AP Biology Vocabulary - Big Idea #1
Key vocabulary in support of Big Idea #1. The process of evolution drives the diversity and unity of life.
Terms in this set (46)
An inherited characteristic that increased in a population (through natural selection) because it helped solve a problem of survival or reproduction during the time it emerged.
Period of evolutionary change in which groups of organisms form many new species whose adaptations allow them to fill new or vacant ecological roles in their communities.
Alternative forms of a gene for each variation of a trait of an organism.
A mode of speciation induced when an ancestral population becomes segregated by a geographic barrier or is itself divided into two or more geographically isolated subpopulations
Body structures that have similar functions but different internal structure and development. Evolved independently as adaptations to similar environments, but not a common ancestor.
Condition in which a bacterium no longer affected or killed by an antibiotic
Selection by humans for breeding of useful traits from the natural variation among different organisms
Genetic drift resulting from the reduction of a population, typically by a natural disaster, such that the surviving population is no longer genetically representative of the original population.
Diagram that shows the evolutionary relationships among a group of organisms
A group of biological taxa or species that share features inherited from a common ancestor
An ancestral species from which later species evolved
Occurs when similar environmental pressures and natural selection produce similar (analogous) adaptations in organisms from different evolutionary lineages
A form of natural selection when individuals at one end of a phenotypic distributive curve have higher fitness than individuals in the middle or at the other end of the curve
A form of natural selection in which individuals on both extremes of a phenotypic distribution curve have higher fitness than do individuals with intermediate phenotypes
A form of evolution in which the same organism is placed into different environments with different selection pressures. This causes organisms to evolve differently, to diverge from their common ancestor. The resulting (new) species may share structural (but not necessarily functional) similarity; divergent evolution produces homologous structures.
Movement of individuals out of an area.
A theory that explains how random changes in genetic material and competition for scarce resources result in selective pressure that results in species gradually changing over time.
Ability to initiate, sustain and support reproduction.
(Gene Drift) Random effect that occurs when a few individuals become isolated from a larger population, this smaller group may establish a new population whose gene pool isn't reflective of the source population (Ex. Galapagos Finches)
Movement of alleles into or out of a population due to the migration of individuals to or from the population
All the genes, including all the different alleles for each gene, that are present in a population at any one time
A change in the allele frequency of a population as a result of chance events rather than natural selection.
Body structures that have similar internal structure and development but different functions. Evolved from a common ancestor.
An organism that has two different alleles for a trait; an organism that is heterozygous for a particular trait.
Movement of individuals into a population
Pre-zygotic includes sexual, geographic, ecological, behavioral, temporal, and mechanical. Post-zygotic includes hybrid sterility, hybrid inviability, zygote mortality
Any resource that is short in supply and it restricts a niche of a species ex: food, water, space.
A permanent change of the nucleotide sequence of the genome of an organism, virus, or extrachromosomal genetic element. Can result from unrepaired damage to DNA or to RNA genomes (typically caused by radiation or chemical mutagens), errors in the process of replication, or from the insertion or deletion of single nucleotides or segments of DNA.
An process, proposed by Charles Darwin as a mechanism to explain evolution, in which individuals that possess particular characteristics survive or reproduce at a higher rate (have higher fitness) than other individuals because of those characteristics.
group that serves as a comparison group when determining the evolutionary relationship among three or more monophyletic groups of organisms
Observable physical characteristics, which result from both genetic and environmental influences on the genome of an organism
A chart showing evolutionary relationships as determined by evolutionary systematics. It contains a time component and implies ancestor-descendant relationships.
A group of organisms of the same species living in the same area at the same time, and which are capable of interbreeding.
Collections of abiotically created molecules that direct chemical reactions and are often self-sustaining, and are encapsulated within a membrane.
Situation that applies in population when all possible mating are as equally likely to occur, in contrast to non random or assortative mating.
The existence of biological factors (barriers) or geographic barriers that impede members of a species from producing viable, fertile hybrids.
A hypothesis for the origin of eukaryotes consisting of a sequence of endosymbiotic events in which mitochondria, chloroplasts, and perhaps other cellular structures were derived from small prokaryotes that had been engulfed by larger cells.
Natural selection arising through preference by one sex for certain characteristics in individuals of the other sex.
An ancestral form of an organism begins to accumulate genetic changes. Natural selection leads to changes that are significant enough that the species will look slightly different, but will still be able to mate successfully with adjacent populations. Changes continue to occur, and over time, the mating success between the populations will decrease and changes will increase until they will no longer reproduce with the ancestral species.
A group of organisms that are more closely related to one another than to organisms of any other kind. It is the basic units of biological classification and a taxonomic rank. There are many ways to identify species, e.g., one based on observable traits (see phonetic species), one based on mating experiment (see biological species), and one based on DNA sequence data.
A form of natural selection when individuals at the middle of a phenotypic distributive curve have higher fitness than individuals in the at the other end of the curve
Inability to produce offspring
The formation of a new species as a result of a genetic change that produces a reproductive barrier between the changed population (mutants) and the parent population. No geographic barrier is present.
A difference or deviation. A modification in structure, form or function in an organism, deviating from other organisms of the same species or group as a result of changes in an organisms genetic code.
Organs that are believed to have been functional in an ancestor but are reduced and nonfunctional in a descendant.
(of living things) capable of normal growth and development
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