Anatomy Ch. 5
Terms in this set (45)
Name the four broad categories of tissues
The study of tissues and how they are arranged into organs.
A group of similar cells and cell products that arise from the same region of the embryo and work together to perform a specific structural or physiological role in an organ. Tissue is composed of cells and matrix, and the matrix is composed of fibers and ground substance.
Tissue composed of layers of closely spaced cells that cover organ surfaces, from glands, and serve for protection, secretion, and absorption. Its locations include the epidermis, the inner lining of digestive tract, liver and other glands. Epithelium covers the body surface, lines body cavities, forms the external and internal linings of many organs, and constitutes most gland tissue.
connective tissue (C.T.)
Tissues with more matrix than cell volume, often specialized to support, bind together, and protect organs (for example, the way a tendon connects muscle to bone.) Its locations include tendons and ligaments, cartilage and bone, fat, and blood. It is the most abundant in the body.
Tissue containing excitable cells specialized for rapid transmission of coded information to other cells. Its locations include the brain, spinal cord, and nerves.
Tissue composed of elongated, excitable cells specialized for contraction. Its locations include skeletal muscle, heart, walls of viscera (smooth muscle.)
Was named when it was thought to represent a transitional stage between stratified squamous and stratified columnar epithelium.
Name the two broad categories of fibrous connective tissue.
Loose and dense connective tissue.
loose connective tissue
More space is occupied by ground substance, which is dissolved out of the tissue during histological fixation and leaves empty space in prepared tissue sections. Two forms of loose connective tissue include areolar and reticular tissue.
dense connective tissue
Fiber occupies more space than the cells and ground substance, and appears closely packed in tissue sections. Two forms of dense connective tissue are dense regular and dense irregular.
Exhibits loosely organized fibers, abundant blood vessels, and a lot of empty space. Fibers run in random directions and are mostly collagenous, but elastic and reticular fibers are also present. Nearly every epithelium rests on a layer of areolar tissue, whose blood vessels provide the epithelium with nutrition, waste removal and a ready supply of infection-fighting leukocytes in time of need.
A mesh of reticular fibers and fibroblasts. It forms the structural framework of organs such as the lymph nodes, spleen, thymus, and bone marrow. The space amid the fibers is filled with blood cells.
dense regular connective tissue
Has two properties; 1-The collagen fibers are closely packed and leave relatively little open space. 2-The fibers are parallel to each other. It's found in tendons and ligaments. Found in tendons and ligaments.
dense irregular connective tissue
Has thick bundles of collagen and relatively little room for cells and ground substance, but the collagen bundles run in random directions. This arrangement enables the tissue to resist unpredictable stresses. This tissue constitutes most of the dermis and deep tissue layers, where it binds the skin to the underlying muscle and connective tissue.
adipose tissue (fat)
Tissue in which adipocytes are the dominant cell type. Adipocytes may also occur singly or in small clusters in areolar tissue. Adipocytes may be five times as large in obese people. The space between the adipocytes is occupied by areolar tissue, reticular tissue, and blood capillaries. Tissue looks like it has a "marshmellow" shape and is found as subcutaneous fat under the skin; breast; heart surface; and surrounding organs such as the kidneys and eyes.
is a supportive connective tissue with a flexible rubbery matrix. It gives shape to the external ear, tip of the nose, and the larynx-the most easily palpated cartilages in the body.
Named for its clear, glassy microscopic appearance, which stems from the usually invisible fineness of its collagen fibers. Its microscopic appearance has smaller oval chondrocytes than elastic cartilage. Found in trachea and bronchi.
Named for its conspicuous elastic fibers. Its microscopic appearance has bigger oval chondrocytes than hyaline cartilage. Found in the external ear and epiglottis.
Coarse, readily visible bundles of collagen, found in the intervertebral discs.
bone tissue (osseous tissue)
Makes up most of the mass of a bone. There are two forms of osseous tissue. Spongy and compact (dense) bone.
Fills the heads of long bones and forms the middle layer of flat bones such as the sternum (breastbone). Although it is calcified and hard, its delicate slivers and plates give it a spongy appearance.
compact (dense) bone
A denser calcified tissue with no spaces visible to the naked eye. It forms the external surface of all bones, so spongy bone, when present, is always covered by compact bone.
A fluid connective tissue that travels through tubular vessels. Its primary function is to transport cells and dissolved matter from place to place. Blood consists of a ground substance called plasma and of cells and cell fragments called formed elements.
erythrocytes (red blood cells)
Or red blood cells, are the most abundant formed elements. They have no nuclei and their function is to transport oxygen and carbon dioxide.
leukocytes (white blood cells)
Or white blood cells, serve various roles in defense against infection and other diseases. They travel from one organ to another in the blood stream and lymph but spend most of their lives in the connective tissues. They are somewhat larger than erythrocytes (red blood cells) and have a conspicuous nuclei, which usually appear violet in stained preps.
Small cell fragments scattered in the blood cells. They are involved in clotting and other mechanisms for minimizing blood loss, and in secreting growth factors that promote blood vessel growth and maintenance.
Specialized for communication by means of electrical and chemical signals. It consists of neurons, or nerve cells, and a much greater number of neuroglia, or glial cells, which protect and assist the neurons. Found in the brain, spinal cord, nerves, ganglia.
Consists of elongated cells that are specialized to contract in response to stimulation; thus its primary job is to exert physical force on other tissues and organs.The three histological types of muscle are skeletal, cardiac, and smooth.
Is limited to the heart. It is all striated, but differs from skeletal muscle in its other features. Its cells are much shorter, so they are commonly called myocytes or cardiocytes rather than fibers.
Long threadlike calls called muscle fibers. Most of it is attached to bone, with extension in the tongue, upper esophagus, some facial muscles, and some sphincter muscles.
Lacks striations and is involuntary. Smooth muscle cells are fusiform (thick in the middle and tapered at the ends) and relatively short. They have only one, centrally placed nucleous. Small amounts of smooth muscle are found in the iris of the eye and in the skin, but most of it, called visceral muscle, forms layers in the walls of the digestive, respiratory, and urinary tracts and surrounds the visceral organs.
Alternating light and dark bands, created by the overlapping pattern of cytoplasmic proteins filaments that cause muscle contraction.
A cell or organ that secretes substances for use elsewhere in the body or releases them for elimination of the body.
A gland that usually maintains its contact with the surface by way of a duct, an epithelial tube that conveys their secretion to the surface. It is released to the body surface, as in the case of sweat, mammary, and tear glands. More often, however, it is released into the cavity of another organ such as the mouth or intestine; this is the case with salivary glands, the liver, and the pancreas.
A gland that loses their contact to the surface and have no ducts. They have a high density of blood capillaries and secrete their products directly into the blood. The secretions, called hormones, function as chemical messengers to stimulate cells elsewhere in the body. Endocrine glands include the pituitary, thyroid, and adrenal glands.
Tissue growth through cell manipulation. Mostly embryonic and childhood tissue growth.
Exercised muscles grow, however, through the enlargement of preexisting cells.
The development of a tumor- whether benign or malignant- composed of abnormal, nonfunctional tissue.
name the two ways which damaged tissue can be repaired
The replacement of dead or damaged cells by the same type of cells as before. Regeneration restores normal function to the organ. Most skin injuries heal by regeneration.
The replacement of damaged tissue with scar tissue, composed mainly of collagen produced by fibroblasts. Scar tissue helps to hold an organ together, but does not restore normal function. Examples include the healing of severe cuts and burns, the healing of muscle injuries, and scarring of the lungs in tuberculosis.
The shrinkage of a tissue through a loss in cell size or number. It results from both normal aging and lack of use of an organ. Muscles that are not exercised exhibit disuse atrophy as their cells become smaller. It also occurs when a limb is immobilized in a cast or by paralysis.
Is the premature, pathological death of tissue due to trauma, toxins, and infection. Infarction is the sudden death of tissue, occurs usually when the oxygen supply is cut off. Gangrene is any tissue necrosis resulting from an insufficient blood supply, usually involving infection. A decubitus ulcer is a form of dry gangrene.
Programmed cell death, is the normal death of cells that have completed their function and best serve the body by drying and getting out of the way.
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