48 terms

Chapter 11


Terms in this set (...)

Questionnaire Definition
a structured technique for data collection that consists of a series of questions, written or verbal, that a respondent answers
Questionnaire Objectives
-It must translate the information needed into a set of specific questions that the respondents can and will answer.
-A questionnaire must uplift, motivate, and encourage the respondent to become involved in the interview, to cooperate, and to complete the interview.
-A questionnaire should minimize response error.
Questionnaire Design Process
1. specify the information needed
2. specify the type of interviewing method
3. determine the content of individual questions
4. design the question to overcome the respondent's inability and unwillingness to answer
5. decide on the question structure
6. determine question wording
7. arrange the questions in proper order
8. identify the form and layout
9. reproduce the questionnaire
10. eliminate bugs by pretesting
determine the content of individual questions: 1. is question necessary
If there is no satisfactory use for the data resulting from a question, that question should be eliminated
Individual Question Content: Are Several Questions Needed Instead of One?
-Sometimes, several questions are needed to obtain the required information in an unambiguous manner. Consider the question: "Do you think Coca-Cola is a tasty and refreshing soft drink?"(Incorrect)
-Such a question is called a double-barrelled question, because two or more questions are combined into one. To obtain the required information, two distinct questions should be asked :
"Do you think Coca-Cola is a tasty soft drink?" and "Do you think Coca-Cola is a refreshing soft drink?"(Correct)
Overcoming Inability To Answer: Is the Respondent Informed?
-In situations where not all respondents are likely to be informed about the topic of interest, filter questions that measure familiarity and past experience should be asked before questions about the topics themselves.
-A "don't know" option appears to reduce uninformed responses without reducing the response rate.
Overcoming Inability To Answer: Can the Respondent Remember?
How many gallons of soft drinks did you
consume during the last four weeks? (Incorrect)

How often do you consume soft drinks in a
typical week? (Correct)
1. ___ Less than once a week
2. ___ 1 to 3 times per week
3. ___ 4 to 6 times per week
4. ___ 7 or more times per week
Overcoming Inability To Answer:Can the Respondent Articulate?
-Respondents may be unable to articulate certain types of responses, e.g., describe the atmosphere of a department store.
-Respondents should be given aids, such as pictures, maps, and descriptions to help them articulate their responses
Overcoming Unwillingness To Answer: Effort Required of the Respondents
Most respondents are unwilling to devote a lot of effort to provide information.
Overcoming Unwillingness To Answer: Context
-Respondents are unwilling to respond to questions which they consider to be inappropriate for the given context.
-The researcher should manipulate the context so that the request for information seems appropriate
Overcoming Unwillingness To Answer: Legitimate Purpose
Explaining why the data are needed can make the request for the information seem legitimate and increase the respondents' willingness to answer
Overcoming Unwillingness To Answer: Sensitive Information
Respondents are unwilling to disclose, at least accurately, sensitive information because this may cause embarrassment or threaten the respondent's prestige or self-image.
Overcoming Unwillingness To Answer: Increasing the Willingness of Respondents
-Place sensitive topics at the end of the questionnaire.
-Preface the question with a statement that the behavior of interest is common.
-Ask the question using the third-person technique (see Chapter 5): Phrase the question as if it referred to other people.
-Hide the question in a group of other questions which respondents are willing to answer. The entire list of questions can then be asked quickly.
-Provide response categories rather than asking for specific figures.
-Use randomized techniques.
unstructured questions
open-ended questions that allow respondents to answer in their own words
Structured questions
specify the set of response alternatives and the response format. A structured question may be multiple-choice, dichotomous, or a scale
A dichotomous question
A dichotomous question has only two response alternatives: yes or no, agree or disagree, and so on.
Often, the two alternatives of interest are supplemented by a neutral alternative, such as "no opinion," "don't know," "both," or "none."
Do you intend to buy a new car within the next six months? _____ Yes _____ No _____ Don't know
Do you intend to buy a new car within the next six months?

Definitely will not buy
Probably will now not
Probably will buy
definitely will not buy
Advantages and Disadvantages of Unstructured and Structured Questions
Table 11.1 on page 308
order or position bias
respondent's tendency to choose alternative merely because it occupies a certain position on page or in list
Choosing Question Wording: Define the Issue
Define the issue in terms of who, what, when, where, why, and way (the six Ws). Who, what, when, and where are particularly important.

Which brand of shampoo do you use? (Incorrect)

Which brand or brands of shampoo have you
personally used at home during the last month?
In case of more than one brand, please
list all the brands that apply. (Correct)
Choosing Question Wording the 4 Ws
who what when where
read table page 311
Choosing Question Wording:Use Ordinary Words
"Do you think the distribution of soft drinks is adequate?" (Incorrect)

"Do you think soft drinks are readily available when you want to buy them?" ( Correct)
Choosing Question Wording: Use Unambiguous Words
In a typical month, how often do you shop in department stores? _____ Never
_____ Occasionally
_____ Sometimes
_____ Often
_____ Regularly (Incorrect)
In a typical month, how often do you shop in department stores?
_____ Less than once
_____ 1 or 2 time
_____ 3 or 4 times
_____ More than 4 times (Correct)
Choosing Question Wording:Avoid Leading or Biasing Questions
A leading question is one that clues the respondent to what the answer should be
1. Do you think that patriotic Americans should buy imported automobiles when that would put American labor out of work? (Incorrect)
2. Do you think that Americans should buy imported automobiles? (Correct)
acquiescence bias
bias resulting from some respondents' tendency to agree with the direction of a leading question.
Choosing Question Wording: Avoid Implicit Alternatives
An alternative that is not explicitly expressed in the options is an implicit alternative.
1. Do you like to fly when traveling short distances?(Incorrect)
2. Do you like to fly when traveling short distances, or would you rather drive? (Correct)
Choosing Question Wording: Avoid Implicit Assumptions
Questions should not be worded so that the answer is dependent upon implicit assumptions about what will happen as a consequence.
1. Are you in favor of a balanced budget? (Incorrect)
2. Are you in favor of a balanced budget if it would result in an increase in the personal income tax?(Correct)
Choosing Question Wording: Avoid Generalizations and Estimates
"What is the annual per capita expenditure on groceries in your household?" (Incorrect)

"What is the monthly (or weekly) expenditure on groceries in your household?"
"How many members are there in your household?" (Correct)
Choosing Question Wording: Dual Statements - Positive and Negative
Questions that are in the form of statements should be worded both positively and negatively.
Determining the Order of Questions
-Opening Questions: The opening questions should be interesting, simple, and non-threatening.
-Type of Information: As a general guideline, basic information should be obtained first, followed by classification, and finally, identification information.
-Difficult Questions: Difficult questions or questions which are sensitive, embarrassing, complex, or dull, should be placed late in the sequence.
basic information
information that relates directly to the marketing research problem
classification information
socioeconomic and demographic characteristics used to classify respondents
identification information
a type of information obtained in a questionnaire that includes name, postal address, email address and phone number
funnel approach
(def) a strategy for ordering questions in a questionnaire in which the sequence start with the general questions, which are followed by progressively specific questions, in order to prevent specific questions from biasing responses to general questions
Determining the Order of Questions : logical order ...The following guidelines should be followed for branching questions:
The following guidelines should be followed for branching questions:

1. The question being branched (the one to which the respondent is being directed) should be placed as close as possible to the question causing the branching.
2. The branching questions should be ordered so that the respondents cannot anticipate what additional information will be required.
branching questions
questions used to guide respondents or interviewers through a survey by directing them to different spots on the questionnaire depending on the answers given
The General Ordering of Questions in a Questionnaire
table 11.2 page 316
Form and Layout
-Divide a questionnaire into several parts.
-The questions in each part should be numbered, particularly when branching questions are used.
-The questionnaires should preferably be precoded.
-The questionnaires themselves should be numbered serially.
in questionnaire design, assigning a code to every conceivable response before data collection
Reproduction of the Questionnaire
-The questionnaire should be reproduced on good-quality paper and have a professional appearance.
-Questionnaires should take the form of a booklet rather than a number of sheets of paper clipped or stapled together.
-Each question should be reproduced on a single page (or double-page spread).
-Vertical response columns should be used for individual questions.
-Grids are useful when there are a number of related questions which use the same set of response categories.
-The tendency to crowd questions together to make the questionnaire look shorter should be avoided.
-Directions or instructions for individual questions should be placed as close to the questions as possible.
(def) refers to the testing of the questionnaire on a small sample of respondents to identify and eliminate potential problems.
-A questionnaire should not be used in the field survey without adequate pretesting.
-All aspects of the questionnaire should be tested, including question content, wording, sequence, form and layout, question difficulty, and instructions.
-The respondents for the pretest and for the actual survey should be drawn from the same population.
-Pretests are best done by personal interviews, even if the actual survey is to be conducted by mail, telephone, or electronic means, because interviewers can observe respondents' reactions and attitudes.
Pretesting (Cont.)
-After the necessary changes have been made, another pretest could be conducted by mail, telephone, or electronic means if those methods are to be used in the actual survey.
-A variety of interviewers should be used for pretests.
-The pretest sample size varies from 15 to 30 respondents for each wave.
-Protocol analysis and debriefing are two commonly used procedures in pretesting.
-Finally, the responses obtained from the pretest should be coded and analyzed.
Observational Forms
Department Store Project
-Who: Purchasers, browsers, males, females, parents with children, or children alone.
-What: Products/brands considered, products/brands purchased, size, price of package inspected, or influence of children or other family members.
-When: Day, hour, date of observation.
-Where: Inside the store, checkout counter, or type of department within the store.
-Why: Influence of price, brand name, package size, promotion, or family members on the purchase.
-Way: Personal observer disguised as sales clerk, undisguised personal observer, hidden camera, or obtrusive mechanical device.
Questionnaire Design Check-List
table 11.3 page 319
International Marketing Research
-The questionnaire or research instrument should be designed to be sensitive to cultural differences encountered in international research.
-Although personal interviewing is the dominant survey method in international marketing research, different interviewing methods might be used in different countries. Therefore, the questionnaire must be adaptable to a variety of administration methods.
-In countries with lower levels of education or product experience, two or more simple questions rather than a single complex question should be used.
International Marketing Research (Cont.)
-Unstructured questions are more sensitive to differences in educational levels than are structured questions, and should be used with caution in countries with high illiteracy rates.
-In addition to design considerations, the researcher must also pay close attention to translation issues.
-Two sets of pretests are recommended. The translated questionnaire should be pretested on respondents who speak only their native language, as well as on bilingual subjects.
-The pretest data from administering the questionnaire in different countries or cultures should be analyzed, and the pattern of responses compared, to detect any cultural biases.
Marketing Research & Social Media
-Analysis of social media can help in developing questions that are appropriate in terms of content, structure and wording, and deciding on the order of questions.
-The general principles and guidelines remain the same for questionnaires to be used in surveys to be conducted in social media.
Ethics in Marketing Research
-In consideration of the respondents, questions that are confusing, that exceed the respondents' ability, that are difficult, or that are otherwise improperly worded should be avoided.
-When asking sensitive questions, researchers should attempt to minimize the respondents' discomfort.
-Overly long questionnaires should be avoided. Overly long questionnaires are a burden on the respondents and adversely affect the quality of responses.
-The researcher has the ethical responsibility to design a questionnaire that obtains the required data in an unbiased manner.
-If the questionnaire is not thoroughly pretested, an ethical breach has occurred.