40 terms

MIS Ch.2

Systems development life cycle (SDLC)
The overall process for developing information systems from planning and analysis through implementation and maintenance
Planning phase
Involves establishing a high level plan of the intended project and determining project goals
Analysis phase
Analyzing end-user business requirements and refining project goals into defined functions and operations of the intended system
Business requirements
The detailed set of businesses requests that the system must meet in order to be successful
Development phase
Involves taking all of the detailed design documents from the design phase and transforming them into the actual system
Testing phase
Involves bringing all the project pieces together into a special testing environment to test for errors, bugs, and interoperability and verify that the system meets all of the business requirements defined in the analysis phase
Implementation phase
Involves placing the system into production so users can begin to perform actual business operations with the system
Maintenance phase:
Involves performing changes, corrections, additions, and upgrades to ensure the system continues to meet the business goals
Waterfall methodology
a sequential, activity based process in which each phase in the SDLC is performed sequentially from planning through implementation and maintenance
Rapid application development (RAD
Emphasizes extensive user involvement in the rapid and evolutionary construction of working prototypes of a system to accelerate the systems development process
A smaller-scale representation or working model of the user's requirements or a proposed design for an information system
Extreme programming (XP) methodology
Breaks a project into tiny phases, and developers cannot continue on to the next phase until the first phase is complete
Agile methodology
A form of XP, aims for customer satisfaction through early and continuous delivery of useful software components
Scope creep
Occurs when the scope of the project increases
Feature creep
Occurs when developers add extra features that were not part of the initial requirements
Critical success factor (CSF)
A factor that is critical to an organization's success
Feasibility study
Determines if the proposed solution is feasible and achievable from a financial, technical, and organizational standpoint
Business requirements
The detailed set of business requests that the system must meet in order to be successful
Requirements definition document
Contains the final set of business requirements, prioritized in order of business importance
The system users' actual signatures indicating they approve all of the business requirements
Process modeling
Involves graphically representing the processes that capture, manipulate, store, and distribute information between a system and its environment
Data flow diagram (DFD)
Illustrates the movement of information between external entities and the processes and data stores within the system
Computer-aided software engineering (CASE)
Software suites that automate systems analysis, design, and development
Commercial off-the-shelf (COTS)
A software package or solution that is purchased to support one or more business functions and information systems
The activity of drawing a graphical representation of a design
Graphical user interface (GUI)
The interface to an information system
Data models
A formal way to express data relationships to a database management system (DBMS)
Entity relationship diagram (ERD)
A technique for documenting the relationships between entities in a database environment
Test conditions
The detailed steps the system must perform along with the expected results of each step
User documentation
highlights how to use the system
Online training
runs over the internet or off a CD ROM
Workshop training
set in a classroom-type environment and led by an instructor
Help desk
A group of people who respond to internal system user questions
The fixing or enhancing of an information system
Adaptive maintenance
making changes to increase system functionality to meet new business requirements
Corrective maintenance
making changes to repair system defects
Perfective maintenance
making changes to enhance the system and improve such things as processing performance and usability
Preventive maintenance
making changes to reduce the chance of future system failures
Change management system
Includes a collection of procedures to document a change request and define the steps necessary to consider the change based on the expected impact of the change
Change control board (CCB)
Responsible for approving or rejecting all change requests