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65 terms

Pathophysiology Study Guide 1

STUDY
PLAY
the study of the causes of a disease
Etiology
a tissue in which the cells vary in size and shape
Dysplasia
when a group of cells in the body dies
Necrosis
wasting of skeletal muscle
Atrophy
ingestion of foreign material or cell debris by white blood cells (a bacterial capsule can provide some protection)
Phagocytosis
significant change in the proportion of one type of WBC
Leukocytosis
replacement of damaged tissue by similar cells
Regeneration
cells which are required to process and present antigens from foreign material as the initial step in the immune response.
Macrophage
involved in humoral immunity
B Lymphocytes
transplant rejection by the recipient's immune system
Host-vs.-Graft disease
thrives in the absence of oxygen
Anaerobe
change in the genetic information of a microbe
Microbial mutation
infection acquired in a hospital or medical facility
Nosocomial infection
a healthy person whose body harbors pathogens and can transmit them to others
Carrier
assumes that all body fluids from all individuals are possible sources of infection
Universal Precautions
time between entry of the pathogen into the body and the first signs of illness
Incubation period
benign neoplasm originating from adipose tissue
Lipoma
malignant neoplasms arising from connective tissue
Sarcoma
Spreading of a malignant tumor (e.g. malignant brain tumors often spread to other parts of the CNS)
Metastasis
the process causing cancer, usually results when there is an irreversible change in DNA
Carcinogenesis
when a body is unable to maintain homeostasis
Disease is
contains a protein coat and DNA or RNA, uses a host cell to reproduce, is stopped by antiviral drugs which reduce the rate of viral replication
viruses
caused by various factors including microorganisms (viruses & bacteria)
Disease can be
for example, systemic signs can include fever
Manifestations of disease are the signs and symptoms of disease
given once a disease is diagnosed which indicates the predicted outcome of recover
prognosis
some with more promising prognoses (flu), others with less promising prognoses (cancer or malignant neoplasm).
There are many diseases
can be taken to reduce the risk of disease (e.g. maintaining a healthy weight)
Preventative measures
can cause a sudden acute episode of a chronic disease.
Precipitating factors
There are several lines of defense (skin is in the first line, tears are in the first line, both are
non specific
also functions to keep the body healthy, and is precipitated by tissue injury
The inflammatory response
The events surrounding inflammation are: (5)
transient vasoconstriction, dilation of blood vessels, hyperemia, increased permeability of blood vessels, migration of leukocytes to the area
During an inflammatory response, _____ are released and increased blood flow causes heat and redness.
chemical mediators (including histamines and prostaglandins)
works to localize and contain foreign material during an inflammatory response
Fibrinogen
, results from increased fluid and protein in the compartments between cells
Edema, or tissue swelling
are used to treat inflammation because they decrease the permeability of capillaries
Glucocorticoids
effective because it causes local vasoconstriction (narrowing of the blood vessels)
Ice
include prednisone, aspirin, and ibuprofen
Other drugs
When the body develops a fever, the mechanisms to bring elevated body temperature down to the normal level include
general cutaneous vasodilation.
After an injury occurs, a scar often forms, made mainly of
collagen fibers
can vary in severity
Burn injuries
After a burn occurs, ____ often occurs because microbes survive in hair follicles of the burned area
infection
can also result because fluid and protein shift out of the vascular system
Lowered blood pressure
are produced from mast cell membranes and cause vasodilation
Prostaglandins
In order to increase phagocytosis during an infection, the number of _____ is increased
neutrophils (phagocytotic cells)
The immune system has ____ which support the immune response by recognizing certain antigens
memory cells
can be administered to allow the body to make memory cells
vaccine (weakened or dead form of the pathogen)
can result when the immune system experiences a severe, systemic allergic reaction resulting in broncho-constriction and systemic vasodilation
Anaphylaxis
fight against "self" cells
Autoimmune diseases
a virus that attacks the immune system and causes AIDS.
HIV
A diagnosis of HIV ____ means that the virus and its antibodies are in the blood
positive
affects both humoral and cell-mediated immunity
HIV
can be transmitted by blood, bodily fluids including semen and vaginal secretions, and breast milk
HIV
When the body's immune system is compromised, ____ infections can occur
opportunistic
Clinical signs of ____ appear when the microbial colony is large enough to damage a host
infection
Drugs like ____ act by interfering with cell wall synthesis, thereby reducing the microbial population
penicillin
All types of microorganisms can be killed with proper use of
autoclaves
Tissue transferred between members of the same species but may differ genetically
Allograft
Tissue transferred between two genetically identical bodies (eg. Identical twins)
Isograft
Tissue transferred from one part of the body to another part on the same body
Autograft
Tissue transferred from a member of one species to a different species
Xenograft
Most common antibody in the blood; produced in both primary and secondary immune responses, crosses placenta to give newborn passive immunity
IgG
Bound to B lymphocytes in circulation and is usually the first to increase in the immune response, forms natural antibodies
IgM
Found in secretions such as tears and saliva, found in colostrum
IgA
Binds to mast cells in skin and mucous membranes, when linked to an allergen, causes release of histamine and other chemicals which result in inflammation
IgE
Attached to B cells, activates B cells
IgD