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AP Psych Chapter 8: Learning
Terms in this set (46)
A relatively permanent change in an organism's behavior due to experience
Application: We learn by association and laerning shapes our thoughts and and language.
Learning that certain events occur together
Application:an example of associative learning is the sea snail associating the squirt with shock.
A type of learning in which an organism comes to associate stimuli
Application: An example is humans bracing themselves because of lightning when there's a thunder sound.
The view that psychology should be an objective science that studies behavior without reference to mental processes.
Application: Psychology should be an objective science based on observable behavior
In classical conditioning, the unlearned, naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus
Application: The unconditioned response would be salivation in a dog's mouth.
In classical conditioning, a stimulus that unconditionally—naturally and automatically—triggers a response
Application: The unconditioned stimulus would be the food.
In classical conditioning, the learned response to a previously neutral conditioned stimulus (CS)
Application: The conditioned response would be the salivation response by hearing a tone.
In classical conditioning, an originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus (UCS), comes to trigger a conditioned response
Application: the conditioned stimulus would be the tone that causes salivation.
A stimulus that does not produce an automatic response
Application: A neutral stimulus is paired with another stimuli to cause salivation.
The initial stage in classical conditioning; the phase associating a neutral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus. In operant conditioning, the strengthening of a reinforced response
Application: Pavlov had to confront the question of timing and how much time should elapse between presenting the neutral stimulus and the unconditioned stimulus.
The diminishing of a conditioned response; occurs in classical conditioning when an unconditioned stimulus (UCS) does not follow a conditioned stimulus (CS)
Application: An example of extinction is when the dog salivates less and less.
The reappearance, after a rest period, of an extinguished conditioned response.
Application: An example of spontaneous recovery is the salivation reappearing suddenly.
The tendency, once a response has been conditioned, for stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus to elicit similar responses.
Application: An example is a toddler being afraid of moving cars and thus also motorcycles and trucks.
In classical conditioning, the learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and other stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned stimulus
Application: An example is when being confronted by a pit bull, your heart racing and when confronted by a golden retriever, it doesn't.
A type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher
Application: Operant conditioning involves thing like teaching elephants to walk on its hind legs or a child to say please.
Behavior that occurs as an automatic response to some stimulus
Application: An example is a salivating response to meat powder and later a tone.
Behavior that operates on the environment, producing consequences
Application: Behavior operates on the environment to produce rewarding or punishing stimuli.
A chamber containing a bar or key that an animal can manipulate to obtain a food or water reinforce, with attached devices to record the animal's rate of bar pressing or key pecking
Application: An example of a skinner box is when a rat presses a bar for food reward when inside a box. outside, a measuring device records the animal's accumulated responses.
Law of Effect
Thorndike's principle that behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely, and that behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely
Application: Using the law of effect theory, Skinner developed behavioral technology that revealed principles of behavior control.
An operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of a desired goal
Application: An example of shaping is giving a rat food as it approaches the bar. It would have to touch the bar before you give it food.
In operant conditioning, any event that strengthens the behavior it follows
Application: Anything can be a reinforcer, even yelling as long as it increases a child's behavior.
Increasing behaviors by presenting positive stimuli. A positive reinforcer is any stimulus that, when presented after a response, strengthens the response
Application: Food is a reinforcer for hungry animals,and money, attention, approval are positive reinforcers for humans.
Increasing behaviors by stopping or reducing negative stimuli. A negative reinforcer is any stimulus, when removed after a response, strengthens the response
Application: An example of negative reinforcement is taking aspirin to relieve a headache. Another is pushing the snooze button on an alarm.
An innately reinforcing stimulus, such as one that satisfies a biological need
Application: An example of primary reinforcing is food.
A stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through its association with a primary reinforcer; also known as secondary reinforcer
Application: For example, a rat turning on the light because it signals food in a secondary reinforcer.
Reinforcing the desired response every time it occurs
Application: A continuous reinforcement would show a dog salivating each time.
Reinforcing a response only part of the time; results in slower acquisition of a response but much greater resistance to extinction than does continuous reinforcement
Application: Partial reinforcement produces greater resistance to extinction.
In operant conditioning, a schedule of reinforcement that reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses
Application: An example is people getting for paid for every 30 pieces they make.
In operant conditioning, a schedule of reinforcement that reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses
Application: An example is the slot machine and fly casting anglers.
In operant conditioning, a schedule of reinforcement that reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed
Application: An examples is people checking the mail at the time they expect them to come.
In operant conditioning, a schedule of reinforcement that reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals
Application: An example is getting a notification sound to check your mail.
An event that decreases the behavior that it follows
Application: Punishment in harsh form may be effective but are a huge risk to use.
A mental representation of the layout of one's environment.
Application: For example, after exploring a maze, rats act as if they have learned a cognitive map of it
Learning that occurs but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it
For example, after exploring a maze, rats act as if they have learned a cognitive map of it Children may watch a parent but may demonstrate the learning later when needed.
A desire to perform a behavior for its own sake and to be effective
Application: Intrinsically motivated people work and play in search of interest, challenge and enjoyment.
A desire to perform a behavior due to promised rewards or threats of punishment
Application: i you are worried for your grade, or getting a reading finished, you are extrinsically motivated.
Learning by observing others
Application: A child that sees a person burning their fingers on the stove may not touch the stove.
The process of observing and imitating a specific behavior
Application: Many animals can be modelling, such as pigeions.
Frontal lobe neurons that fire when performing certain actions or when observing another doing so
Application: Mirror neurons fire when one monkey sees what another monkey does and mirrors it.
Positive, constructive, helpful behavior. The opposite of antisocial behavior
Application: Example of prosocial people are Ghandi, MLK, and parents.
Developed a foundation for classical
conditioning, discovered that a UCS naturally elicits a reflexive behavior
Application: Pavlov found classical conditioning, a dog salivating in response to food and tone.
Researched taste aversion, and showed that when rats ate a novel substance before being nauseated by a drug or radiation, they developed a conditioned taste aversion for the substance
Application: Garcia showed taste aversion by rats and how they wdeveloped a taste aversion for the food.
John B. Watson
American psychologist who is now remembered as one of the founders of behaviorism
Application: Behaviorism is the view that psychology should be an objective science that studies behavior without reference to mental processes
Created techniques to manipulate the
consequences of an organism's behavior in order to observe the effects of subsequent behavior
Application: The critics of Skinner said that he dehumanized peopl eby neglecting their personal freedom.
Edward L. Thorndike
Pioneer in operant conditioning who discovered concepts in instrumental learning such as the law of effect
Application: Hid ideas marked the starting point for Skinner's ideas.
Bandura made important strides in studying observational learning with a socio-cognitive perspective
Application: He did an experiment on a child with a bobo doll in a room.
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