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Chapter 21 Part 1 Anatomy

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What is the length of blood vessels found in the body?
60,000 miles
What is the central hollow space in a blood vessel called?
lumen
Blood vessels are made up of what?
walls
What are the layers for the wall of a blood vessel
tunica interna
tunica media
tuncia externa (adventitia)
What is the tunica interna of a blood vessel made up of? The tunica interna is one of the layers of the blood vessel wall.
endothelium;
elastic lamina
What is the purpose of the elastic lamina? It is a component of the tunica interna. The tunica interna is one of the layers of the blood vessel wall.
stretch rebound
What is the tunica media made up of? It is a layer of the blood vessel wall.
elastic fibers
smooth 45 muscle
What is the tunica externa (adventitia) made up of? The tunica externa is a layer of the blood vessel wall.
elastin and collagen
What is another name for the tunica externa? The tunica externa is a layer of the blood vessel wall.
adventitia
What is angiogenesis the growth of? genesis = beginning.
new blood vessels
What is angiogenesis?
important process in the fetus and in postnatal processes
What causes angiogenesis or the growth of new blood vessels to occur more than normal?
A malignant tumor
What do malignant tumors secrete?
tumor angiogenesis factors
What does TAF stand for?
Tumor angiogenesis factor
Tumors are dependent on what for their growth?
new blood vessels (angiogenesis)
Malignant tumors secrete tumor angiogenesis factors which stimulate what?
blood vessel growth to nature the tumor cells
What are scientists doing to stop angiogenesis? Angiogenesis is needed for a tumor to grow.
looking for chemicals to prevent it
What is an objective of scientists working on the angiogenesis problem?
to stop tumor growth
What is another goal that scientists hope to achieve by preventing angiogenesis?
prevent the blindness associated with diabetes
What do blood vessels form? Or what are blood vessels?
a closed system of tubes
What is a purpose of blood vessels which are a closed system of tubes?
carry blood away from the heart
What is a purpose of blood vessels which are a closed system of tubes?
transport blood away from the heart to tissues of the body
What is a purpose of blood vessels which are a closed system of tubes?
After transporting blood to the tissues of the body return it to the heart
Name a type of blood vessel:
Arteries
Name a type of blood vessel
Arterioles
Name a type of blood vessels
capillaries
Name a type of blood vessel
Venules
Name a type of blood vessel
Veins
Name a type of blood vessel
Vaso vasorum
What is the purpose of the arteries? Arteries are a type of blood vessel.
carry blood away from the heart to the tissues
What are arterioles? Arterioles are a type of blood vessel.
small arteries that connect to capillaries
What are the capillaries? Capillaries are a type of blood vessel.
site of substance exchange between the blood and body tissues
What is the purpose of the venules? Venules are a type of blood vessel.
connect capillaries to larger veins
What do the veins do? They are a type of blood vessel.
convey blood from the tissues back to the heart
What is the Vaso vasorum? They are a type of blood vessel.
small blood vessels that supply blood to the cells of the walls of the arteries and veins
What are the two functional properties of arteries?
Elasticity and Contractility
A functional property of the arteries is elasticity. The elasticity property is found where in the arteries?
tunica internal and media
What is the purpose of the elasticity property of the arteries?
allows arteries to accept blood under great pressure from the contraction of the ventricles
Contractility is a functional property of the arteries. Where is this property found?
smooth muscle in the tunica media
What is the purpose of the contractility functional property of arteries?
allows arteries to increase or decrease lumen size and to limit bleeding from wounds
What composes the majority of the wall of blood vessels?
Vascular smooth muscle
Vascular smooth muscle which composes the majority of the wall of blood vessels is innervated by what?
sympathetic nervous system
The vascular smooth muscle of the blood vessel wall is innervated by the sympathetic nervous system. What happens to the blood vessel wall when the sympathetic nervous system is stimulated?
vasoconstriction or decreased diameter of vessel
What happens when the sympathetic system is activated due to an injury in an artery or arteriole?
muscle contraction which reduces blood loss (vasospasm)
What is a vasospasm?
muscle contraction which reduces blood loss
What happens to the blood vessel when the sympathetic system or certain chemicals are reduced?
vasodilation
What happens to the blood vessel when the sympathetic system or certain chemicals are reduced?
increased size of vessel (vasodilation)
What happens when stimulation of the sympathetic system or certain chemicals are decreased?
Nitric oxide, K+, H+ and lactic acid are produced
What chemicals cause vasodilation of the blood vessel wall? Vasodilation of the blood vessel wall occurs when the sympathetic system and/or certain chemicals are reduced.
Nitric oxide, K+, H+ and lactic acid
Name a chemical which causes vasodilation of the blood vessel wall:
Nitric oxide
Name a chemical which causes vasodilation of the blood vessel wall:
K+
Name a chemical which causes vasodilation of the blood vessel wall:
H+
Name a chemical which causes vasodilation of the blood vessel wall:
lactic acid
What are elastic arteries?
large arteries
What is a description of the elastic arteries?
thin walled compared to lumen diameter
What is a description of the elastic arteries?
carry large volumes of blood quickly
What is a description of the elastic arteries?
more elastic than muscular walls
What is an example of an elastic artery?
aorta
What is the size of muscular arteries?
intermediate size
What is a description of the muscular arteries?
thicker wall compared to lumen
What is a description of the muscular arteries?
help adjust rate of blood flow
What is a description of the muscular arteries?
more muscular than elastic
What is an example of a muscular arteries?
brachial artery
What is an anastmoses?
direct connection of 2+ vessels serving an area
What does an anastomoses allow?
collateral circulation
Anastamoses is a direct connection of 2+ vessels serving an area. What is an example of an anastomoses or connection of two blood vessels?
2 arteries
Anastamoses is a direct connection of 2+ vessels serving an area. What is an example of an anastomoses or connection of two blood vessels?
vein to vein
Anastamoses is a direct connection of 2+ vessels serving an area. What is an example of an anastomoses or connection of two blood vessels?
arteriole to venule
A blood vessel is either a part of an Anastomoses or what? In other words a blood vessel is either connected to another blood vessel or what?
end arteries: no network (connection) with other arteries
What is the opposite of an anastomoses?
end arteries
What is an end arteries?
no network (connection) with other arteries
What happens when an end artery is damaged?
necrosis
What is necrosis?
death of body tissue
What is a description of arterioles?
nearly microscopic
What is a function of arterioles?
major site BP regulation
What are metaarterioles?
direct bypass of capillary beds
What is the purpose of arteriole vasomotion?
allows filling of capillary bed 5-10 times/minute
What is arteriole vasomotion?
intermittent contraction and relaxation of sphincters
What are capillaries?
Microscopic vessels that connect arterioles to venules
Where are capillaries found?
near every cell in the body but more extensive in highly active tissue such as muscles, liver, kidneys, and brain
Capillaries are found near every cell in the body. Where are they found more extensively?
in highly active tissue such as muscles, liver, kidneys, and brain
Capillaries are found near every cell in the body. They are found more extensively in highly active tissue such as what?
muscles, liver, kidneys, and brain
Capillaries are found near every cell of the body. What happens when the tissue that capillaries are found in becomes active?
entire capillary bed fills with blood
What is a place where capillaries not found in the body?
Epithelia
What is a place where capillaries not found in the body?
cornea and lends of eye and cartilage
What is the function of capillaries?
exchanges nutrients and wastes between blood and tissue fluid
Capillary walls are composed of what?
a single layer of cells (endothelium) and a basement membrane
What is something capillary walls are composed of?
a single layer of cells (endothelium)
What is something capillary walls are composed of?
a basement membrane
What is endothelium?
a single layer of cells
What are the three types of capillaries?
Continuous capillaries
Fenestrated capillaries
Sinusoids
What is a type of capillary?
continuous
What is a type of capillary?
fenestrated
What is a type of capillary?
sinusoids
What are continuous capillaries made up of?
intercellular clefts
Continuous capillaries are made up of intercellular clefts. What are intercellular clefts?
gaps between neighboring cells
Fenestrated capillaries are made up of what?
plasma membranes which have many holes
What do the plasma membranes of fenestrated capillaries have?
many holes
Where are continous capillaries found in the body?
skeletal and smooth muscle;
connective tissue and lungs
Where is a place that continuous capillaries are found in the body?
skeletal muscle
Where is a place that continuous capillaries are found in the body?
smooth muscle
Where is a place that continuous capillaries are found in the body?
connective tissue
Where is a place that continuous capillaries are found in the body?
lungs
Where are fenestrated capillaries found in the body?
kidneys, small intestine, choroid plexuses, ciliary process and endocrine glands
Where is a place that fenestrated capillaries are found in the body?
kidney
Where is a place that fenestrated capillaries are found in the body?
small intestine
Where is a place that fenestrated capillaries are found in the body?
choroid plexuses
Where is a place that fenestrated capillaries are found in the body?
ciliary process and endocrine glands
What are sinusoid capillaries?
very large fenestrations
What do sinusoid capillaries have?
incomplete basement membrane
What is a place that sinusoid capillaries are found?
liver
What is a place that sinusoid capillaries are found?
bone marrow
What is a place that sinusoid capillaries are found?
spleen
What is a place that sinusoid capillaries are found?
anterior pituitary
What is a place that sinusoid capillaries are found?
parathyroid gland
What are sinusoid capillaries found?
liver, bone marrow, spleen, anterior pituitary, and parathyroid gland
What are venules?
small veins
Where do venules come from?
capillaries
Where do capillaries drain into?
venules
What do venules drain into?
veins
What is a composition of veins?
the same three tunics as arteries
What is a composition of veins?
thinner tunic interna than arteries
What is a composition of veins?
thinner media than arteries
What is a composition of veins?
thicker tunica externa than arteries
Veins have less what than arteries?
elastic tissue and smooth muscle
What is another comparision between veins and arteries?
veins have thinner walls
What do veins contain?
valves
Veins contain valves. What is the purpose of valves?
prevent backflow of blood
What is another name for vascular sinuses?
venous
What do vascular sinus veins have?
very thin walls with no smooth muscle to alter their diameters
What is a location for the vascular sinus veins?
brain superior sagittal sinus
What is a location for the vascular sinus veins?
coronary sinus of the heart
What are varicose veins?
twisted, dilated superficial veins
Why are varicose veins bad?
allow backflow and pooling of blood
Why does backflow and pooling of blood occur in varicose veins?
extra pressure forces fluids into surrounding tissues
In Varicose veins extra pressure forces fluids into surrounding tissues causing what?
backflow and pooling of blood
Varicose veins cause what by allowing backflow and pooling of blood?
nearby inflammation and tenderness of tissue
What is varicose veins caused by?
leaky venous valves
What causes the varicose veins to be congentially or mechanically stressed?
prolonged standing or pregnancy
What is something that varicose veins are found in?
esophagus
What is something that varicose veins are found in?
superficial veins of the lower limbs
What is something that varicose veins are found in?
the anal canal (hemorrhoids)
What are hemorrhoids?
anal canal
What type of veins are not susceptible to the disorder: varicose vein? In other words what veins are less likely to become varicose?
Deeper veins
Why are deeper veins not susceptible to the varicose disorder. Or why are deeper veins not going to become varicose veins?
support from surrounding muscles
What is a treatment for varicose veins?
sclerotherapy (medication causes shrinkage)
What is a treatment for varicose veins?
radiofrequency endovenous occlusion
What is a treatment for varicose veins?
laser occlusion
What is a treatment for varicose veins?
surgical stripping
The treatment sclerotheraphy for varicose veins does what?
causes shrinkage of the veins
What is anastomeses?
Union of 2 or more arteries supplying the same body region
What happens if a pathway is blocked anastomoses? In other words if two or more arteries are supplying the same body region what happens if one of them is blocked?
no effect
What is an example of an anastomoses?
circle of willis underneath brain
What is an example of an anastomoses?
coronary circulation of heart
What is the alternate route of blood flow called that an anastomosis has?
collateral circulation
The alternate route of blood flow through an anastomosis is called collateral circulation and can occur in what?
veins and venules
What are end arteries?
arteries that do not anastomose
What does occlusion (or blockage) of an end artery result in?
interruption of the blood supply to a whole segment of an organ
What is the result if an end artery gets clogged?
necrosis of that segment
What is an alternate route for supplies to reach a region
nonanastomosing (end artery)
The largest portion of blood at rest is in what?
systemic veins and venules
The largest portion of blood at rest is also called what?
Blood reservoir
What is the largest portion of blood at rest located? Or the blood reservoir?
systemic veins and venules
What reduces the volume of blood in reservoirs?
venoconstriction
What allows a greater blood volume to flow where needed by reducing the volume in reservoirs?
venoconstriction
What is a fact about diffusion?
most important process
What is a fact about diffusion?
allows lipid soluble substances to enter the cell by crossing membrane
What is a fact about diffusion?
it allows water solubles to pass into the cell via fenestrations and intracellular clefts
What is a fact about diffusion?
It allows water solubles to pass into the cell via fenestrations and intracellular clefts
What is a type of vesicular transport?
endocytosis
Endocytosis is a type of vesicular transport. What does it transport into the cell?
large non-lipids
What type of transport is Bulk flow?
passive
What does Bulk flow balance?
blood/interstitial fluid volumes
Bulk flow helps with what to keep it equal?
air pressure and hydrostatic pressure
What does Starling's capillary law of Bulk flow state?
capillariy filtration and reabsorption is balanced.
What is "capillary filtration and reabsorption balanced"?
Starlings capillary law of Bulk flow
What are the two types of hydrostatic pressure?
blood hydrostatic pressure and interstitial fluid hydrostatic pressure
What are the two types of hydrostatic pressure?
blood and interstitial fluid
What does BHP stand for?
Blood hydrostatic pressure
What does blood hydrostatic pressure do?
pushes fluids out of blood
What does IHFH stand for?
Interstitial fluid hydrostatic pressure
What does interstitial fluid hydrostatic pressure do?
pushes fluid into capillaries
The Interstitial fluid hydrostatic pressure (IHFH) is usually less than what?
BHP
Is the net fluid movement out of capillaries less or more than the fluid that moves into capillaries?
more
The fluid that moves out of the capillaries is more than what? (BHP)
the fluid that moves into capillaries (IFHP)
What are the two types of osmotic pressure?
Blood colloid osmotic pressure and interstitial fluid osmotic pressure
What are the two types of osmotic pressure?
Blood colloid and interstitial fluid
What does BCOP stand for?
Blood colloid osmoatic pressure
What does IFOP stand for?
Interstitial fluid osmotic pressure
What does blood colloid osmotic pressure secrete?
albumin molecules
What does albumin molecules which is secreted by the blood colloid osmotic pressure do?
pull water toward blood
What does the interstitial fluid osmotic pressure do?
pulls water from capillaries
What is usually less IFOP or BCOP?
IFOP
What does NFP stand for?
Net Filtration Pressure
What does Net Filtration Pressure show?
direction of fluid movement
NFP (Net Filtration Pressure) =
(BHP + IFOP) - (IFHP+BCOP)
NFP + is located at what end of the capillary bed?
arterial
What happens at the NFP + arterial end?
fluid moves out
What happens at the NFP - venous end?
fluid moves end
NFP - is located at what end of the capillary bed?
venous end
During the NFP process what returns unabsorbed fluid to blood?
lymph
During the NFP process what does lymph do?
return unabsorbed fluid to blood
What is edema?
an abnormal increase in interstitial fluid if filtration exceeds reabsorption
What is a result of excess filtration for edema?
increased blood pressure (hypertension)
What is a result of excess filtration for edema?
increased permeability of capillaries allows plasma proteins to escape
What is a result of inadequate reabsorption for edema?
decreased concentration of plasma proteins lowers blood colloid osmotic pressure
The blood experiences a decreased concentration of plasma proteins which lowers blood colloidal osmotic pressure in Edema. The loss of plasma proteins or inadequate reabsorption is caused by what? Name one thing it is caused by:
inadequate synthesis or loss caused by liver disease
The blood experiences a decreased concentration of plasma proteins which lowers blood colloidal osmotic pressure in Edema. The loss of plasma proteins or inadequate reabsorption is caused by what? Name one thing it is caused by:
burns
The blood experiences a decreased concentration of plasma proteins which lowers blood colloidal osmotic pressure in Edema. The loss of plasma proteins or inadequate reabsorption is caused by what? Name one thing it is caused by:
malnutrition or kidney disease blockage of lymphatic vessels postoperatively
The blood experiences a decreased concentration of plasma proteins which lowers blood colloidal osmotic pressure in Edema. The loss of plasma proteins or inadequate reabsorption is caused by what? Name one thing it is caused by:
filarial worm infection
Edema is often not noticeable until what?
30% above normal
What are the factors that affect circulation?
aorta, capillaries, vena cava and their rate of blood flow
What is the blood flow rate for the aorta?
40 cm/sec
What is the blood flow rate for the capillaries?
.1 cm/sec
What is the blood flow rate for the Vena Cava?
5-20 cm/sec
If the diameter of the blood vessel increases what happens to the velocity?
slower
If the diameter of the blood vessel decreases what happens to the velocity?
faster
What is the circulation time?
time for blood to make complete circuit through body
When is the circulation time shorter?
when the velocity is higher
In a human how long does it take the blood to circulate? Or what is the circulation time?
1 minute at rest
What does a higher CO cause?
higher velocity
What is Cardiac output?
HR x SV
What is the blood volume in the body?
4-6L
What does blood volume affect?
CO and BP
A low blood volume reduces what?
CO and BP
What is blood pressure?
pressure against vessel wall
How is blood pressure measured?
systolic/diastolic 120/80
What is resistance?
friction slowing blood flow
What is another name for blood flow resistance?
viscosity
What are the factors that affect blood flow resistance/viscosity? Or what causes friction which slows blood flow?
cell volume, protein concentration, and hydration
What is another factor which increases the viscosity/resistance of blood flow? Or what slows down blood flow?
longer blood vessel
What is another factor which increases the viscosity/resistance of blood flow? Or what slows down blood flow?
smaller radius
What is systemic vascular resistance?
It is all the resistance that blood encounters as it circulates throughout the body. (total resistance)
Blood flow resistance through the whole body (systemic vascular resistance) is maintained by what?
vasomotor center medulla
The most important mechamis for changing systemic vascular resistance involves changes in what?
arteriole diameter
What is venous return?
volume of blood returning to heart
What is a factor that helps venous return?
cardiac chamber pressures (0 mm Hg in right atrium)
What is a factor that helps venous return?
low vein resistance
What is a factor that helps venous return?
functional heart valves
What is a factor that helps venous return?
skeletal muscle pump
What is a factor that helps venous return?
respiratory pump: diaphragm changes thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities
The respiratory pump is a factor of venous return. What happens during the respiratory pump?
Air is forced out of the lungs and pushes venous blood into the right atrium during exhalation. The air is forced out of the lungs when the thoracic cavity decreases in size and internal pressures rise.
During the respiratory pump stage of venous return what happens?
diaphragm changes thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities.
What is syncope?
fainting
What is syncope?
a sudden, temporary loss of consciousness followed by spontaneous recovery
What is syncope usually caused by?
cerebral ischemia
What is a type of syncope?
vasodepressor
What is a type of syncope?
situational
What is a type of syncope?
drug-induced
What is a type of syncope?
orthostatic
What causes vasodepressor syncope?
sudden emotional stress
What causes situational syncope?
pressure stress of coughing, defectation or unination
What causes drug-induced syncope?
antihypertensives, diuretics, vasodilators, and tranquilizers
What causes orthostatic hypotension syncope?
decrease in blood pressure upon standing
Where is the Cardiac center located?
Medulla oblongata
The cardiostimulatory system has what innervation?
sympathetic
The cardiostimulatory system secretes what?
Epinephrine or Norepinephrine
What does the cardiostimulatory system do?
increase Cardiac output, and blood pressure
What is the innervation of the cardioinhibitory system?
parasympathetic
What does the cardioinhibitory system secrete?
ACH
What is the purpose of the cardioinhibitory system?
decrease cardiac output and Blood pressure
The vasomotor center adjusts blood pressure how?
by a variety of frequencies
In order for the blood pressure to increase what does the Vasomotor Center do concerning the sympathetic frequency?
turns it up
What happens to blood pressure when the vasomotor center turns the sympathetic frequency down?
It decreases
When blood pressure falls too low what happens?
signals to the vasomotor center stop. This causes the center to increase sympathetic stimulation.
When the blood pressure falls too low the vasomotor center stops receiving signals. This causes it to increase sympathetic stimulation. What is the result?
increase in blood pressure and vasoconstriction
The vasomotor center can act as what if the blood pressure falls too low?
vasoconstrictor
When the blood pressure falls too low the vasomotor center stops receiving signals. This causes it to increase sympathetic stimulation. The result is vasoconstriction and an increase in blood pressure. What receptors does the vasomotor center stimulate in order to cause this?
NE alpha receptors
When the blood pressure is too high the vasomotor center receives what?
too many signals
When the blood pressure is too high the vasomotor center receives too many signals. The increase in signals to the vasomotor center causes it to do what?
vasodilate
When the blood pressure is too high the vasomotor center receives too many signals. The increase in signals to the vasomotor center causes it to vasodilate. What does this cause?
decrease in blood pressure and release of ACH
When the blood pressure is too high the vasomotor center receives too many signals. The increase in signals to the vasomotor center causes it to vasodilate.This causes a decrease in blood pressure. What receptors does the vasomotor center stimulate to cause vasodilation?
NE beta receptors
The vasomotor center also causes what?
vasoconstriction of the veins (veins are blood reservoirs)
The vasomotor center causes vasoconstriction of the veins (veins are blood reservoirs). What does this cause?
increase in Blood pressure