240 terms

Bradley Full Final

All of the following invaded the lands of the Roman Empire EXCEPT:

A. Angles and Saxons.
B. Ostrogoths.
C. Greeks.
D. Visigoths.
The longest lasting of the Germanic kingdoms established after the fall of Rome, were the _________, whose first king was Clovis.

A. Ostrogoths
B. Visigoths
C. Vandals
D. Franks
Gregory I (590-604), also known as Gregory the Great,

A. was crowned by Pope Leo as emperor of Paris.
B. converted Clovis to Islam.
C. strengthened the power of the papacy and the Roman Catholic Church.
D. invaded kingdoms to the north, creating an empire nearly as large as the Roman Empire.
Saint Benedict founded a community of monks that

A. established the basic form of monasticism in the Catholic Church.
B. grew large enough to print their own money.
C. became infamous for their idle and lustful lifestyle.
D. tortured and killed those who would not convert to Christianity.
__________ started the Carolingian Renaissance.

A. Clovis
B. Charlemagne
C. Gregory I
D. Charles Martel
The Carolingian Renaissance was

A. an artistic movement.
B. a revival of learning and culture.
C. a theatrical troupe.
D. the rewriting of history by peasants.
All of the following invaded Europe following the Carolingian Renaissance EXCEPT:

A. Magyars
B. Muslims
C. Vikings
D. Greeks
What is the primary reason feudalism emerged in Europe?

A. The Germanic tribes imposed it on their conquered peoples.
B. People sought protection from invaders and turned to local landed aristocrats.
C. The Catholic Church imposed it on society, as the best way for stability.
D. None of these are correct.
The lord-vassal relationship did all of the following EXCEPT

A. NOT imply a sense of servitude.
B. require military service.
C. grant the vassal land.
D. involve salary for the vassal.
Owners of large landed estates did NOT include

A. barons.
B. dukes.
C. kings.
D. serfs.
__________ was a code of ethics that knights were supposed to uphold.

A. Chivalry
B. The Book of the Dead
C. The fief
D. Vassalage
While the lord was away at war or court, management of his estate fell to

A. his most trusted vassal.
B. the lady of the castle.
C. the bishop of the nearest church.
D. a serf which he chose prior to his departure.
In 1066, William of Normandy

A. tried to invade England, but was soundly defeated by King Harold's forces.
B. was forced to sign the Magna Carta.
C. called for the death of Thomas Becket.
D. invaded England, soundly defeating King Harold's forces at the Battle of Hastings.
Which of the following INCORRECTLY matches the English monarch with a major achievement/event during his reign?

A. King Harold - Normans invade and take over England
B. King Henry II - helps to establish common law
C. King Paul - signs the Magna Carta
D. King Edward I - parliament emerges
Philip II Augustus greatly increased the power of the French monarchy by

A. forming the French parliament by meeting with representatives of the three estates.
B. expanding the royal mint.
C. waging war on the rulers of England and gaining control of Normandy, Maine, Anjou and Aquitaine.
D. defeating King Willie at the Battle of Hastings.
In return for protecting the pope, Otto I was

A. granted land in Normandy.
B. linked to Byzantium.
C. crowned Roman emperor.
D. converted to Christianity.
In 1054, the first major split, or schism, appeared in the Christian Church. It resulted in which two different churches?

A. the Orthodox Church, the Protestant Church
B. the Orthodox Church, the Catholic Church
C. the Catholic Church, the Protestant Church
D. the Catholic Church, the Lutheran Church
The push for the Crusades came when

A. Saladin seized Makkah.
B. the plague devastated Europe.
C. Byzantine Emperor Alexius I asked for aid.
D. Constantinople was sacked in 1204.
The Venetian leaders of the Fourth Crusade

A. led a "children's crusade" that ended with victory.
B. saw an opportunity to neutralize the Byzantine Empire and diverted their army to Constantinople.
C. massacred the inhabitants of Cairo, including women and children.
D. were forced to return to Europe after half of their forces perished in storms at sea.
Which of the following is NOT one of the effects of the Crusades?

A. They weakened the Byzantine Empire, eventually leading to its downfall.
B. They benefited the Italian port cities.
C. They weakened the institution of serfdom in Europe.
D. They insured Christian domination of the Holy Land.
A peasants daily activities in the Middle Ages largely revolved around what?

A. the seasons
B. the cycle of the moon
C. the day of the week
D. None of these are correct.
In the High Middle Ages, the revival of trade, naturally lead to the growth of

A. political power for serfs.
B. cities.
C. the strength of monarchies.
D. a reduction of rights for the nobility.
Which of the following is NOT part of the guild training system?

A. master
B. vassal
C. journeyman
D. apprentice
In the High Middle Ages, a struggle began between the pope and political leaders over what?

A. who had the right to appoint church officials
B. who chose the religion of a people in a certain territory
C. the right of a king to get married and divorced
D. who got to choose what religious orders were allowed in a territory
Who formed the Franciscan Order?

A. Francis of Assisi
B. Dominic de Guzman
C. Hildegard of Bingen
D. Pope Innocent III
Which of the following is NOT one of the new religious orders that arose in the High Middle Ages (1000-1300 AD)?

A. the Cistercians
B. the Jesuits
C. the Franciscans
D. the Dominicans
The High Middle Ages saw the emergence of what type of education.

A. universities
B. public education
C. private tutors
D. All of these are correct.
The chief task of __________ was to harmonize Christian teachings with the works of Greek philsophers.

A. Saint Fracis of Assisi
B. the chanson de geste
C. scholasticism
D. algebra
In the High Middle Ages, the vernacular language came to replace what language in most texts?

A. Greek
B. Latin
C. Hebrew
D. English
All of the following are examples of extreme reactions to the Black Death EXCEPT?

A. Wealthy people fleeing to the countryside estates to avoid exposure.
B. A rejection of the authority of the Roman Catholic Church.
C. A cultural preoccupation with death.
D. Attacks on Jews who many accused of causing the plague.
In response to the Black Death:

A. governments ended most barriers to international trade.
B. the wages of peasant laborers increased.
C. prices increased dramatically.
D. the nobility were able to increase their incomes.
Which two countries fought in the Hundred Year's War?

A. Germany and France
B. Germany and England
C. France and England
D. England and Italy
During the Hundred Years' War, England's significant innovation was the use of:

A. spies amongst the French troops.
B. secret diplomacy involving the papacy.
C. heavily armored knights.
D. foot soldiers with long bows.
The conflict between Boniface VIII and King Philip IV revolved around what issue?

A. Who was supreme, the church or the state?
B. How should popes be elected?
C. Do citizens of a state have to be of the same religion as its ruler?
D. All of these are correct.
During the 14th century, the residency of the popes in Avignon:

A. increased antipapal sentiment.
B. increased respect for the papacy.
C. ended calls for reformation within the Church.
D. increased German influence among the cardinals.
The Renaissance started in what (modern-day) European country?

A. Italy
B. France
C. Germany
D. England
Of what was the Renaissance a "rebirth?"

A. art and learning
B. Christian devotion
C. chivalry and tournaments
D. all of these are correct
In what way did Leonardo da Vinci represent the "Renaissance Man"?

A. He was a painter, sculptor, inventor and scientist.
B. He lived in Italy during the 1500s.
C. He used perspective in all of his drawings and paintings.
D. He was a devout Catholic.
In The Prince, Machiavelli parted ways with earlier political theorists by:

A. saying the justification for power lay in its contribution to the public good.
B. rejecting the realistic approach to politics favored by contemporary theorists.
C. arguing that politics have nothing to do with morality.
D. arguing that greatness in a statesman is based on his Christian virtue.
Thes study of classical texts caused humanists to focus on which subject?

A. human potential and achievements
B. an understanding of early Christianity
C. Roman law and government
D. Islamic texts
Humanist educators of the Renaissance stressed all of the following EXCEPT

A. liberal arts.
B. rhetoric (public speaking)
C. physical education
D. practical tool skills
The invention of the printing press in Europe did all of the following EXCEPT:

A. faciliate the spread of new ideas.
B. increase the literacy rates of Europeans.
C. increase the power of the Catholic Church.
D. encourage the development of scholarly research.
Paintings and sculptures of the Renaissance were more

A. abstract.
B. realistic.
C. Chinese-like.
D. simple.
The frescoes painted by _________ have long been regarded as the first masterpieces of early Renaissance art.

A. Michelangelo
B. Pablo Picasso
C. Masaccio
D. Filippo Brunelleschi
All of the following are associated with painting during the High Renaissance EXCEPT:

A. Machiavelli
B. Raphael
C. Leonardo da Vinci
D. Michelangelo
Who were Desiderius Erasmus and Thomas More?

A. German painters
B. patrons of the arts
C. Christian humanists
D. none of these
What was the goal of the early Christian Humanists?

A. to create a new church
B. to reform the Catholic Church
C. to increase the influence of the Catholic Church in daily life
D. to make the Catholic Church more dogmatic (i.e. more rules)
Who is credited with starting the Protestant Reformation?

A. Martin Luther
B. King Henry VIII
C. John Calvin
D. Ulrich Zwingli
Martin Luther protested the practice of selling indulgences. What was that practice?

A. Clergy members bought indulgences to reach higher offices.
B. The Church told the people that buying indulgences was a way to earn a way to heaven.
C. Indulgences permitted priests to marry and have children.
D. Indulgences allowed people the freedom to miss mass.
The Protestant Reformation is built upon the foundation of:

A. regular confession of sin.
B. justification by faith and biblical authority.
C. good works and priestly authority.
D. the authority of the Church.
In the Peasants' War of the mid-1520s, Martin Luther:

A. admired the peasants for challenging unjust rule.
B. supported the peasants in their uprising against their lords.
C. called on German lords to restore order by any means necessary.
D. condemned the violent response of the German princes.
Which of the following was NOT one of the problems/distractions Charles V faced in trying to stop Martin Luther?

A. the advance of the Ottoman Turks through southeastern Europe
B. battles with the French monarchy
C. the pope's alliance with Luther
D. the spread of Luther's ideas among German princes
Which of the following is NOT one of the new ideas/beliefs that came out of the Protestant Reformation?

A. adult baptism
B. predestination
C. indulgences
D. justification through faith alone
. Henry VIII:

A. abolished the Church of England.
B. always wanted his dauther Elizabeth to rule England.
C. refused to recognize the supremacy of the pope.
D. maintained a strong friendship with Thomas More.
The final decrees of the Council of Trent:

A. approved a "Protestant" doctrine of justification.
B. let Catholics decide individually whether to accept transubstantiation.
C. called for the establishment of Catholic seminaries in all Protestant lands.
D. made compromise with Protestants virtually impossible.
Who was the important Catholic Reformer who founded the Jesuit order?

A. Ignatius of Loyola
B. Pope Paul III
C. Katarina Zell
D. Martin Luther
The French Wars of Religion were primarily between which two groups?

A. Catholics, Huguenots (French Calvinists)
B. Catholics, Orthodox Christians
C. Catholics, Mulsims
D. Catholics, Lutherans
Among the earliest and most consistent goals of Spain's King Philip II was a:

A. desire to spread religious toleration throughout all of his possessions.
B. search for a body of competent advisors to supervise his overseas possessions.
C. wish to marry Elizabeth of England and consolidate his kingdom with hers.
D. firm determination to keep all his subjects Catholic.
The ___________ ensured England would remain a Protestant country.

A. defeat of the Spanish Armada
B. organization of the Society of Jesus
C. death of Philip II
D. reforms of the Council of Trent
At the end of the sixteenth century, the Protestant Reformation:

A. was still driven by Lutheranism.
B. allowed Christians of good faith to work together despite denominational differences.
C. had destroyed the Catholic Church.
D. had spawned religious reform and violent conflicts.
Europeans were motivated by several things to go on voyages of discovery and exploration. Which of the following is generally NOT considered one of those things?

A. God
B. glory
C. freedom
D. gold
Which of the following was NOT a key determining factor in explaining how/why Europeans were able to embark on voyages of discovery?

A. a dramatic improvement in ship design and building
B. the weaknesses of European monarchies
C. improved knowledge of wind patterns in the oceans
D. a desire to spread Christianity to heathen peoples
Bartholomeu Dias and Vasco de Gama were the first European sailors to sail around what continent?

A. South America
B. North America
C. Africa
D. Europe
The Treaty of Tordesillas divided the Americas between which two European powers?

A. Spain and Portugal
B. Spain and France
C. Spain and England
D. Portugal and England
Hernan Cortes conquered the __________ empire; Francisco Pizarro conquered the __________ empire.

A. Aztec, Mayan
B. Aztec, Incan
C. Mayan, Incan
D. Anasazi, Incan
The Spanish colonial system of encomienda made possible the

A. virtual enslavement of the Native American populations.
B. importation of African slaves to compensate for Indians lost to diseases.
C. fair treatment of Native American laborers.
D. survival of Indian works of art and literature.
The triangular trade involved the exchange of manufactured goods, slaves and raw materials and connected:

A. Europe, Asia and the Americas
B. Europe, Africa and the Americas
C. North America, Europe and Central America
D. North America, the Caribbean and Africa
The high mortality rate for Africans being brought to America was due in part to:

A. inhumane methods of transoceanic transportation.
B. exposure to tropical diseases.
C. suicides by those who realized their fate.
D. infections incurred from wounds in wars they had just fought and lost.
Which European nation eventually came to dominate the Indian subcontinent?

A. France
B. England
C. Holland (the Dutch)
D. Spain
Massive plantations in the Caribbean Islands (the West Indies) were set up by Europeans to grow what important crop?

A. cotton
B. sugar(cane)
C. coffee
D. wheat
Named after one of Europe's early explorers, what was the term for the exchange of crops, animals, diseases, etc. between the New World and Europe?

A. the Dias Exchange
B. the American Exchange
C. the Columbian Exchange
D. the Pizarro Exchange
Which of the following is NOT one of the effects European exploration and expansion had on the conquered peoples?

A. Many natives were converted to Christianity.
B. Native peoples suffered massive population loss from diseases.
C. New items (like horses and cattle) were introduced into their daily lives.
D. All of these are correct.
A. It assumes a zero-sum economic game: if one country prospers, another must lose.
B. It stresses the importance of colonies to make the "mother" country wealthier.
C. It encourages the government to have a role in the economy.
D. It discourages trade between countries.
The witchcraft trials of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries reflected:

A. the abudance and expandability of women.
B. fascination with new legal practices.
C. deep uncertainties in society; including with religion.
D. fears of false religions being brought to Europe from the Americas.
Which of the following countries did NOT participate in the Thirty Years' War?

A. France
B. Germany
C. Italy
D. Sweden
This region was most devastated by the Thirty Years' War:

A. Austria.
B. France.
C. Germany.
D. Russia.
According to the divine-right theory of absolute monarchy, the monarch is responsible to no one or thing, EXCEPT:

A. the legislature (or parliament).
B. God.
C. his people.
D. other rulers.
Who were the two cardinals that laid the groundwork for absolutism in France under Louis XIV?

A. Richelieu and Frondes
B. Frondes and Mazarin
C. Richelieu and Mazarin
D. Richelieu and Colbert
Which of the following political purposes did the splendid palace at Versailles NOT serve?

A. to provide a centralized location for government to enable Louis XIV to be part of all decisions
B. to show the power of Louis XIV and arouse the envy of the other monarchs
C. to be a place that would distract the nobles from the affairs of state
D. to reflect Louis XIV's ideas of westernization and his desire to modernize his country
What did Louis XIV's belief in "One king, one law, one faith" reflect?

A. It reflected his desire to unite Europe under one monarch.
B. Louis XIV believed himself to be the "sun king."
C. Louix XIV believed in a united France under his absolute control.
D. None of these are correct.
Which powerful European dynasty "rebooted" to create an empire in Austria?

A. the Bourbon Dynasty
B. the Habsburg Dynasty
C. the Tudor Dynasty
D. the Hohenzollern dynasty
Which two (modern-day) European nations were a complete "mess" in seventeenth century Europe - not united, and in some cases controlled by foreign powers?

A. England, Italy
B. England, Germany (the Holy Roman Empire)
C. Italy, Germany (the Holy Roman Empire)
D. France, Italy
By who did Peter the Great want Russian culture to be influenced (or modeled after)?

A. Western Europe
B. Asia
C. Africa
D. Eastern Europe
Why did Peter the Great go to war with the Swedes?

A. He wanted to "stamp out" religious dissension in Sweden.
B. Peter the Great desired a warm water port.
C. He wanted to conquer Western Europe to gain more land.
D. He didn't; the Swedish crown attacked Russia to gain control of fertile farmland.
Which of the following reflects the chronlogical order of the events in English history?

A. the Glorious Revolution, the Restoration, the English Civil War
B. the Engish Civil War, the Glorious Revolution, the Restoration
C. the English Civil War, the Restoration, the Glorious Revolution
D. None of these are in the correct order.
The chaos in England during the 17th century (especially the Glorious Revolution) laid the groundwork for which type of government that England would eventually become?

A. a direct democracy
B. an absolutist monarchy
C. a constitutional (limited) monarchy
D. communist
Scientific thought in Europe, before the Scientific Revolution, was based on all of the following sources, EXCEPT:

A. Christian theology
B. Aristotle
C. Ptolemy
D. Chinese literature
In the mid-fifteenth century, Catholic Church officials met in the city of Trent originally to discuss what?

A. the Scientific Revolution
B. the discoveries of Copernicus
C. Martin Luther and the Reformation
D. updating the Church calendar
The Church decided many things at the Council of Trent, most importantly, that NO ONE was to question:

A. the Bible.
B. the Holy Father.
C. local priests.
D. Martin Luther.
Another result of the Council was that the Catholic Church decided they needed a more accurate ________.

A. calendar
B. translation of the Bible
C. understanging of the heavens
D. map of Europe
Almost all scientific knowledge of the time was based on the writings and beliefs of which Greek thinker?

A. Galileo
B. Copernicus
C. Aristotle
D. Plato
Copernicus discovered several things, but most importantly:

A. that the sun revolves around the earth.
B. the earth revolves around the sun.
C. there were more than 9 planets in the solar system.
D. there were less than 9 planets in the solar system.
Tartaglia's work with ________ questioned the idea that all things go in a straight line.

A. cannons
B. guns
C. bowling balls
D. baseballs
Brahe's study of a ________ led him to question that all celestial objects go in a perfectly circular path.

A. planet
B. comet
C. cannonball
D. bowling ball
. Kepler, who continued the work of Brahe, discovered all of the following regarding the planets, EXCEPT

A. a speed of a planet is greater the closer it gets to the sun
B. all the planets are perfect spheres
C. the planets move in elliptical orbit
D. planets with larger orbits revolve at a slower average velocity than those with smaller orbits
Galileo's first discoveries dealt with:

A. weight.
B. acceleration.
C. mass.
D. force.
Galileo's most famous work, that questioned the authority of the Bible, was:

A. The Starry Messenger.
B. On the Heavens.
C. Heaven Explained.
D. None of these are correct.
A. Every object in a state of uniform motion tends to remain in that state of motion unless an external force is applied to it.
B. The relationship between an object's mass m, its acceleration a, and the applied force F is F = ma. Acceleration and force are vectors (as indicated by their symbols being displayed in slant bold font); in this law the direction of the force vector is the same as the direction of the acceleration vector.
C. For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.
D. All of these are correct.
Paracelsus, Vesalius and Harvey are credited with advancements in all of the following EXCEPT

A. vaccine theory - like cures like
B. entemology
C. anatomy
D. circulation (blood flow)
Boyle's Law, dealing with gas, states

A. the volume of gas varies with the pressure exerted on it.
B. the mass of gas varies with the pressure exerted on it.
C. the weight of gas varies with the pressure exerted on it.
D. the volume of gas varies with the temperature of the gas.
Historians consider Antoine Lavoisier, who developed an early periodic table, the founder of modern

A. biology.
B. chemistry.
C. physics.
D. anatomy.
Cavendish, Merian, and Winkelman (Kirch) demonstrate what about the Scientific Revolution?

A. Women were strongly encouraged to engage in scientific experimentation.
B. Men at the time considered women their equals when it came to science.
C. Though women were not encouraged to make scientific discoveries, many did anyway.
D. Women made no important discoveries or advancements in the Scientific Revolution.
Cartesian dualism describes the duality between what two things?

A. the mind and body
B. the mind and soul
C. the soul and body
D. the brain and heart
Sir Francis Bacon is credited with creating:

A. the scientific method.
B. three laws of motion.
C. a new outlook on planetary motion.
D. scientific discoveries based on Aristotle's teachings.
Spinoza's beliefs in God stated all of the following EXCEPT:

A. God is in all things.
B. God is infinite.
C. God is perfect.
D. God allows evil.
Blaise Pascal attempted to keep what two diverging things together?

A. reason and faith
B. the Catholic and Protestant Churches
C. science and reason
D. the Church and faith
The writers of travel literature in the eighteenth century portrayed:

A. people living in nature in foreign places as happier than Europeans.
B. Asians as immoral and intolerant.
C. foreign philosophies as incomplete, waiting for Christian fulfillment.
D. non-Christian religions as primitive and barbarous.
Montesquieu's most important contribution to political science was his:

A. praise for what he considered England's system of checks and balances.
B. support for freedom of the press and religion.
C. critique of Machiavelli's The Prince.
D. analysis of the faults in the French political system.
Voltaire was a strong proponent of religious:

A. toleration.
B. persecution.
C. orthodoxy.
D. atheism.
Which of the following statements concerning Denis Diderot is NOT true?

A. Diderot's twenty-eight volume Encyclopedia was a collection of writings from major philosophes of the time.
B. He was a harsh critic of Christianity, especially its moral practices.
C. As he grew older he made peace with Christianity and religion in general.
D. All of these are correct.
Rousseau argued in his novel Emlie that education:

A. was impossible in a world where man is no longer free.
B. should be supported by the state.
C. must combine heard and mind, sentiment and reason.
D. would and should blur the old distinctions between men and women.
Which of the following statements is NOT an argument Rousseau makes in his Social Contract?

A. The general will is more important than an individual's own self-interest.
B. An individual's own self-interest is more important than the general will.
C. True freedom can only be pursued by following what is best for all people; because what is best for all people is best for the individual.
D. All of these statements are correct.
In his Wealth of Nations, Adam Smith argued that:

A. the state should not interfere in economic matters.
B. land, not gold and silver, constituted the true worth of a country.
C. each businessman should provide his own police protection.
D. the state should monitor and control economic activity.
One of Adam Smith's most famous concepts is that of the __________, which guides most economic decisions in a free enterprise system.

A. invisible hand
B. strong-hand of government
C. hand of desire
D. weak hand of want
In Vindication of the Rights of Woman, Mary Wollstonecraft argued that

A. the subjection of men to women was wrong.
B. women should have equal rights despite their natural inferiority.
C. women should enjoy equal social, economic and political rights with men.
D. even though women were as reasonable as men they should not have equal rights.
"Crimes are more effectually prevented by the certainty than the severity of punishment." The preceding quote is from which Enlightenment reformer?

A. Voltaire
B. Cesare Beccaria
C. Mary Astell
D. Baron Paul d'Holbach
The salons:

A. typically did not allow conversation that was critical of either the government or established religion.
B. typically were composed of members of the lower and middle classes.
C. were subsidized by the government.
D. allowed the hostesses to influence political events and ideas.
Which artistic style of the eighteenth century attempted to capture to the simplicity and dignity of ancient Greece and Rome?

A. Rococo
B. Neoclassicism
C. Classical
D. Baroque
The Jesuits were finally dissolved by papal decree because:

A. their influence had declined since their inception.
B. they were found guilty of atrocities by American Indians.
C. their high-profile successes created many jealous enemies (especially in governments).
D. their secret rituals were believed to include Satanism.
The Moravian and Methodist Churches emerged in the 1700s as a result of:

A. peoples' desires for a more ritualized (but non-Catholic) Protestant faith.
B. peoples' want of a more personal relationship with God.
C. religious warfare.
D. a desire among many for a more "rational" Christian faith.
Which of the following is NOT considered one of the enlightened despots of the eighteenth century?

A. Frederick II of Prussia
B. Catherine the Great of Russia
C. George III of England
D. Joseph II of Austria
Joseph II of Austria tried to demonstrate that philosophy was his lawmaker by

A. imposing a system of tariffs and trade barriers.
B. letting Protestants worship freely in five cities of his kingdom.
C. establishing the principle that all his subjects were equal before the law.
D. grant monopolies only to banks which hired people from all classes.
As a result of a rebellion led by Emelyn Pugachev, Catherine of Russia

A. granted serfs limited freedom of occupation and travel.
B. halted all rural reform and expanded the scope of serfdom.
C. abdicated the the throne and fled the country.
D. appointed officials to oversee the peasants and respond to their needs.
The emergence of strong monarchial states in Prussia, Austria and Russia caused the collapse and destruction of

A. Denmark.
B. Poland.
C. Portugal.
D. Italy.
The War of Austrian Succession and the Seven Years' War show the importance of what concept in eighteenth century international affairs?

A. might equals right
B. the balance of power
C. colonization is key
D. treating other nations and peoples humanely
The Seven Years' War

A. was initiated by Russian incursions into Poland.
B. saw much fighting in South America.
C. led to the weakening of France.
D. saw Britain ally with Austria.
France supported the colonial cause during the American Revolution because

A. Louis XVI admired Jefferson's political principles.
B. it hoped to gain additional territories in Europe.
C. Britain invaded French colonies in Canada.
D. it hoped to exact a measure of revenge against Britain.
The United States of America's first government was

A. the Declaration of Independence
B. the US Constitution
C. the Articles of Confederation
D. the Articles of Constitution
A. peasants who owned small land holdings.
B. skilled artisans and shop keepers in towns and villages.
C. members of the lower clergy who owned no property.
D. bourgeois merchants, industrialists and bankers.
Of France's three estates, prior to the French Revolution, which estate constituted the least amount of people?

A. The First
B. The Second
C. The Third
D. All estates had roughly equal numbers of people.
Which of the following did NOT force change in France that led to the French Revolution?

A. Enlightenment ideas
B. a weak leader
C. the Great Fear
D. economic troubles
What did the formation of the National Assembly represent in France?

A. It ended the French Revolution and brought peace.
B. It re-established the monarchy's power over the French government.
C. It signified the end of the absolute monarchy and the beginning of the people assuming power.
D. It started a massive wave of violence and death to sweep Europe.
The Tennis Court Oath was significant in the French Revolution because it

A. abolished the First and Second Estates and made the Third Estate supreme.
B. ended monarchial rule in France.
C. freed all prisoners in France who were being held for political offenses.
D. was the first time the Third Estate made a decision without royal approval.
For the people of Paris, the fall of the Bastille meant

A. that every household head now had a weapon to use in the revolution.
B. an increase in the prices of food products, particularly grain.
C. a humiliating defeated by foreign troops opposed to their revolution.
D. that they had won a victory over the old despotism they so despised.
The Declaration of the Rights of Man called for all of the following EXCEPT

A. freedom of speech and the press and from arbitrary arrest.
B. complete equality of the sexes, both politically and socially.
C. access to public office on the basis of talent.
D. the monarch's power to be restricted by popular will.
A march of __________ on October 5, 1789, forced Louis XVI and his family from Versailles to Paris.

A. peasants
B. women
C. nobles
D. knights
The Committee of Public Safety used its Reign of Terror to

A. protect the interests of the aristocracy.
B. identify and execute enemies of the Revolution.
C. bolster support for Napoleon.
D. support the French military against foreign enemies.
Who became the leader of the Committee of Public Safety?

A. Maximellen Robespierre
B. Louis XVI
C. Marie Antoinette
D. Jean-Paul Jacobin
Eventually, the chaos and uncertainity of the French Revolution enabled __________ to take power in France.

A. the English
B. Napoleon Bonaparte
C. the king (Louis XVI)
D. Toussaint L'Ouverture
Napoleon Bonaparte rose to prominence as a

A. key leader in the French Revolution's "Reign of Terror."
B. general in the French army.
C. successful merchant in France.
D. religious leader and reformer.
Which of the following changes did Napoleon NOT make in France?

A. He created a public education system.
B. He reformed the banking and money system.
C. He signed an important agreement with the pope.
D. He created a better transportation system.
What was the signifcance of the Concordat Napoleon signed with Pope Pius VII?

A. He erased any remaining influence the Catholic Church had in France.
B. He restored the Catholic Church to the prominent role it had in France prior to the French Revolution.
C. It recognized the influence of the Catholic Church in France but severely limited its power.
D. It made Catholicism once again the official religion of France.
Napoleon's Continental System was meant to isolate which European country?

A. Italy
B. Spain
C. Britain
D. Russia
Which tactic did Russia use against Napoleon invading army?

A. They used a scorched-earth policy.
B. They used a naval blockade.
C. They used guerilla warfare.
D. All of these are correct.
Napoleon's invasion of Russia in 1812:

A. gave Britain time to prepare for the planned invasion across the channel.
B. so weakened his military machine that within two years he was deposed.
C. sent just over a million soldiers of the Grand Army into combat.
D. ended with his death at Waterloo.
The Industrial Revolution first started in which country (or area)?

A. Great Britain
B. Germany
C. France
D. the United States
The agricultural revolution of the eighteenth century was important to the Industrial Revolution because:

A. it provided employment opportunities for dispalced urban workers.
B. it significantly increased food production.
C. it prevented families from purchasing manufactured goods.
D. it helped increase food prices.
Britain led the Industrial Revolution because of its combination of:

A. slave labor and colonial markets.
B. natural resources and complete focus on agriculture.
C. stable government and protection of private property.
D. polytechnic colleges and joint stock banks.
The "textile revolution" focused on improving the efficiency of what two parts of the textile-making process?

A. spinning and weaving
B. spinning and yarning
C. yarning and threading
D. dying and weaving
The significance of the steam engine in the Industrial Revolution was that it:

A. allowed Indian textiles to compete with British textiles.
B. led the British to abandon completely the raising of sheep.
C. removed the need both for horses and rivers as sources of power.
D. eliminated the need for fossil fuels to produce energy.
Which of the following statements about the relationship between the railroads and Britain's industrial supremacy is NOT true?

A. The development of the railroad required Britons to develop their civil and mechanical skills.
B. The growth of the railroads encouraged the growth of the iron and coal industries.
C. The railroads trained men who had been farmers to do industrial work.
D. The growth of the railroads increased the cost of transportation and goods.
Historians consider _________ to be the first "industrialized city"?

A. London
B. Brussels
C. Amsterdam
D. Manchester
The Industrial Revolution in continental Europe initially started in all of the following countries (or areas) EXCEPT:

A. Russia
B. Belgium
C. Germany
D. France
The major difference between industrial development in Britain and on the continent:

A. is that the continental nations followed an American system of finance.
B. lay in the much greater part continental governments played in the process.
C. can be found in the establishment of merchant banks in the 1830s.
D. can best be seen in the greater number of technical schools built in Britain.
What was Samuel Slater's contribution to the industrial progress of the United States?

A. He invented the spinning jenny.
B. He established laws to treat factor workers fairly.
C. He waas the first factory worker to "revolt."
D. He founded the first textile factory with water-powered machines.
Much like in England, the Industrial Revolution began in what industry in the United States?

A. textile
B. metal works
C. mining
D. railway
One of the main effects of the Industrial Revolution was urbanization. Which of the following statements best defines urbanization?

A. the movement of people from cities to rural areas
B. the movement of people from rural areas to cities
C. the emmigration of people from one country to another
D. the process of people moving from labor-heavy to machine-heavy jobs
What British group is famous for destroying machines to show their dissatisfaction with the Industrial Revolution?

A. the Chartist Movement
B. labor unions
C. the Luddites
D. the Royalists
The People's Charter of 1838 (a document of the Chartist movement):

A. announced the formation of a new Labour Party.
B. was approved overwhelmingly by Parliament.
C. demanded strict property requirements for members of Parliament.
D. called for universal male suffrage.
Eventually, government stepped in and made reforms in Britain near the end of the Industrial Revolution. What might explain their initial hesitancy in passing labor and factory laws?

A. The government did not care about the plight of the average worker.
B. The government did not want to "mess up" a good thing and disrupt Britain's economic growth.
C. Factory owners controlled Parliament and refused to pass laws that would hurt their businesses.
D. Factory workers did not complain about conditions, and therefore the government felt no need to act.
John Stuart Mill was a famous author and advocate of which ideology?

A. conservativism
B. liberalism
C. nationalism
D. socialism
"... it must be love of fatherland that governs the state by placing before it a higher object than the usual one of maintaining internal peace, property, personal freedom, and the life and well-being of all. For this higher object alone, and with no other intention, does the state assemble an armed force."

The quotation above best reflects which of the following?

A. Nationalism
B. Feudalism
C. Imperialism
D. Liberalism
In his Reflections on the Revolution in France, Edmund Burke argued that

A. only gradual change prevents destruction of tradition.
B. there could never be such a revolution in England.
C. every society needs regular revolutions to cleanse itself.
D. the tree of liberty should be watered with the blood of revolution
Conservatives feared the force of nationalism because it threatened

A. the unity of Germany and Italy.
B. to upset the balance of power.
C. the stability of Britain and France.
D. the rule of Louis XVIII.
Utopian socialism was built upon the idea that

A. competition among workers drives progress.
B. conservative economic principles foster social stability.
C. political reform was more important than economic reform.
D. cooperative living might create a better environment for people.
Who was the most influential leader at the Congress of Vienna?

A. Czar Alexander I of Russia
B. Emperor Francis I of Austria
C. King Frederick William III of Prussia
D. Prince Klemens von Metternich of Austria
Who was the most influential leader at the Congress of Vienna?

A. Czar Alexander I of Russia
B. Emperor Francis I of Austria
C. King Frederick William III of Prussia
D. Prince Klemens von Metternich of Austria
To the victors meeting in Vienna in 1815, "legitimacy" meant

A. balancing the power of the great nations of Europe.
B. restoring the Catholic Church to its pre-revolutionary power.
C. restoring the rulers exiled by Napoleon to their thrones.
D. recognizing the leaders of liberal, nationalistic movements.
The Concert of Europe, which existed between the Congress of Vienna and the outbreak of the Crimean War, operated as a

A. commonwealth system that sought to promote an economic union of European nations.
B. supranational institution that goverened the continent of Europe.
C. loose forum to achieve consensus among the major powers on foreign policy questions.
D. cultural exchange program among Russia, Prussia, Austria and Britain.
Louis XVIII's moderating reign was opposed primarily by liberals who favored revolutionary reforms and

A. militarists who wanted to invade Austria.
B. ultraroyalists who wanted more power for the aristocracy and the Church.
C. socialists who wanted labor reforms.
D. utopians who wanted to establish communes.
King Louis-Philippe was called France's bourgeois monarch for all of the following EXCEPT

A. he increased the number of voters.
B. his strongest supporters were upper middle class businessmen.
C. he favored the extension of political power to the working class.
D. he introduced policies that favored the bourgeoisie.
Which of the following was the immediate cause of the revolutions that occurred in several major European cities in 1848?

A. Metternich's flight from Vienna
B. the worker demonstrations in St. Petersburg against the czar
C. the dissolution of the Prussian assembly by Otto von Bismarck
D. the overthrow of Louis-Philippe of France
Which of the following countries or regions was LEAST affected by the 1848 revolutions?

A. Italian states
B. France
C. Britain
D. Germany
By the end of the ninteenth century, England's government could best be described as

A. a constitutional monarchy, dominated by the parliament.
B. a constitutional monarchy, dominated by the monarchy.
C. a constitutional republic, dominated by the upper class.
D. a constitutional republic, with all people having an equal voice.
In the second half of the nineteenth century, the balance of power in Europe was greatly changed by

A. the rapid increase of the French population.
B. Britain's decision to concentrate on empire building in Africa and Asia.
C. the unifications of Germany and of Italy.
D. the emergence of an Ottoman threat to eastern Europe.
Bismarck's Realpolitik is demonstrated by the way he

A. supported a monarchy even though he favored a republic.
B. sought public approval before he made a diplomatic move.
C. waged war only when necessary and when he knew he could win.
D. utilized public opinion polls before introducing reforms.
Which of the following was an immediate result of the Austro-Prussian War (1866)?

A. The German Empire was established.
B. Prussia dominated the German unification movement.
C. Austria annexed Bohemia.
D. The Emperor Francis Joseph abdicated.
The unification of Germany in 1871 should be viewed as

A. the rest of Germany becoming a part of Prussia.
B. a geographical restoration of the medieval Holy Roman Empire.
C. a precursor to the unification of Italy.
D. the first step toward the inevitable world war of the next century.
The Ausgleich or Compromise of 1867

A. abolished serfdom and eliminated compulsory labor services.
B. restored the revolutionary constitutions of 1848.
C. granted Hungary its complete independence.
D. created the dual-monarchy of Austria-Hungary.
What was the name of the last island to which Napoleon was exiled?

A. Elba
B. St. Helena
C. St. Irene
D. Elga
Which of the following was NOT one of the new discoveries/advancements of the late 19th and early 20th centuries?

A. steel
B. electricity
C. the internal combustion engine
D. the steam engine
Which European state began to challenge and eventually surpass Britain's industrial domination in the late nineteenth century?

A. France
B. Spain
C. Germany
D. Russia
In the late nineteenth century, industrialization:

A. ended in Great Britain.
B. affected the American economy for the first time.
C. spread to Russia and Japan.
D. entered a new phase in Africa and India.
Which of the following was NOT one of the low-level "white collar" jobs that began to be available to women in the late nineteenth century?

A. nurses
B. teachers
C. factory foreman (managers)
D. typists
Which right, that women fought for strongly, did only a few countries grant women prior to the start of World War I (1914)?

A. the right to own property
B. the right to vote
C. the right to work
D. the right to fair medical treatment
In the late nineteenth century, anarchists aiming to bring down political institutions:

A. used assassination as their primary instrument of terror.
B. declined in numbers as better economic times came.
C. abandoned the use of explosives to cripple governments.
D. organized communal groups as a way of rejecting mass society.
Which of the following statements correctly describes the population changes in Europe from 1850 to 1910.

A. The population of Europe during this time period nearly doubled.
B. The population of Europe during this time period increased slightly.
C. The population of Europe during this time period increased by over 500%.
D. The population of Europe during this time period declined slightly.
The problems of urbanization eventually led to what happening, a clear rejection of Europe's liberal ideas?

A. Local governments stepped in and made regulations and laws to address problems.
B. Private charities alone tried to solve the problems of urbanization and were completely successful.
C. Local governments refused to recognize any problems with urbanization, and those problems only got worse.
D. Problems in cities led to a mass exodus from those cities and a return to rural life for many Europeans.
The upper-middle class, whose wealth began to rival that of the upper class and who eventually began to inter-marry with them as well, was made up mostly of:

A. rich industrialists and factory owners.
B. factory workers.
C. skilled artisans.
D. wealthy land owners.
At the end of the nineteenth century, a number of European states:

A. demonstrated little interest in primary education.
B. abandoned primary education so young boys could enter the workforce.
C. utilized public education to foster nationalism and patriotism.
D. educated boys and girls in a similar fashion.
Which of the following was NOT one of the leisure activities that became available to most people by the late nineteenth century?

A. professional and organized sporting events
B. dance halls
C. amusent parks
D. movie theaters
In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the Western European nation that was the most politically stable was:

A. England.
B. France.
C. Spain.
D. Italy.
The most serious problem facing Austria-Hungary at the turn of the twentieth century was:

A. conflict between traditionalists and modernists.
B. discontent among workers.
C. concern about war with Germany.
D. nationalities and nationalism.
The scientists and thinkers of the late 19th and and early 20th centuries challenged what concept/idea that had reigned supreme in Europe (especially intellectuals) since the Enlightenment?

A. faith
B. reason
C. love
D. progress
Social Darwinists took the ideas of Darwin and applied them to:

A. the economy.
B. human society.
C. warfare tactics.
D. None of these are correct.
After the publication of Theodor Herzl's book The Jewish State:

A. his ideas were condemned by a cartel of Jewish bankers.
B. Jews began to immigrate to the United States.
C. the German imperial government announced its support for the plan.
D. a Zionist Congress proclaimed its aim to create that state in Palestine.
Which of the following reasons is not considered a historically significant reason/justification for imperialism?

A. European nationalism and competition
B. Social Darwinism and racism
C. religious/humanitarian motives
D. All of these are correct.
What was the main purpose of the Berlin Conference of 1884-1885?

A. to ensure African borders would be based on culture and language
B. to prevent the fight of European nations over the division of Africa
C. to give African leaders a chance to be heard by colonial interests
D. None of these are correct.
The only African countries to remain politically independent following the "scramble for Africa" by European countries in the late nineteenth century were

A. Nigeria and the Congo
B. Liberia and Abyssinia (Ethiopia)
C. South Africa and Rhodesia
D. Egypt and Libya
What natural resource, harvested from the Congo, made King Leopold II of Belgium one of the wealthiest men in the world?

A. palm oil
B. rubber
C. cotton
D. sugar cane
Which of the following Indian exports was vital to the British textile industry?

A. corn
B. oil
C. cotton
D. wheat
What happened as a result of the Sepoy Mutiny?

A. Rights for Indians increased under British rule.
B. Indians gained independence from Britain.
C. The British government took direct control of India.
D. British troops massacred Indian civilians in retaliation.
The Boxer Rebellion, though ultimately unsuccessful, was an early example of what emerging in China, in response to European imperialism?

A. capitalism
B. xenophobia
C. racism
D. nationalism
The "Open Door Policy" was an idea, suggested by the United States, that

A. Africa be open to trade with all Western powers.
B. China be open to trade with all Western powers.
C. Japan be open to trade with all Western powers.
D. Western nations drop protective tariffs and trade barriers.
The French and the Dutch had differing imperialistic motives concerning their Southeast Asian colonies. Which of the following statements best describes them.

A. While the Dutch intended to assimilate the people of Indonesia, the French took a hands-off policy with the Vietnamese.
B. While the Dutch intended to assimilate the people of Vietnam, the French took a hands-off policy with the Indonesians.
C. The French attempted to assimilate the people of Vietnam; the Dutch were (for the most part) only interested in trade and economic benefit from Indonesia.
D. Both the Dutch and the French tried to actively assimilate their colonies; the only difference was in their approach and their success.
After which war was the United States faced with a difficult decision of whether or not to become an imperialistic power?

A. the Spanish-American War
B. the War for Cuban Independence
C. the Crimean War
D. World War I
Why did American sugar planters overthrow Queen Liliuokalani of Hawaii?

A. She wanted to restore/maintain the political power of the native Hawaiians.
B. She levied a tax on sugar.
C. She placed Sanford B. Dole and several plantation owners in jail.
D. She formally asked the United States to annex Hawaii.
Which of the following Western nations ultimately controlled the largest area and population through imperialization?

A. England
B. the United States
C. France
D. Germany
Which of the following was NOT an effect of imperialism in Africa and Asia?

A. European countries received an economic gain.
B. Asian and African cultures stayed resilient to Western culture.
C. Asia and Africa were burdened with economic woes.
D. European colonization intensified the rivalry between European nations.
When Western powers divided up which continent, disregarding long-standing tribal and ethnic boundaries, they created problems that persist to this day?

A. Asia
B. Africa
C. Oceania (Australia)
D. South America
Who was the communist leader who wrote that imperialism was "parasitic" and a natural outgrowth of capitalism?

A. Karl Marx
B. Joseph Stalin
C. Vladimir Lenin
D. Mao Zedong
Emperor William II's decision to end the Reinsurance Treaty with Russia in the 1890s:

A. also destroyed the relationship between Germany and Austria.
B. pushed France and Russia into an alliance.
C. was first approved by the United States.
D. ended the conflict in the Balkans.
Which three countries made up the Triple Entente prior to World War I, eventually becoming part of the Allied Powers?

A. Germany, Austria-Hungary, the Ottoman Empire
B. Germany, France, England
C. France, England, Russia
D. France, Germany, Russia
Prior to the start of World War I, which region was referred to as the "powder keg" of Europe?

A. Alsace-Lorraine
B. the Middle East
C. the Balkan Peninsula
D. the Caspian Sea
Whose death "sparked" World War I?

A. Tsar Nicholas II
B. Otto von Bismarck
C. Kaiser William II
D. Archduke Franz Ferdinand
The "Willy-Nicky" telegrams, a last attempt to avert World War I, were between the leaders of which two countries?

A. Germany, Austria-Hungary
B. Germany, France
C. France, Austria-Hungary
D. Germany, Russia
All of the following were underlying factors to the start of World War I EXCEPT:

A. increased influence of military leaders (militarism).
B. increasing tension between two alliances.
C. conservative class protests in Western Europe.
D. the desire among some peoples to create nation-states.
Which was the only Asian country to be free of European imperialism (either from being annexed or part of a sphere of influence)?

A. Thailand (Siam)
B. Vietnam
C. China
D. Korea
The (Von) Schlieffen Plan failed because:

A. Great Britain did not rally to the German cause.
B. the Austrian army was poorly prepared for the conflict.
C. Germany was unable to defeat Russia before turning on France.
D. German armies bogged down in trench warfare against the British and French.
The major difference between the Great War (WWI) in the west and in the east was that the:

A. Austrians were more effective against the French than against the Russians.
B. loss of life was far higher in the west than in the east.
C. Western Front saw trench warfare while the Eastern Front was mobile.
D. the United States altered the balance of power in the east.
Which of the following was NOT a primary reason the United States entered World War I?

A. the Zimmeran telegram
B. the German sinking of passenger ships, including the Lusitania
C. Japan's attack of the naval base at Pearl Harbor
D. All of these are correct.
World War I created new employment opportunities for women that:

A. were welcomed by many male workers.
B. opened opportunities in upper management.
C. pushed them into clerical positions and jobs previously held only by men.
D. continued in the years after the war.
Which of the following slogans was NOT one of Lenin's in his April Theses?

A. "Peace, land and bread"
B. "Worker control of production"
C. "All power to the soviets"
D. "Political freedom for all"
Lenin's Bolshevik government accepted the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk:

A. in hopes of pacifying his critics.
B. in order to avoid a civil war in Russia.
C. because Lenin believed socialism would spread and make it irrelevant.
D. after a year of haggling about harsh terms.
What was the signficance of the Second Battle of the Marne?

A. It was the first major attack of World War I.
B. It prompted the United States to join the war.
C. It was Russia's last stand in World War I.
D. It marked the beginning of the end for Germany.
Which four countries constituted (made up) the Big Four, who met to discuss issues following the end of World War I?

A. the United States, France, Great Britain, Italy
B. the United States, France, Great Britain, Germany
C. the United States, France, Germany, Italy
D. the United States, France, Great Britain, Spain
"The Allied and Associated Governments affirm, and Germany accepts, the responsibility of Germany and her allies for causing all the loss and damage... as a consequence of the war."

- Treaty of Versailles, 1919

Which of the following best states one purpose of the treaty clause above?

A. to provide a basis for international disarmement talks
B. to encourage independence for European colonies
C. to include Germany in the peace negotiations
D. to justify large reparations payments from Germany
"IV. Adequate guarantees given and taken that national armaments will be reduced to the lowest point consistent with domestic safety."

The preceding passage from Woodrow Wilson's Fourteen Points, was in response to what movement prior to World War I?

A. fascism
B. nationalism
C. militarism
D. conservativism
Which of the following was NOT one of the "new" independent countries created at the end of World War I?

A. Czechoslavakia
B. Romania
C. Hungary
D. Yugoslavia
The Kellogg-Briand Pact signed by over sixty countries after World War:

A. created the League of Nations.
B. pledged those nations to renounce war and violence.
C. formally ended the fighting of World War I.
D. None of these are correct.
In response to the Great Depression, the Roosevelt administration:

A. implemented activist programs designed to create jobs.
B. rejected all calls for government intervention.
C. promoted volunteerism as the best way of meeting the economic challenges.
D. restricted immigration in hopes of reducing unemployment.
Which of the following best describes the effect of the Great Depression (1929-1939) in Europe?

A. It resulted in increased government economic intervention and control in many nations.
B. It strengthened the trend toward popular democracy in central and eastern Europe.
C. It encouraged the development of a global economy based on free trade and private enterprise.
D. It strengthened the influence of the League of Nations.
Which of the following was NOT detailed or explained in Hitler's Mein Kampf?

A. Hitler's anti-Semitic beliefs
B. the German need for "lebensraum," or living space
C. his plans for Germany
D. Hitler's admiration and respect for communism
The events of Kristallnacht demonstrated to all observers that:

A. Aryans would be given control of all German industries.
B. women would not be given equal rights in Nazi Germany.
C. German anti-Semitism was taking a more vicious turn.
D. Germany was preparing for an invasion of Poland.
Much like women in fascist Italy, women in Nazi Germany were encouraged by the country's leaders to:

A. continue working oustide the home to support the government.
B. demand their rights.
C. stay at home and have children.
D. enlist in the military and bravely fight for their nation.
Hitler's "Night of the Long Knives" and Stalin's "Great Purge" were similar in that:

A. they were both attempts to consolidate power and eliminate political opponents.
B. they were both directly responsible for the deaths of millions of people.
C. they specifically targeted members of minorities.
D. All of these are correct.
Leni Riefenstahl's "Triumph of the Will" is one of the most famous works of German

A. anti-Semitism.
B. propaganda.
C. political satire.
D. None of these are correct.
Lenin's New Economic Policy, which would be debated after his death, introduced __________ reforms into the economy.

A. communist
B. capitalist
C. Christian
D. None of these are correct.
Who did Joseph Stalin "beat out" in the power struggle in the Politburo following Lenin's death?

A. Francisco Franco
B. Leon Trotsky
C. Max Belov
D. Benito Mussolini
Which of the following occurred during Stalin's First Five-Year Plan?

A. the execution of the Romanovs
B. the introduction of women's suffrage
C. the establishment of the New Economic Policy
D. the elimation of the kulaks (peasants) as a class