Chapters 1-4 Biology
7 Principles of Living things
Organized, Acquire Materials and Energy, Reproduce, Respond to Stimuli, Homeostatic, Grow and Develop, and Adapt
Largest classification category. There are three: Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya
Second largest classification category. Includes Protists, Fungi, Plants, and Animals
Encompasses the total number of species, the variability of their genes, and the ecosystems in which they live.
Properties of Water
High heat of vaporization, facilitates chemical reactions, large surface tension, less dense as a solid, high heat capacity, hydrophilic
Substances that dissociate in water, releasing hydrogen ions
Substances that either take up hydrogen ions or release hydroxide ions
Used to indicate the acidity or basicity of solutions.
Chemical or combination of chemicals that keep pH levels within normal limits.
Always have Carbon and Hydrogen in them
Simple organic molecule that exists individually or can link with others of it's kind to form polymers
Dehydration and Hydrolysis reactions
Interconnect monomers and polymers
Function for quick fuel and short-term energy storage. 1-2-1 ratio of Hydrogen to carbon to oxygen.
Long polymers like starch, glycogen, and cellulose
Starch and Glycogen
Storage forms of glucose in plants and animals
Polysaccharide found in plant cell walls
Energy storage and insulation.
Solid at room temperature and of animal origin
Liquid at room temperature and plant origin
Things used to mix fats with water
Contain a phosphate grop. Primary components of cellular membranes
Backbone of four fused carbon rings
Polymers with amino acid monomers. Differ by their R groups. Include enzymes.
Bond that joins any two amino acids
Linear order of amino acids
Alpha helices or beta pleated sheet
More than one polypeptide chain
DNA and RNA. Has nucleotides that have a phosphate, pentose sugar, and a nitrogen containing base.
Double stranded with a helix
single stranded no helix.
Energy carrier in cells
Structurally very complex. Multi cellular.
Unicellular cells that lack a membrane bounded nucleus.
Surrounded by a plasma membrane composed of a phospholipid bilayer with embedded proteins. Semipermeable, meaning it let's some shit in, but keeps some shit out
Plant cells have a protective layer known as the cell wall. Only Eukaryotic
Stores genetic material that governs the characteristics of the cell and its metabolic functioning. Chromatin consists of DNA and associated proteins.
Small organelles where protein synthesis occurs.
Complicated system that is responsible for synthesis, processing, and modification of proteins
Collects, sorts, packages, and distributes materials such as proteins and lipids
Contain hydrolytic digestive enzymes
Large membranous sac that is larger than a vesicle. These store substances
Membrane bounded vesicles that enclose enzymes.
Only in plant cells, allow plants to photosynthesize
Energy creating organelles
Protein components maintain cell shape and allow the cell and its organelles to move
Evolution into Eukaryotic
First cells were prokaryotes. Eukaryotic cells evolved form prokaryotic cells in a particular manner. Known as the endosymbiotic theory.
Allow substances to simply move across the membrane
Combine with a substance and move it across the membrane
Cell Recognition proteins
Glycoproteins that help the body recognize self
Shape that allows a specific molecule to bind to it. Causes the protein to change its shape and bring about a cellular response
Proteins that get shit done.
Movement of molecules from higher to lower concentration until there is an equilibrium reached
Diffusion of water across a differentially permeable membrane due to concentration differences.
Solute concentration and water concentration both inside and outside are equal
Lower concentration of solute outside than inside, so water flows into the cell, causing it to burst unless there is a cell wall
Higher percentage of solute outside the cell than inside, so water flows out
Specific carrier proteins are required, but does not require an expenditure of energy because the molecules are moving down their concentration gradient
Both carrier proteins and expenditure of energy are required because molecules are being transported against the concentration gradient
Vesicle fuses with the plasma membrane to get shit out
Vesicle formation to get shit in
If the incoming material is large, then the process is called phagocytosis
Vesicles form around a liquid or around very small particles
Pinocytosis that is specific because it uses a receptor protein found within coated pits on the plasma membrane
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