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the study of the causes of a disease


a tissue in which the cells vary in size and shape


when a group of cells in the body dies


wasting of skeletal muscle


ingestion of foreign material or cell debris by white blood cells (a bacterial capsule can provide some protection)


significant change in the proportion of one type of WBC


replacement of damaged tissue by similar cells


cells which are required to process and present antigens from foreign material as the initial step in the immune response.


involved in humoral immunity

B Lymphocytes

transplant rejection by the recipient's immune system

Host-vs.-Graft disease

thrives in the absence of oxygen


change in the genetic information of a microbe

Microbial mutation

infection acquired in a hospital or medical facility

Nosocomial infection

a healthy person whose body harbors pathogens and can transmit them to others


assumes that all body fluids from all individuals are possible sources of infection

Universal Precautions

time between entry of the pathogen into the body and the first signs of illness

Incubation period

benign neoplasm originating from adipose tissue


malignant neoplasms arising from connective tissue


Spreading of a malignant tumor (e.g. malignant brain tumors often spread to other parts of the CNS)


the process causing cancer, usually results when there is an irreversible change in DNA


when a body is unable to maintain homeostasis

Disease is

contains a protein coat and DNA or RNA, uses a host cell to reproduce, is stopped by antiviral drugs which reduce the rate of viral replication


caused by various factors including microorganisms (viruses & bacteria)

Disease can be

for example, systemic signs can include fever

Manifestations of disease are the signs and symptoms of disease

given once a disease is diagnosed which indicates the predicted outcome of recover


some with more promising prognoses (flu), others with less promising prognoses (cancer or malignant neoplasm).

There are many diseases

can be taken to reduce the risk of disease (e.g. maintaining a healthy weight)

Preventative measures

can cause a sudden acute episode of a chronic disease.

Precipitating factors

There are several lines of defense (skin is in the first line, tears are in the first line, both are

non specific

also functions to keep the body healthy, and is precipitated by tissue injury

The inflammatory response

The events surrounding inflammation are: (5)

transient vasoconstriction, dilation of blood vessels, hyperemia, increased permeability of blood vessels, migration of leukocytes to the area

During an inflammatory response, _____ are released and increased blood flow causes heat and redness.

chemical mediators (including histamines and prostaglandins)

works to localize and contain foreign material during an inflammatory response


, results from increased fluid and protein in the compartments between cells

Edema, or tissue swelling

are used to treat inflammation because they decrease the permeability of capillaries


effective because it causes local vasoconstriction (narrowing of the blood vessels)


include prednisone, aspirin, and ibuprofen

Other drugs

When the body develops a fever, the mechanisms to bring elevated body temperature down to the normal level include

general cutaneous vasodilation.

After an injury occurs, a scar often forms, made mainly of

collagen fibers

can vary in severity

Burn injuries

After a burn occurs, ____ often occurs because microbes survive in hair follicles of the burned area


can also result because fluid and protein shift out of the vascular system

Lowered blood pressure

are produced from mast cell membranes and cause vasodilation


In order to increase phagocytosis during an infection, the number of _____ is increased

neutrophils (phagocytotic cells)

The immune system has ____ which support the immune response by recognizing certain antigens

memory cells

can be administered to allow the body to make memory cells

vaccine (weakened or dead form of the pathogen)

can result when the immune system experiences a severe, systemic allergic reaction resulting in broncho-constriction and systemic vasodilation


fight against "self" cells

Autoimmune diseases

a virus that attacks the immune system and causes AIDS.


A diagnosis of HIV ____ means that the virus and its antibodies are in the blood


affects both humoral and cell-mediated immunity


can be transmitted by blood, bodily fluids including semen and vaginal secretions, and breast milk


When the body's immune system is compromised, ____ infections can occur


Clinical signs of ____ appear when the microbial colony is large enough to damage a host


Drugs like ____ act by interfering with cell wall synthesis, thereby reducing the microbial population


All types of microorganisms can be killed with proper use of


Tissue transferred between members of the same species but may differ genetically


Tissue transferred between two genetically identical bodies (eg. Identical twins)


Tissue transferred from one part of the body to another part on the same body


Tissue transferred from a member of one species to a different species


Most common antibody in the blood; produced in both primary and secondary immune responses, crosses placenta to give newborn passive immunity


Bound to B lymphocytes in circulation and is usually the first to increase in the immune response, forms natural antibodies


Found in secretions such as tears and saliva, found in colostrum


Binds to mast cells in skin and mucous membranes, when linked to an allergen, causes release of histamine and other chemicals which result in inflammation


Attached to B cells, activates B cells


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