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Rubenstein Chapter 8 Vocabulary

Terms in this set (44)

Multinational states: Challenges in coexisting nationalities. Ex: Russia, Nigeria, USA, ...
from the 1940's the world contained about 50 countries, but it had 192 members of the United Nations. A state is an area organized into a political unit and ruled by government and has control over internal and foreign affairs. There is a disagreement about the actual number of sovereign states: Korea, China, Western Sahara( Sahrawi Rep)
Korea: Colony of Japan,
Divided into occupation zones(2), by the US and the Soviet Union after they defeated Japan in World War 2. North Korea and South Korea admitted into the UN as separate countries
Cyprus Green line boundary: Cyprus, the third largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, contains two nationalities: Greek and Turkish. When Cyprus gained independence from Britain in 1960, its constitution guaranteed the Turkish minority a substantial share of elected offices and control over its own education, religion, and culture. But Cyprus never peacefully integrated the Greek and Turkish nationalities, in 1974 several Greek Cypriot military officers who favored unification of Cyprus with Greece seized control of the government. Turkey invaded Cyprus to protect the Turkish Cypriot minority. The Turkish sector declared itself the independent Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus in 1983, but only Turkey recognizes it as a separate state. A wall was constructed as a buffer zone and is patrolled by the UN was delineated across the entire island, geographically isolating the two nationalities.
Stateless nations: Example would be the Kurdish people, who used to have their own state near Turkey but they were invaded and pushed out and were left without any territory to call a state. Also Roma people are scattered all across Europe, most of them that live in Belgium are not even recognized as a nationality most technically do not exists as citizens there. The children that go to school in Belgium have to go to "special classes" and are treated like primitive people because they speak a different language and have no official state.
The shape of states affect potential for communication and conflict with neighbors, can influence the easy or difficulty of internal administration, and can affect social unity.
There are two types of boundaries, physical and cultural
Physical boundaries: consists of three types of physical elements which serve as boundaries between states: Mountain, Desert, and Oceans.
Advantages:
Desert boundaries: hard to cross, and sparsely inhabited, common in Africa and Asia,
Mountain Boundaries: Effective for boundaries because they are difficult to cross because they are sparsely inhabited.
Water Boundaries: Which are rivers, lakes, and Oceans. are especially common in East Africa,

Cultural Boundaries:
Two main, geometric( simple straight line drawn on a map), and ethnic( Language and religion).
Geometric: northern US boundary with Canada: 49 North Latitude. established in 1846, Also Alaska and the Yukon, territory at 14 West Longitude, and Chad and Libya,
Religious boundaries: religious differences often coincide with the boundaries between states.The most notable religious boundary is in South Asia, when the British partition India into two states on the basis of religion. Same with the island of Erie in Ireland. Language Boundary: Cyrpus Greece and Turkey

Disadvantage:
Mountain: they do not always provide amicable separation of neighbors( Argentina and Chile) Which agreed to divide by the crest of the Andes Mountains, but couldn't come up with a precise location.
Water Boundaries: They may seem permanent, but the precise position of the water may change over time, rivers in particular. Ocean boundaries, cause problems because states usually claim that the boundary line is not usually on the coast line, but out at sea.( reason are for defense and for control of valuable fishing industries)
Cultural boundaries