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OCCC Bio 2215 - Hilliard

True animals have cells arranged into tissues and are members of the group...


Microscopic joints between cells in tissue that allow for transport of materials.

intercellular junctions

Sponges have no true tissues so form a group called...


Colonies of protists that share genetic information.


Derived from the same organism but not in the same clade.


True or False
Parazoans are considered to be paraphyletic to the Eumetazoans.


List 6 characteristics of sponges.

1. no true tissues so no organs
2. no reeliable body symmetry
3. body covered in pores for water flow
4. contain spicules that provide most skeletal support
5. specialized groups of cells perform various functions
6. most are monoecious

True or False
Like protists, sponges have a cellular level of organization.


The spicules of a sponge are composed of what 3 things.

1. calcium carbonate
2. silicon dioxide
3. spongin

A form of collegen, the most common animal protein on Earth.


Humans contain _____ (#) cell types.
The sponge contains _____ (#) cell types.


an organism with both male and female gonads.


The sponge integumentary system consists of...

1 flat, pigmented layer that contains toxins for protection

The body system that is the outer most covering.


The sponge skeletal system consists of...

spicules, spongin and collagen

Describe the sponge muscular system.

None. individual cells move using pseudopodia and flagella

Describe the sponge nervous system.


Describe the sponge circulatory system.

None. amoebacytes (archeocytes) share nutrients with cells.

Describe the sponge respiratory system.

None. cells get oxygen from water through simple diffusion.

Describe the sponge excretory system.

None. The sponge is "isotonic" with the seawater, same solute concentration.

Movement from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration.


same solute concentration in cell as in ocean


higher concentration in cell than in ocean


lower concentration in cell than in ocean


Regulation of water content.


Describe the sponge endocrine system.

None. Individual hormones released cell to cell during growth and development.

The purpose of the endocrine system.

Release hormones into the blood stream from glands and organs.

Any molecule used for cell to cell communication.


Give some examples of human hormones.

insulin - tells cells to eat sugar
glucagon - tells cells not to eat suger
FSH - tells gonads to make gametes
testosterone - causes human to look male

Give examples of human endocrine glands.

pituitary gland - master endocrine gland
adrenal gland
thyroid gland

The purpose of the digestive system.

Food breakdown into useable molecules

Describe the sponge digestive system.

intracellular, individual cells process food particles removed from water.

True or False
Sponges are monoecious but use asexual and sexual reporduction.


Both genders present in one animal, hermaphroditic.


The sponge cell that can mature into all other sponge cell types.


Name the three forms of asexual reproduction in sponges.

1. produce gemmules (freshwater sponges and some saltwater species)
2. fragmentation
3. produce buds

Small packages of archaeocytes that can grow into a new sponge.


Explain sexual reproduction in sponges.

Sponges produce eggs and sperm in huge numbers which disperse and hopefully join up with gametes from another sponge.
Not fertilizing themselves.

The sponge body forms are based on the location of...


List the three sponge body forms.

1. Ascon (asconoid)
2. Sycon (syconoid)
3. Leucon (leuconoid)

List 4 characteristics of the ascon body form of a sponge.

1. Simplest body plan
2. Single osculum at the top with ostia channeling water into a choanocyte lined spongocoel
3. Not very efficient
4. Small sponges

List 2 characteristics of the sycon body form of a sponge.

1. Single osculum at the top with choanocyte lined ostia channeling water into a spongocoel.
2. no choanocytes in spongocoel.

List 6 characteristics of the leucon body form of a sponge.

1. most complex form
2. many ostia and many oscula
3. external pores connected to flagellated chambers lined with choanocytes. Chambers connect to excurrent canals then out through oscula.
4. often lump shaped like bath sponge
5. largest and most efficient
6. most prevalent

The most efficient body form of the sponge.

Leucon (leuconoid)

The least efficient body form of the sponge.

Ascon (asconoid)

Which sponge body shape is the most prevelant?

Leucon (leuconoid)

Name 3 sponge cell types.

1. Pinacocytes
2. Amoebacytes
3. Choanocytes

The outer protective cover of flat cells on a sponge.


Flat, pigmented cells that form the pinacoderm of a sponge.


Pinacocytes that can contract like tiny muscles. (only seen in a few sponges to close osteum)


These sponge cells are contained within a fluid mesohyl (middle layer) and distribute nutrients from choanocytes to other cells.


These sponge cells can turn into (differentiate) any other type of sponge cell. (stem cell ability)


Somy types of these sponge cells also produce spicules and secrete the proteins spongin and collagen.


These cells are also known as "nurse cells" and are important if a sponge is ever damaged.


This sponge cell is also called a collar cell because it has a circular baffle of microvilli which acts as a seive to catch food particles in the water.


This sponge cell has a single flagellum that beats and, when combined with thousands of other like cells, pumps water through the sponge and out the osculum.


How does a sponge eat?

Collar of microvilli on choanocyte catches food particles which are absorbed into choanocyte. The food particle is passed on to the amoebocyte which distributes to other cells.

Why do we think choanoflagellate protists like Volvox are related to sponges?

Because choanoflagellates have cells that are very similar to choanocytes in sponges.

Spongia and Spongilla are both from this Poriferan Class.


This is the most common class of sponges.


This class contains mostly marine sponges with leucon body plans.


The sponges in this class have skeletons primarily of spongin.


This class contains the largest sponges and can be shaped like vases, fingers, or encrusting (lump).


Grantia, Scypha, and Leucosolenia are in this Poriferan Class.


This class of sponges tends to be small, with skeletons of calcium spicules.


This class of sponges has body plans that are mostly asconoid and syconoid with some leuconoid.


This class os sponges is less brightly colored than class Demospongiae and usually found on smooth sandy bottoms.


Give an example of a sponge in the Class Hexactinellida.


Sponges in this class often have radial symmetry, typically a long cylendar.


This class of sponges live in very deep waters, below the layer of light penetration at the edge of rock or coral reefs and have no pigment/color.


This class of sponge is believed to be incredibly ancient and primitive. Fossiles say this is the oldest class of sponges.


Spicules in this class of sponges are 6-rayed and siliceous.


Sponges in this class have a syconoid or leuconoid body plan.


This class of sponges lack pinacocytes or the mesohyl layer. Instead, amoebocytes form tiny chambers lined with choanocytes.


Sponges are the simplest of multicellular animals and share basal ancestry with the Metazoa, as determined by molecular evidence.
A) True
B) False

A) True

Although they have the simplest organization of all the Metazoa, the sponges do exhibit a higher level of morphological and physiological integration than that found in protozoan colonies.
A) True
B) False

A) True

The Porifera have which of the following characteristics in common?
A) A cellular level of organization.
B) Incipient tissues with a low level of integration.
C) A unique water current system power on which they depend for food.
D) A body with incurrent openings (called ostia) for water intake.
E) All of the above are correct.

E) All of the above are correct.

All sponges are marine.
A) True
B) False

B) False

The skeletal (supporting) structure of sponges may contain which of the following?
A) Fibrillar collagen (a protein)
B) Calcareous spicules
C) Siliceous spicules
D) Modified collagen called spongin
E) All of the above may be constituents of the sponge skeletal structure

E) All of the above may be constituents of the sponge skeletal structure

There may be three different designs or levels of organization within the sponges. These levels or types of canal systems are described as?
A) Asconoid
B) Syconoid
C) Leuconoid
D) All of the above are correct
E) None of the above are correct

D) All of the above are correct

Sponge cells are loosely arranged in a gelantinous matrix called?
A) mesophyll
B) Mesenchyme
C) Mesoderm
D) Mesogloea
E) Mesenteron

B) Mesenchyme

Which of the following drives the passage of water (laden with oxygen and microscopic food) through the canals and spongocoel of the sponges?
A) Choanocytes
B) Archeocytes
C) Pinacocytes
D) Collencytes
E) None of the above is correct

A) Choanocytes

Amoeboid cells that move about in the mesohyl and carry out a number of functions, including phagocytosis and spicule formation are called?
A) Unicells
B) Archaeocytes
C) Spongocytes
D) Osteocytes
E) Chondrocytes

B) Archaeocytes

A freshwater sponge (Spongillidae), produces an unusual overwintering "bud" for the survival of the harsh conditions of winter. This bud is called a?
A) Gemmule
B) Parenchymula larva
C) Amphiblastula
D) Blastul
E) Gastrula

A) Gemmule

The Phylum Porifera is an ancient group, remote phylogenetically from other metazoan groups, although some evidence suggests that they are a sister group to the Eumetazoa. Their adaptive radiation is centered on elaboration of the water circulation and filter feeding system.
A) True
B) False

A) True

Fungi, metazoans, and choanoflagellates are all fall within the opisthokont clade.
A) True
B) False

A) True

Two competing hypotheses for the origin of the Metazoa are the syncyticial ciliate hypothesis and the colonial flagellate hypothesis, but the ribosomal RNA analyses generally support the colonial flagellate hypothesis.
A) True
B) False

A) True

The phylum name Porifera literally means "pore

bearing" denoting its feeding mechanism of drawing water and thus food suspended in the water into tiny pores.
A) True
B) False

A) True

The Phylum Porifera does NOT have which of the following characteristics?
A) Multicellular
B) All aquatic
C) True tissues and organs
D) All adults sessile
E) Asexual and sexual reproduction

C) True tissues and organs

Sponges with syconoid features would have which of the following?
A) Radial canals
B) Incurrent canals
C) Prosopyles
D) Apopyles
E) All of the above are correct

E) All of the above are correct

Which of the following is mismatched?
A) Archaeocytes-amoeboid cells in the mesohyl
B) Sclerocytes-secrete spicules
C) Spongocytes-secrete spongin fibers
D) Collencytes-secrete keratin
E) Lophocytes-secrete large quantities of collagen

D) Collencytes-secrete keratin

Sponges have a tremendous ability to repair injuries and to restore lost parts in a process called?
A) Inversion
B) Torsion
C) Regeneration
D) Transmogrification
E) None of the above is correct

C) Regeneration

The members of the Class Hexactinellida are also called:
A) True sponges
B) Brittle sponges
C) Glass sponges
D) Amorphous sponges
E) None of the above is correct

C) Glass sponges

The trabecular reticulum of the Hexactinellida is the largest, continuous syncytial tissue known in the Metazoa.
A) True
B) False

A) True

Sponges originated before the Cambrian Period.
A) True
B) False

A) True

Which of the following forms yields the greatest amount of surface area to volume ratio in a sponge?
A) Asconoid
B) Syconoid
C) Leuconoid
D) Sponginoid
E) None of the above is correct

C) Leuconoid

Which of the following is not a characteristic of choanocytes?
A) flagellum on the exposed end
B) rectangular shape
C) play a role in sexual reproduction
D) one end embedded in mesohyl
E) None of the above is correct

B) rectangular shape

Which of the following is not true of a Hexactinellid sponge
A) Syncytial trabecular recticulum
B) Spicules are 6 rayed
C) Spicules of calcium carbonate
D) Siliceous spicules

C) Spicules of calcium carbonate

The Calcarea has spicules composed of glass.
A) True
B) False

B) False

An archaeocyte is used for water movement and feeding
A) True
B) False

B) False

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