Praxis II Teaching Reading
Chapter 2 of REA study guide
Terms in this set (28)
Activating prior knowledge; predicting or asking questions; visualizing; drawing influences; determining important ideas; synthesizing information; repairing understanding; confirming; using parts of a book; reflecting
Activating prior knowledge
Thinking about connections between the text, real life experience, and the larger world. Readers pay more attention when they relate to the text.
Predicting or asking questions
This strategy keeps readers engaged. It clarifies understanding and makes meaning. It is at the heart of thoughtful reading
Active readers create images based on the words they read in the text, which increases understanding.
Occurs when the readers take what they know, garner clues from the text and think ahead to make a judgment, discern a theme, or speculate about what is to come.
Determining important ideas
Thoughtful readers grasp essential ideas and important information when reading. Readers must differentiate between less important ideas and key ideas that are central to the meaning of the text.
Involves combining new information with existing knowledge to form an original idea or interpretation. Reviewing, sorting, and sifting important information can lead to new insights that change the way readers think.
If confusion disrupts meaning, readers need to stop and clarify their understanding. Readers use a variety of strategies to "fix up" comprehension when meaning goes awry.
As students read and after they read, they can verify the predictions they originally made. There is no wrong answer. Determining whether a prediction is correct is a goal.
Using parts of a book
Students should use charts, diagrams, indexes, and the table of contents to improve understanding of the content
An important strategy is for students to think about what they have just read. This can be simply thinking or more formal, such as a discussion or writing in a journal.
3 Cueing Systems to increase comprehension
Semantics, Syntax, Activating prior knowledge
As students read they can guess at words they do not know by considering the rest of the passage.
Students should learn to ask Does it make sense?, Does it sound right in the passage/sentence?, and Does it look right?
A way of acquiring insight into children's reading strategies by studying the mistakes they make when reading aloud.
4 Levels of Comprehension
1. Literal, 2. Interpretive or Inferential, 3. Critical, and 4. Creative
The lowest level of understanding. It involves reading the lines and understanding exactly what is on the page. Students can repeat or paraphrase what they have read.
The second level of understanding. It requires the student to read between the lines and may require readers to define figurative language or identify terms. They may have to figure out the meaning on their own. Ex. determining author's purpose, main idea of a passage, point of view of the author, or essential message of the piece.
One of the highest levels of understanding. Requires readers to think beyond the printed page. Ex. indicating whether text is true or false, distinguishing between fact and opinion, detecting propaganda, judging whether the author is qualified to write the text, recognizing bias and fallacies, identifying stereotypes, making assumptions.
This level of understanding requires readers to respond to something they are reading.Ex. stating another way to treat a situation, indicating another way of solving a problem in the story, speculating whether the plot could have occurred in a different place or time.
making graphic representations of stories that make clear the specific relationships of story elements.
Enables a reader to compare two characters, concepts, places, or things by placing specific criteria or critical attributes in the appropriate places on the diagram.
Helps the reader illustrate cause and effect.
Methods of Assessing Reading Progress
Daily observation, Checklist, Rubric, Running record, Informal reading inventory, Diagnosis of errors,
also known as a scoring guide. It is used as a set of guidelines for evaluating a student's work.
An assessment method that documents a child's reading as he or she reads aloud and allows the teacher to evaluate the reading level as well as to not explicit types of miscues. Specific marks are made to indicate the types of errors. Training is required, but once trained, it is quick and easy to do.
Informal Reading Inventory
Student reads aloud while teacher notes miscues. Student then answers comprehension questions. Then the student is timed while reading the passages silently and answering comprehension questions.
Diagnosis of Errors
Figuring out why students make the reading mistakes they do. Is it because they read without regard for meaning or without regard for the visual appearance of the word?
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