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Rubenstein Chapter 8 Vocabulary
Terms in this set (44)
Balance of Power
Condition of roughly equal strength between opposing countries or alliances of countries
A meeting from 1884-1885 at which representatives of European nations agreed on rules colonization of Africa
Invisible line that marks the extent of a state's territory
The most important city or town of a country or region, usually its seat of government and administrative center
A sovereign state comprising a city and its immediate hinterland (area surrounding port)
Government divisions that divide citizens
Attempt by one country to establish settlements and to impose its political, economic, and cultural principles in another territory.
A territory that is legally tied to a sovereign state rather than completely independent (and for the benefit of the sovereign state)
A state in which the distance from the center to any boundary does not vary significantly
Processes that incorporate higher levels of education, higher salaries, and more technology; generate more wealth than periphery processes in the world-economy
A process of transition as a country attempts to move from an authoritarian form of government to a democratic one
The process whereby regions within a state demand and gain political strength and growing autonomy at the expense of the central government; the transfer of powers and responsibilities from the federal government to the states
A state with a long, narrow shape
Under the law of the sea, an Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) is a seazone over which a state has special rights over the exploration and use of marine resources
A state that includes several discontinuous pieces of territory
An internal organization of a state that allocates most powers to units of local government
A zone separating two states in which neither state exercises political control
The portion of the Oceans considered common territory, not under any kind of exclusive state jurisdiction
Process of redrawing legislative boundaries for the purpose of benefiting the party in power
Control of territory already occupied and organized by an indigenous society
The policy of a state wishing to incorporate within itself territory inhabited by people who have ethnic or linguistic links with the country but that lies within a neighboring state
A state that does not have a direct outlet to the sea
A state that encompasses a very small land area
State that contains two or more ethnic groups with traditions of self-determination that agree to coexist peacefully by recognizing each other as distinct nationalities
A state that completely surrounds another one ex: South Africa
An otherwise compact state with a large projecting extension ex: Dem. Republic of Congo
Ability of a state to govern its territory free from control of its internal affairs by other states; government free from external control
An area organized into political unity and ruled by an established government with control over its internal and foreign affairs
A nationality that is not represented by a state
The waters surrounding a nation and its territories over which that nation exercises sovereign jurisdiction
A state's sense of property and attachment toward its territory, as expressed in its determination to keep it inviolable and strongly defended
Acts of violence designed to promote a specific ideology or agenda by creating panic among an enemy population
An internal organization of a state that places most power in the hands of central government officials
A venture involving three or more nation-states involving formal political, economic and/or cultural cooperation to promote shared objectives; the United Nations, the European Union, NATO are examples
A code of maritime law approved by the United Nations in 1982 that authorizes, among other provisions, territorial waters extending 12 nautical miles (22km) from shore and 200-nautical-mile-wide (370-km-wide) exclusive economic zones
An intergovernmental organization established to promote international co-operation. The main reasons for the existence of the United Nations include the promotion of primary human rights. These rights include freedom from abuse, terror from groups, violation of human necessities, restriction from personal liberty, etc. To promote international cooperation and to achieve peace and security. Confederation of sovereign states, post WWII, to administrate post-colonial land. Promote basic human rights.
• explain the concept of "state" by:
identifying necessary qualifications and characteristics
listing examples of states in various regions
state: is an area organized in a political unit and ruled by an established government that has rule over its internal and foreign affairs. It occupies a defined territory on Earths surface and contains a permanent population. The term country, is a synonym for state. State has sovereignty, which means independence from control of its internal affairs, by other states. ( has a national government, law, army, and leaders)
In the United States of America, the fifty states are a subdivision within a single state. Another way to define a state is by its boundary lines. Between the 1940's and the late 80's two superpowers existed: The United States and the Soviet Union. Now the United States is less dominant in political landscape, and the Soviet Union no longer exists.
quasi state: guilty of not functioning according to state statutes and thereby not spending the taxpayers' money correctly
Today, globalization means more connections, among states created primarily for economic cooperation, despite greater global political cooperation, local diversity has increased in political affairs, as individual groups demand more control over the territory they inhabit.
• describe the problems of multinational states and stateless nations
Multinational states: Challenges in coexisting nationalities. Ex: Russia, Nigeria, USA, ...
from the 1940's the world contained about 50 countries, but it had 192 members of the United Nations. A state is an area organized into a political unit and ruled by government and has control over internal and foreign affairs. There is a disagreement about the actual number of sovereign states: Korea, China, Western Sahara( Sahrawi Rep)
Korea: Colony of Japan,
Divided into occupation zones(2), by the US and the Soviet Union after they defeated Japan in World War 2. North Korea and South Korea admitted into the UN as separate countries
Cyprus Green line boundary: Cyprus, the third largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, contains two nationalities: Greek and Turkish. When Cyprus gained independence from Britain in 1960, its constitution guaranteed the Turkish minority a substantial share of elected offices and control over its own education, religion, and culture. But Cyprus never peacefully integrated the Greek and Turkish nationalities, in 1974 several Greek Cypriot military officers who favored unification of Cyprus with Greece seized control of the government. Turkey invaded Cyprus to protect the Turkish Cypriot minority. The Turkish sector declared itself the independent Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus in 1983, but only Turkey recognizes it as a separate state. A wall was constructed as a buffer zone and is patrolled by the UN was delineated across the entire island, geographically isolating the two nationalities.
Stateless nations: Example would be the Kurdish people, who used to have their own state near Turkey but they were invaded and pushed out and were left without any territory to call a state. Also Roma people are scattered all across Europe, most of them that live in Belgium are not even recognized as a nationality most technically do not exists as citizens there. The children that go to school in Belgium have to go to "special classes" and are treated like primitive people because they speak a different language and have no official state.
• list advantages and disadvantages of different types of boundaries and provide examples
The shape of states affect potential for communication and conflict with neighbors, can influence the easy or difficulty of internal administration, and can affect social unity.
There are two types of boundaries, physical and cultural
Physical boundaries: consists of three types of physical elements which serve as boundaries between states: Mountain, Desert, and Oceans.
Desert boundaries: hard to cross, and sparsely inhabited, common in Africa and Asia,
Mountain Boundaries: Effective for boundaries because they are difficult to cross because they are sparsely inhabited.
Water Boundaries: Which are rivers, lakes, and Oceans. are especially common in East Africa,
Two main, geometric( simple straight line drawn on a map), and ethnic( Language and religion).
Geometric: northern US boundary with Canada: 49 North Latitude. established in 1846, Also Alaska and the Yukon, territory at 14 West Longitude, and Chad and Libya,
Religious boundaries: religious differences often coincide with the boundaries between states.The most notable religious boundary is in South Asia, when the British partition India into two states on the basis of religion. Same with the island of Erie in Ireland. Language Boundary: Cyrpus Greece and Turkey
Mountain: they do not always provide amicable separation of neighbors( Argentina and Chile) Which agreed to divide by the crest of the Andes Mountains, but couldn't come up with a precise location.
Water Boundaries: They may seem permanent, but the precise position of the water may change over time, rivers in particular. Ocean boundaries, cause problems because states usually claim that the boundary line is not usually on the coast line, but out at sea.( reason are for defense and for control of valuable fishing industries)
• list advantages and disadvantages of different shapes of states and provide examples
Compact: Equal power throughout the state because distance around the state is about the same. Most of the time the state would be landlocked so at the economy may be poor due to lack of sea trading. (+Poland) (-Zimbabwe)
Elongated: Normally has lots of connection to waterways but lacks in state communication because of the great distance along the country.
Prorupted: Extra extension from "main part" of the state can be used as an international border for other countries. Although this may cause uneven distribution of power if one half of the country has more territory than another. (+Austria) (-Afghanistan)
Perforated: The states most likely have a good alliance although the state surrounded obviously has no access to water (ocean/sea). (+Italy/Vatican city) (-South Africa/Lesotho)
• discuss the concepts of imperialism, colonialism and illustrate some of their consequences on the contemporary political map
colony: is a territory that legally tied to a sovereign state, rather than being completely independent. Colonialism: European states came to control much of the world through colonialism. European states established colonies for three basic reasons: To promote Christianity, second to provide resources, and to indicate relative power. The three motives can be summarized as god, gold, and glory.
The colonial era began in the fourteen hundreds, Europeans lost most of their Western Hemisphere colonies, and then they turned their attention to Africa and Asia. The European colonization of Africa and Asia is called imperialism. Which is control of a territory that is already occupied and organized by an indigenous society. Colonialism is the control of uninhibited or sparsely inhibited land. Britain is the largest colonial empire, France is the second. primarily over West Africa and South East Asia. France attempted to assimilate their colonies into French culture. The British created different government structures and policies in their empire. Most African and Asian colonies became independent after World War 2. Now days, only a handful of colonies remain in the Pacific Ocean or the Carribean Sea. Puerto Rico which is the commonwealth of the US, 4 million are residents of the US. World's least populated colony is Pitcairn Island, which was settled by British Mutineers.
• explain the role of the following in the internal structure of states:
federal or unitary structure
irredentism, separatism, autonomy, and self-determination
Civil divisions: In the US there are very specific borders on how we divide the citizens. Household->Neighborhood->City->State.
Federal or unitary structure: If the Unitary/Federal power in the state is the most dominant then the idea of internal borders may not exist because the need for smaller forms of government may not be needed.
Irredentism: The state's boundaries may expand to incorporate those whose nationalities lie with the state but they live in another.
Separatism: This may cause the state to split into two or more states due to one part wanting to become independent from the other.
Autonomy: Smaller less significant borders may be created due to rise in power of smaller forces of political power within the community.
Self-Determination: States within a state may begin to defect and potentially create their own borders within the original state.
• define and provide examples of forward capitals
"forward" capitals are capitals of a state that have been relocated in their country to allow a political or economical advantage. Some examples could be:
-Washington D.C: Created after the Constitution splitting the North from the South allowing the idea of equal power between both sides.
-Abuja, Nigeria: Moved to the center of the country to allow easier flow of trade through the country. Also to equalize power.
• summarize the history of the United Nations and identify issues of current importance regarding it
During the Cold War era in 1940, until 1990. Global and regional organization were established primarily to prevent a third World War and to prevent countries from attack. The most important Global organization is the United Nations, established in 1945, The United Nations comprised of 49 states, but membership grew to 189 in 2006 making it a truly global organization. The rapid increase was on three occasions: One in 1955, 1960, and the early 1990's. The United Nations replaced an earlier organization called the League of Nations, It was established after World War 1 but it was never an effective peacekeeping organization. They can vote, establish a peacemaking force and ask states to contribute a military force. Playing an important role in trying to separate warring groups, it must rely on individual countries to supply troops, the UN often lacks enough troops to keep peace effectively. Despite its short comings the United Nations, represents a form, where for the first time in history,virtually all the states of the world can vote on issues without resorting to war.
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