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Final Exam Review 20-21
Terms in this set (100)
the very slow, ongoing natural process in which the organisms best suited for their environment survive to reproduce and carry on their species.
the theory that species gradually change over time, through random variations that improve the chances of certain individuals to survive and reproduce.
a quality or characteristic that makes one organism different from another.
crossing carefully chosen plants or animals to produce offspring with certain desirable traits. (Also known as artificial selection.)
the changing of genes in a laboratory to produce a particular trait in an organism.
an animal, plant, or microbe whose DNA has been altered using genetic engineering techniques.
a small piece of DNA that codes for a protein.
the whole amount of code in an organism's DNA.
a change in genes that produces a trait in an animal or plant that did not appear in its parents.
the difference in genome between individuals in a population. Caused by mutations.
a structure or behavior that helps an organism survive in its environment.
Survival of fittest
the continued existence of organisms which are best adapted to their environment, with the extinction of others that are not well adapted to their environment.
a medicine that can kill or slow the growth of bacteria.
Animals cannot "choose" to adapt. Adaptations are caused by pressures in their environment selecting for certain traits or behaviors
Something VERY important to remember about adaptation.
Natural Selective Pressures (Competition, Weather Events, Food shortages, etc.)
Causes of NATURAL SELECTION
Green and brown beetles exist. Green beetles tend to get eaten by birds and reproduce less than brown beetles. Brown beetles pass their advantageous traits down to offspring and the population favors the brown beetles.
BEETLE example of NATURAL SELECTION
Brown and tan mice live in an area where the rocks are very dark. Tan mice are more visible to predatory birds and are eaten more. Only surviving mice will reach maturity and reproduce. Because the black mice had a higher chance of survival and reproducing, the following generations contain more black mice.
MICE example of NATURAL SELECTION
Humans choose what "best" traits are and which ones will be passed on
Causes of ARTIFICIAL SELECTION
Dogs being bred for certain traits, such as: Golden Retrievers: First bred in Scotland to retrieve fowl
DOG example of ARTIFICIAL SELECTION
Watermelon being selected and bred to be sweeter, bigger, and grown in more areas.
WATERMELON example of ARTIFICIAL SELECTION
Human Interference (NATURAL SELECTION)
Humans can have an indirect effect on NATURAL SELECTION, by changing habitats, impacting the climate, or affecting organism survival in direct and indirect ways.
Human Interference (ARTIFICIAL SELECTION)
When humans control which desirable traits will be passed on from generation to generation, such as through selective breeding or genetic modification.
When bacteria are exposed to an antibiotic initially, they will die. However, some bacteria can develop a genetic mutation, or change. This change allows them to survive and multiply even after being exposed to an antibiotic.
Adaptation and Climate Change example
Like most butterflies, monarchs are highly sensitive to weather and climate: They depend on environmental cues (temperature in particular) to trigger reproduction, migration, and hibernation.
Their dependence on milkweed alone as a host plant is a further vulnerability, as milkweed (monarch's preferred food) is declining throughout the monarch range due to climate change.
Crops that are more durable for shipping/transport, more resistant to pests, more drought resistant, can be bigger & produce larger edible parts, can be cheaper to grow, and can look and taste better than traditional plants used for food
Positives of GMO foods
Crops can possibly cause allergic reactions in some people, can promote the use of environmentally damaging weed killers, and some information is not yet known about their long term health effects, as it is still a relatively new technology
Negatives of GMO foods
Where Earth's water is likely to have come from.
combustion, photosynthesis, and respiration
THREE processes work together to keep the water on Earth at EQUILIBRIUM.
Evaporation (water cycle)
Liquid water on Earth's surface changes into a gas from the Sun's energy.
Condensation (water cycle)
Gas water molecules get closer and form tiny droplets in clouds.
Precipitation (water cycle)
Liquid water (rain) or solid water (snow) falls back to Earth's surface.
Runoff (water cycle)
Some water travels over the surface into streams, rivers, lakes and the ocean.
Infiltration (water cycle)
Some water soaks into the ground and is stored.
During evaporation, the water is evaporated, while the salt is not. In addition, during infiltration, as the water passes through layers of rock and sand, it is cleaned and can then be accessed from underground.
Two ways that the water cycle "cleans" water and makes it usable freshwater.
97 - 98% (a lot)
How much (what percent) of the water on Earth is unusable.
2.5% (very little)
What percent of Earth's water is usable or freshwater.
Where a lot of Earth's freshwater is locked up in and makes it inaccessible for use.
Natural variation in rainfall and temperatures
Change in usage for agricultural and domestic purposes (toilets, showers, pools, watering lawns...)
Factors that change water's locations and accessibility over time on Earth.
As an area is more populated, more people will be using the water for hand washing, drinking, toilet, etc.
Businesses will also most likely pop up with more frequency and they will use more water too
Connection between population and water use.
Along plate boundaries with volcanic activity
Where deposits of minerals (examples: copper, gold) are found on Earth.
Two ways humans change Earth's land.
Burning fossil fuels
Cutting down trees that photosynthesize (deforestation)
Two ways humans change Earth's air.
Energy sources powered by the Sun.
Fossils from ancient ocean life.
What fossil fuels formed from.
Physical material that humans need and value
A resource that can be easily replaced by natural cycles or can never be used up
Meeting the needs of a community, or a population, without compromising the ability of other communities, or future generations to meet their needs.
All life on Earth, as well as the nonliving elements that support life (like sunlight and water)
The process that causes an organism to no longer have any living examples on Earth
Something of value, use, or need that cannot be renewed or replaced by natural cycles or good management
refers to short term atmospheric conditions (ex:sunny, cloudy, rainy)
the weather of a specific region averaged over a long period of time
A process that occurs when gases in Earth's atmosphere trap the Sun's heat, making the Earth warmer.
positive of greenhouse effect
It keeps the Earth warm enough to support life.
negative of greenhouse effect
When there are too many greenhouse gases, the Earth can get TOO warm.
connection between human population and climate change
As the human population on Earth is increasing, the average temperature is also increasing (due to human activity.)
A change in the AVERAGE conditions -such as temperature and rainfall- in a region over a long period of time.
TWO things humans are doing that influence climate change
Burning fossil fuels, clearing land/forests for agriculture
what does burning fossil fuels create?
creates carbon dioxide (greenhouse gas)
why is burning fossil fuels a problem?
the gases created from the burning trap the sun's heat and make the Earth warmer.
Melting glaciers or polar ice caps, increasing severity and frequency of natural disasters, unpredictable weather, rising sea levels, rising temperatures
effects on Earth that show that Earth's climate is changing
Measuring growth rings in trees, studying sediment cores from under lakes and oceans, ice cores, satellite measurements of temperature and CO2 (relatively recent history), Land-based measurements of temperature and rainfall (last few hundred years)
ways to measure Earth's past climate
A natural event or force that causes damage to property or loss of life.
Floods, earthquakes, hurricanes, droughts, wildfires, tornadoes, landslides, volcanic eruptions, tsunamis, snowstorms, severe thunderstorms, nor'easters
examples of natural disasters
Floods, hurricanes, droughts, wildfires, tornadoes, landslides, snowstorms, severe thunderstorms, nor'easters
natural disasters that are caused by weather
cause of hurricanes
Warm ocean water, strong winds
cause of earthquakes
Movement of Earth's tectonic plates
cause of wildfires
Dry plants, warm weather, droughts, wind
cause of flooding
Low lying areas, big storms, hurricanes, sea level rise
cause of tsunamis
Underwater earthquake/ moving tectonic plates
predictability of earthquakes
we know WHERE they will happen (along tectonic plate boundaries and faults). We cannot know exactly WHEN they will happen.
Build stronger buildings, set up early warning systems, earthquake plan
predictability of flooding
we can know where it is likely to happen by tracking the weather and know when damaging storms are coming a few days in advance.
Not build in low-lying areas. Build levees, dams and sea walls. Build or protect sand dunes. Put houses on stilts. Slow down climate change (limit sea level rise and slow down the warming of oceans.)
The amount of movement of the particles that make up a substance. Also called "heat"
Not really a thing. Just a way of saying less thermal/heat energy
Is heat matter?
Heat is energy, not matter - it does not have atoms, mass, or volume
Hotter matter to colder matter
The direction or way that thermal energy/heat moves
When thermal energy/heat STOPS moving, when the substances are the SAME temperature
Definition of conduction
Transfer of thermal energy due to direct contact. The thermal energy is PASSED directly from molecule to molecule.
Definition of convection
Transfer of thermal energy through currents in a fluid. The thermal energy is CARRIED by moving molecules of liquid or gas.
Definition of radiation
Thermal energy transfer via electromagnetic waves, the thermal energy "JUMPS" from source to destination NO MATTER needed.
CLASSIFY TYPE of TRANSFER: Shirt being pressed by a hot iron
Conduction because the shirt and the iron are in direct contact. The thermal energy is passed from the molecules of the iron to the molecules of the shirt.
CLASSIFY TYPE of TRANSFER: Feeling the heat of a campfire while sitting far away from it
RADIATION because the thermal energy "jumps" from the fire to you via EM waves without the need for matter.
CLASSIFY TYPE of TRANSFER: Heated goo (liquid) in a lava lamps rises while the cooler goo (liquid) sinks in a cool swirly pattern
CONVECTION because the thermal energy is carried by the moving goo (liquid) molecules in a current of a fluid.
CLASSIFY TYPE of TRANSFER: A cat sits on a shelf above the stove to stay warm.
CONVECTION because the air molecules are warmed by the stove, rise to where the cat is sitting and then sink back down as they cool (current in fluid - air).
CLASSIFY TYPE of TRANSFER: On a hot, sunny August day, your Dad gets a sunburn out by the pool
RADIATION because the thermal energy "jumps" from the Sun to your Dad via EM waves, without the need for matter.
CLASSIFY TYPE of TRANSFER: Using pot holders to pull a pan out of the hot oven
CONDUCTION because the pot holders slow/prevent the thermal energy transfer due to direct contact of your hand to the pan, thermal energy is passed more slowly from the molecules of the pan to the pot holder to your hand.
CLASSIFY TYPE of TRANSFER: A pool heater causes the water near the surface of the pool to be warmer on a cloudy day
CONVECTION because the thermal energy is carried by the water molecules that rise toward the surface of the pool as they are heated and sink back to the bottom of the pool as they cool (current in fluid - water).
CLASSIFY TYPE of TRANSFER: A huge rock is warmed by the Sun
RADIATION because the thermal energy "jumps" from the Sun to the rock via EM waves without the need for matter.
CLASSIFY TYPE of TRANSFER: A piece of hair is curled by a hot curling iron
CONDUCTION because there is thermal energy transfer due to direct contact from the curling iron to the hair. The thermal energy is passed from the molecules of the curling iron to the molecules of the hair.
CLASSIFY TYPE of TRANSFER: The vinyl siding on a house is melted/warped by a house fire across the street
RADIATION because the thermal energy "jumps" from the one house to the other via EM waves without the need for matter.
Definition of an insulator
Type of matter that blocks or reduces the flow of heat energy.
These are specific examples of insulating materials. They reduce or block the flow of heat energy.
Definition of conductor
Type of matter that allows heat energy to pass through it easily.
These are specific kinds of conductors because they allow heat to pass through easily.
Why metal objects feel "cold" to us when we touch them with our hand
The thermal energy is transferred from our hand (the hotter matter) to the metal object (colder matter) easily since the metal is a conductor.
When thermal energy increases
The speed of the atoms/molecules of a substances increases.
When water vapor condenses into liquid water, then freezes into solid ice
Particles slow down in speed and get closer together in arrangement.
Relationship (link) between thermal energy and temperature
As thermal energy increases, the molecules/atoms move more quickly, and the temperature of an object increases.
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