Ch. 10 Agriculture AP Human Geography
Vocabulary To Know For more information visit http://www.flashcardmachine.com/ap-human-geographyagriculturevocab.html or http://www.lewishistoricalsociety.com/wiki/tiki-print_article.php?articleId=2
Terms in this set (48)
Commercial agriculture characterized by integration of different steps in the food-processing industry, usually through ownership by large corporations.
The deliberate effort to modify a portion of Earth's surface through the cultivation of crops and the raising of livestock for sustenance or economic gain.
also known as aquafarming, is the farming of aquatic organisms such as fish, crustaceans, molluscs and aquatic plants
A postulate by Danish economist Ester Boserup that agricultural methods depend on the size of the population. The larger the world population grows, the more innovations are made to make feeding the expanding population possible
Agriculture undertaken primarily to generate products for sale off the farm.
The practice of rotating use of different fields from crop to crop each year, to avoid exhausting the soil.
occupation of producing milk products
The process by which animals become accustomed to human provision and control
planting, cultivation, and harvesting of tow crops successively within a single year on the same plot of farmland
This is the stage of crop rotation in which the land is left uncultivated
An animal feeding operation, prevalent in factory farms, whose primary goal is to drastically fatten mature animals prior to slaughter
1st 2nd 3rd Ag. Revolution
1.) 10,000 years ago achieved plant and animal domestication
2.) move agriculture beyond subsistence to generate the kinds of surpluses needed to feed thousands of people working in factories instead of in agricultural fields the industrial revolution occurs towards the end of the 2nd rev.
3.)The Green Revolution was a period in time when new agricultural practices were created to help farmers all over the world. It was an international effort that was planned to eliminate hunger by improving crop performances
Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs)
An organism whose genetic material has been altered using genetic engineering techniques
Von Thünen's Model
A pre-industrial model of agricultural land use where intensive farming is directly outside the city, forest is directly outside the intensive farming area, field crops are directly outside the forest area, and ranching is located directly outside the field crop area
Rapid diffusion of new agricultural technology, especially new high-yield seeds and fertilizers.
The process of growing plants using mineral nutrient solutions, in water, without soil
The growing of fruits, vegetables, and flowers.
Intensive Subsistence agriculture
armers spend most of the time and effort to produce the maximum feasible yield from a parcel of land for survival
the clearing of rows in the field through the use of hoes, rakes, & other manual equipment.
Non-subsistence crops such as tea, cacao, coffee, and tobacco.
is the relatively small-scale production of fruits, vegetables and flowers as cash crops, frequently sold directly to consumers and restaurants.
Agriculture practiced in areas with a Mediterranean climate; mostly horticulture
The area surrounding a city from which milk is supplied.
he wide-scale transition of many human cultures from a lifestyle of hunting and gathering to one of agriculture and settlement, allowing the ability to support an increasingly large population
A form of subsistence agriculture based on herding domesticated animals.
A large farm in tropical and subtropical climates that specializes in the production of one or two crops for sale, usually to a more developed country.
he right of succession belonging to the firstborn child, especially the feudal rule by which the whole real estate of an intestate passed to the eldest son
a form of commercial agriculture in which livestock graze over a extensive area
system of planting crops or ridge tops in order to reduce farm production costs and promote greater soil conservation
a form of subsistence agriculture in which people shift activity from on field to another each field is used for crops for a few year
Another name for shifring cultivation, so named because fields are cleared by slashing the vegetation and burning the debris.
Swidden: a patch of land cleared for planting through slashing and burning.
a form of financial or in kind support extended to an economic sector (or institution, business, or individual) generally with the aim of promoting economic and social policy
Agriculture designed primarily to provide food for direct consumption by the farmer and the farmer's family
Farming methods that preserve long-term productivity of land and minimize pollution, typically by rotating soil- restoring crops with cash crops and reducing in-puts of fertilizer and pesticides.
Thomas Malthus (CH.2)
Was one of the first to argue that the worlds rate of population increase was far outrunning the development of food population
"tragedy of the commons"
A dilemma arising from the situation in which multiple individuals, acting independently and rationally consulting their own self-interest, will ultimately deplete a shared limited resource even when it is clear that it is not in anyone's long-term interest for this to happen
Seasonal migration of livestock between mountains and lowland pasture areas.
Commercial gardening and fruit farming, so named because truck was a Middle English word meaning batering or the exchange of commodities.
A management style where companies in a supply chain are united through a common owner. Each member supplies a product, and all of the products are combined to satisfy a common need
Rice planted on dryland in a nursery, then moved to a deliberately flooded field to promote growth.
The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840
Explain how agriculture originated and identify its various hearths.
Agriculture first originated around 10,000 years ago when a group of hunter gatherers realized that dropping seeds in the ground caused a plant to grow there, they continued to experiment with different seeds and soon started what now is called agriculture. Originated in south western Asia with early crop and livestock domestication. Various hearths of agriculture would be Europe with its Mediterranean agriculture, South western United States with its crop and livestock farming and livestock ranching and shifting cultivation in Africa with intensive cultivation in South Western Asia
Describe the evolution of agricultural practices from their first use until today.
First use of agriculture would be the Neolithic Revolution in which hunter/gatherers discovered agriculture and settled into area and started farming, Then the Agricultural revolution in Europe and United States during the eighteen hundreds which added technological advancement to agriculture making it easier on large farms. and finally the green revolution in 1940 and 1950 in which genetically modified high yield seed were invented, along with fertilizer, pesticides, and more advanced Machinery
Correlate climate and terrain with various agricultural regions.
Mediterranean agriculture: Semi arid land with lots of hills that have not so cold winters and hot summers but are cooled by sea breeze. exists on land the border Mediterranean sea, Pacific in Southern western US, Chile, North Africa, Western Asia, South Africa, Southwestern Australi
describe and apply von thunens model on small and large scale
small scale: a small city with surrounding rings. first ring is market oriented gardens and dairying, second ring is wood lots, third ring is various crops and pasteurization, outer ring is exclusivity for animal grazing.
Large scale: farmers in relatively remote locations who want to sell to Europe will make non perishable items.
South Africa is exporter and North Africa is import.
use agricultural practices to differentiate between less developed and relatively developed countries
Shifting Cultivation compared to four field system
Shifting cultivation is located in LDCs such as Africa in which the people in the village cut down the village and burn the debris to make to soil healthy then they cultivate it for 2 years then leave it for 20 years or leave it completely, this is inefficient because it destroys the land that they abandoned.
Four field system in the MDC in which they use one field to plant root crops, field 2 for resting where they plant legooms, field 3 for cereal crops and field 4 for root crops, then they rotate. this keeps the soil healthy and maximizes output of crops
Discuss the current trends and recent changes in agricultural practices in both developed and developing regions.
Farm size and farming methods:
MDCs have big farms and practice commercial agriculture mostly, while LDCs have tiny farms and practice subsistence agriculture
MDC grow cash crops like tobacco, and they also grow crops like corn and soybeans, wheat.
LDC grow crops that are easy to grow and can feed their families such as corn.
Effects of changing markets and government practices:
MDC change their crops to not produce excess crop and keep their surplus so they can trade and feed their people,
LDC change their food production because of government practices and cultural policies and taboos
Describe rural settlement in terms of: Survey systems; long lot (seigneur), rectangular, metes, and bounds
settlement types; linear, dispersed, clustered
causes, effects, and regions associated with different settlement patterns
The survey system, a set of rules to regulate government control
•Long lots stretched back from a river because it was the only
means of transportation in the early days, both winter and
summer. Therefore waterfront became very important and
•Taxes were based upon the width of the lots and lots
became, therefore, very long and thin.
•When all the suitable riverfront areas had been used, road
were built parallel to the river and back a certain distance. A
new "rang", or range, of lots was then started with the same
pattern fronting onto the road from both sides
Clustered Rural Settlements- a rural settlement where a number of families live in close proximity to each other, with fields surrounding the collection of houses and farm buildings.
Linear Rural Settlements: Linear rural settlements feature buildings clustered along a road, river, or dike to facilitate communications
Dispersed Rural Settlements- a rural settlement which has farmers living on individual farms isolated from neighbors rather than alongside other farmers in settlements.