be brought to Missouri and provided the gradual emancipation of the children of slaves. In the mind of the South, this was a threat to the sectional balance between North and South.
Russo-American Treaty of 1824
This treaty between Russia and America set the southern borders of Russian holdings in America at the southern tip of Alaska.
an agreement in 1820 between pro-slavery and anti-slavery factions in the United States concerning the extension of slavery into new territories
Treaty of Ghent
Ended the War of 1812 and restored the status quo. Territory captured in the war was returned to the original owner. It also set up a commission to determine the disputed Canada/U.S. border.
Battle of Plattsburgh
Thomas McDonough defeated the British in the North and secured the border of US
Meeting by Federalists dissatisfied with the war to draft a new Constitution; resulted in seemingly traitorous Federalist party's collapse