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ingestion of foreign material or cell debris by white blood cells (a bacterial capsule can provide some protection)
cells which are required to process and present antigens from foreign material as the initial step in the immune response.
assumes that all body fluids from all individuals are possible sources of infection
Spreading of a malignant tumor (e.g. malignant brain tumors often spread to other parts of the CNS)
the process causing cancer, usually results when there is an irreversible change in DNA
contains a protein coat and DNA or RNA, uses a host cell to reproduce, is stopped by antiviral drugs which reduce the rate of viral replication
for example, systemic signs can include fever
Manifestations of disease are the signs and symptoms of disease
some with more promising prognoses (flu), others with less promising prognoses (cancer or malignant neoplasm).
There are many diseases
can be taken to reduce the risk of disease (e.g. maintaining a healthy weight)
There are several lines of defense (skin is in the first line, tears are in the first line, both are
also functions to keep the body healthy, and is precipitated by tissue injury
The inflammatory response
The events surrounding inflammation are: (5)
transient vasoconstriction, dilation of blood vessels, hyperemia, increased permeability of blood vessels, migration of leukocytes to the area
During an inflammatory response, _____ are released and increased blood flow causes heat and redness.
chemical mediators (including histamines and prostaglandins)
, results from increased fluid and protein in the compartments between cells
Edema, or tissue swelling
are used to treat inflammation because they decrease the permeability of capillaries
When the body develops a fever, the mechanisms to bring elevated body temperature down to the normal level include
general cutaneous vasodilation.
After a burn occurs, ____ often occurs because microbes survive in hair follicles of the burned area
In order to increase phagocytosis during an infection, the number of _____ is increased
neutrophils (phagocytotic cells)
The immune system has ____ which support the immune response by recognizing certain antigens
can be administered to allow the body to make memory cells
vaccine (weakened or dead form of the pathogen)
can result when the immune system experiences a severe, systemic allergic reaction resulting in broncho-constriction and systemic vasodilation
can be transmitted by blood, bodily fluids including semen and vaginal secretions, and breast milk
Drugs like ____ act by interfering with cell wall synthesis, thereby reducing the microbial population
Most common antibody in the blood; produced in both primary and secondary immune responses, crosses placenta to give newborn passive immunity
Bound to B lymphocytes in circulation and is usually the first to increase in the immune response, forms natural antibodies
Binds to mast cells in skin and mucous membranes, when linked to an allergen, causes release of histamine and other chemicals which result in inflammation
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