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Terms in this set (21)

o Children's thinking is oriented to the here and now—to things and events that they can observe directly. But adolescents are able to consider what they observe against a backdrop of what is possible.
o This allows adolescents to think "counterfactually"—to think not only about how things actually are, but to think about what might have been
o But adolescents are able to move easily between the actual and the possible, to generate alternative possibilities and explanations systematically, and to compare the ways things are with the way they might be under different circumstances.
o The adolescent's ability to reason systematically in terms of what is possible comes in handy when learning math and science.
o We see it in the types of arguments adolescents employ, in which they are better able than children to envision and anticipate the possible responses of an opponent and to have one or more counterarguments handy.
o an opponent and to have one or more counterarguments handy.
o deductive reasoning A type of logical reasoning in which one draws logically necessary conclusions from a general set of premises, or givens.
o Hypothetical thinking: is the emergence of hypothetical, or "if-then," thinking. In order to think hypothetically, you need to see beyond what is directly observable and apply logical reasoning to anticipate what might be possible. Being able to plan ahead, to see the future consequences of an action, and to provide alternative explanations of events all require being able to think hypothetically. Hypothetical thinking also has implications for the adolescent's social behavior. Taking the perspective of others enables the adolescent to think through what someone else might be thinking or feeling