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confirmed test information for weeks 1-4


originated mouse, GUI, color graphics


started standardization

Northbridge (GMCH)

Graphics and memory controller hub;
supports of over function of CPU:
-PCIe ports, Memory

Southbridge (ICH)

I/O controller Hub;
-Clock, Fan, Audio Codec, Power mgmt

What is a Bus?

Carries info to CPU:
- allows for a number of signals to be processed at once; allowing higher processing speeds especially compared to a single wire
- group of electrical conductors that run in parallel (conductors are typically found in groups of 8)
- a common path to transmit info to all parts of the computer

5 Basic PC categories

1. Process
2. Input
3. Output
4. I/O
5. Support Hardware

ATX power connector

single rectangular 20 pin connector

Molex connectors

used on hard disk drives and optical drives

Static electricity

- generated when two dissimilar objects are rubbed together causing + and - electrons to separate and the two materials to become electrically unstable, waiting for common ground to discharge; This discharge is ESD-elctro-static discharge
- ESD doesn't cause damage, but the uncontrolled high voltage discharge associated with static electricity does

How to prevent Static Electricity

-use anti-static wrist strap
-insure computer chassis is grounded
-keep electronic devices in plastic bags
-Do not place circuit board on metal or foil
-create antistatic work station (mat, wrist strap, ground wire)
-maintain relative humidity between 50-70%

80486DX2 (486DX2)

1st to break 100MHz barrier

Itanium (pentium 4 family)

primarily intended for use in servers and other expensive and high-performance systems

Pentium D

1st intel desktop CPU to put 2 CPUs in the same package called dual core

3 types of memory

1. RAM
2. ROM
3. Cache


Used for laptops

Memory Redundancy

1. Non parity - no back up / computer crashes on error
2. Parity - extra chips / signal OS on memory error
3. ECC - Error checking and correcting

SIMM varieties


Windows 2000

1st OS to do networking

Windows / Mac difference

Command line interface; Mac is Unix based, MS is DOS based

Default file display

Files are by default displayed as tiles

Boot Process

1. POST (Power On Self Test) - Tests memory, as well as # of subsystems
2.BIOS will attempt to read MBR (Master Boot Record) or 1st sector of 1st Hard Drive. When MBR takes over, Windows is in control
3.MBR looks at BOOT SECTOR / finds NTLDR (Windows XP BOOT LOADER) / NTLDR allows memory addressing, initiates file system, read the boot.ini and load boot menu

Boot Process (cont.)

4. NTLDR will run NTDETECT.COM, BOOT.INI and BOOTSECT.DOS to get proper OS selected and loaded
5. NTDLR will then load NTOSKRNL.EXE and HAL.DLL (effectively Windows XP)
6.NTDLR reads registry, chooses hardware profile and authorizes device drivers - In that exact order
7. NTOSKRNL.EXE takes over

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