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Chapters 1-4 Biology

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7 Principles of Living things
Organized, Acquire Materials and Energy, Reproduce, Respond to Stimuli, Homeostatic, Grow and Develop, and Adapt
Domains
Largest classification category. There are three: Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya
Kingdoms
Second largest classification category. Includes Protists, Fungi, Plants, and Animals
Biodiversity
Encompasses the total number of species, the variability of their genes, and the ecosystems in which they live.
Properties of Water
High heat of vaporization, facilitates chemical reactions, large surface tension, less dense as a solid, high heat capacity, hydrophilic
Acids
Substances that dissociate in water, releasing hydrogen ions
Bases
Substances that either take up hydrogen ions or release hydroxide ions
pH Scale
Used to indicate the acidity or basicity of solutions.
Buffer
Chemical or combination of chemicals that keep pH levels within normal limits.
Organic Molecules
Always have Carbon and Hydrogen in them
Monomer
Simple organic molecule that exists individually or can link with others of it's kind to form polymers
Dehydration and Hydrolysis reactions
Interconnect monomers and polymers
Carbohydrates
Function for quick fuel and short-term energy storage. 1-2-1 ratio of Hydrogen to carbon to oxygen.
Polysaccharides
Long polymers like starch, glycogen, and cellulose
Starch and Glycogen
Storage forms of glucose in plants and animals
Cellulose
Polysaccharide found in plant cell walls
Lipids
Energy storage and insulation.
Fats
Solid at room temperature and of animal origin
Oils
Liquid at room temperature and plant origin
Emulsification
Things used to mix fats with water
Phospholipids
Contain a phosphate grop. Primary components of cellular membranes
Steroids
Backbone of four fused carbon rings
Proteins
Polymers with amino acid monomers. Differ by their R groups. Include enzymes.
Peptides
Bond that joins any two amino acids
Primary Structure
Linear order of amino acids
Secondary Structure
Alpha helices or beta pleated sheet
Tertiary Structure
Globular Shape
Quaternary Structure
More than one polypeptide chain
Nucleic Acids
DNA and RNA. Has nucleotides that have a phosphate, pentose sugar, and a nitrogen containing base.
DNA
Double stranded with a helix
RNA
single stranded no helix.
ATP
Energy carrier in cells
Eukaryotic Cells
Structurally very complex. Multi cellular.
Prokaryotic
Unicellular cells that lack a membrane bounded nucleus.
Plasma Membrane
Surrounded by a plasma membrane composed of a phospholipid bilayer with embedded proteins. Semipermeable, meaning it let's some shit in, but keeps some shit out
Cell Walls
Plant cells have a protective layer known as the cell wall. Only Eukaryotic
Nucleus
Stores genetic material that governs the characteristics of the cell and its metabolic functioning. Chromatin consists of DNA and associated proteins.
Ribosomes
Small organelles where protein synthesis occurs.
ER
Complicated system that is responsible for synthesis, processing, and modification of proteins
Golgi Apparatus
Collects, sorts, packages, and distributes materials such as proteins and lipids
Lysosomes
Contain hydrolytic digestive enzymes
Vacuoles
Large membranous sac that is larger than a vesicle. These store substances
Peroxisomes
Membrane bounded vesicles that enclose enzymes.
Chloroplasts
Only in plant cells, allow plants to photosynthesize
Mitochondria
Energy creating organelles
Cytoskeleten
Protein components maintain cell shape and allow the cell and its organelles to move
Evolution into Eukaryotic
First cells were prokaryotes. Eukaryotic cells evolved form prokaryotic cells in a particular manner. Known as the endosymbiotic theory.
Channel Proteins
Allow substances to simply move across the membrane
Carrier proteins
Combine with a substance and move it across the membrane
Cell Recognition proteins
Glycoproteins that help the body recognize self
Receptor Proteins
Shape that allows a specific molecule to bind to it. Causes the protein to change its shape and bring about a cellular response
Enzymatic Proteins
Proteins that get shit done.
Diffusion
Movement of molecules from higher to lower concentration until there is an equilibrium reached
Osmosis
Diffusion of water across a differentially permeable membrane due to concentration differences.
Isotonic Solution
Solute concentration and water concentration both inside and outside are equal
Hypotonic Solution
Lower concentration of solute outside than inside, so water flows into the cell, causing it to burst unless there is a cell wall
Hypertonic Solution
Higher percentage of solute outside the cell than inside, so water flows out
Facilitated Transport
Specific carrier proteins are required, but does not require an expenditure of energy because the molecules are moving down their concentration gradient
Active Trasnport
Both carrier proteins and expenditure of energy are required because molecules are being transported against the concentration gradient
Exocytosis
Vesicle fuses with the plasma membrane to get shit out
Endocytosis
Vesicle formation to get shit in
Phagocytosis
If the incoming material is large, then the process is called phagocytosis
Pinocytosis
Vesicles form around a liquid or around very small particles
Receptor Mediated
Pinocytosis that is specific because it uses a receptor protein found within coated pits on the plasma membrane