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ATI Community Proctored
Terms in this set (105)
Florence Nightingale's Environment Theory
Impact of environment on health. Focus on preventative care:
Wash hands etc.
Health Belief Model
Addresses the relationship between a person's beliefs and behaviors
1. Modifying variables
2. Perceived ability/susceptibility
3. Perceived Benefits vs Barriers
4. Cues to action
Modifying variables (HBM)
An individual's personal factors that affect whether the new behavior is adopted
(Race, gender, age, economy and education)
Perceived ability and susceptibility of getting a disease
If they feel like they are more likely to get it the more likely they will take action
Perceived Benefits vs Barriers of taking action
See more benefits than barriers then they will take action, vice versa
Cues to action (HBM)
Factors that activate "readiness to change"
Advice from doctors, seeing advertisements, etc
Acute and chronic care of individuals and families to strengthen their capacity for self-care and promote independence in decision making.
(Home health nurse)
Focus on communities, populations
- health promotion, disease prevention, education
- indirect nursing activities
Respect for autonomy
refers to respecting patients' rights to make decisions about their own healthcare
do no harm
Doing good or causing good to be done; kindly action
Perceived fairness of the amount and allocation of rewards among individuals
agent, host, environment
Animate or inanimate factor that must be present of lacking for a condition/ disease to develop. The agent is what is causing the problem.
Ex. leak of a dangerous chemical, outbreak of Ebola virus
A living species (human/ animal) that is capable of being infected or affected by the agent.
Individual exposed to agent resulting in a condition/ disease. (age, sex, race, lifestyle, immune status)
All that is internal or external to a given host or agent that is affected by the agent.
External conditions (physical, biological, education, socioeconomic status, healthcare access, social support, culture, climate).
Incidence vs. Prevalence
Incidence is the rate of occurrence in a specified group of people. usually studied in longitudinal method. (New)
Prevalence is determined by counting the number of individuals who currently have it. usually done by cross-sectional. (All)
Healthy People 2020
Attain high-quality, longer lives free of preventable disease, disability, injury, and premature death.
Achieve health equity, eliminate disparities, and improve the health of all groups.
Create social and physical environments that promote good health for all.
Promote quality of life, healthy development, and healthy behaviors across all life stages.
Efforts to prevent an injury or illness from ever occurring.
(Education [8th or lower], immunizations, etc.)
Efforts to limit the effects of an injury or illness that you cannot completely prevent. Limit severity. (Screening)
Actions taken to contain damage once a disease or disability has progressed beyond its early stages
Adopting new cultural traits while maintaining some of the former ones
Belief in the superiority of one's nation or ethnic group.
Ask about faith and belief systems to understand culture and spirituality relationships.
Don't use family member as interpreter
toxins, air pollution, water pollution, contamination
(What is their occupation, living situation etc.)
Lead, pesticides, asbestos, radon
CO, tobacco smoke, airborne
Waste products, chemical runoff, water quality, etc.
(Water heater should be <120 F)
Old homes before 1978 = risk for lead-based paint.
Screen kids 6mo-5yr blood/lead.
Wet mop floors instead of vacuum. Cold water is safer
A program for over 65, receving disability for 2+yrs, ALS, or ES renal dz
Medicare Part A
The part of the Medicare program that pays for hospitalization, care in a skilled nursing facility, home health care, and hospice care.
Medicare Part B
Outpatient care: Diagnostic services, PT/OT
Medicare Part C
[Typically through private insurance] Managed care health plans offered to medicare beneficiaries under the medicare advantage program
Medicare Part D
Prescription drug coverage
Federal program that provides medical benefits for low-income persons.
State Department of Health
WIC program, oversee CHIP, and Medicaid program, also report/notify communicable dz to the CDC
State Board of Nursing
A state board of nursing holds the legal authority for nursing practice and regulates nursing practice through:
Establishing the requirements to obtain a nursing license
Issuing nursing licenses
Determining the scope of practice
Setting minimum education standards
Managing disciplinary procedures
Local Health Departments
Meet health needs of local community and notify state Dep. of health of communicable dz
Assess people (density, biological factors, social factors, cultural factors)
Assess environment (location of health facilities, housing, pollutants/toxins?)
Direct conversations with individual community members for
the purpose of obtaining ideas and opinions
an open meeting at which all members of a community affected by a potential program are invited to come and participate (Chance of not everyone coming)
Data previously collected for any purpose other than the one at hand
(Birth certificates, morbidity data, health records)
Research method in which investigators systematically observe people while joining them in their routine activities
Driveby observation in a community
Meet w/representative sample to provide feedback about a certain topic of interest
May be expensive to send out and get back and typically a lower response rate
Community Health Plan
Assessment (data collecting)
Planning (goals, budget)
Home Health Nurses
Provide direct nursing care (wound care, vitals etc.), care coordinate, assess home safety (no loose rugs, lights by stairs, tape, locks on exit doors)
Focus on quality of life, palliation of s/s, and support for patient and family; referral should be done in timely fashion
Nurses who respond to health and wellness needs within the faith context of populations of faith communities and are partners with the church in fulfilling the mission of the health ministry.
(Provide health edu., facilitate support groups, but DO NOT provide direct bedside care)
Occupational Health Nurse
Works toward health and safety of workers by assessing risks, planning and delivering health/safety services and facilitating health promotion activities that lead to a more productive work force
Primary prevention - Teaching
Secondary prevention - Early detection through health surveillance and screening
Tertiary prevention - restoration of health through rehab and limited duty. Monitor treatment compliance
Know OSHA standards
School Nurse Roles
(1) Case manager = coordinates services for children with complex health needs
(2) Community outreach = meet needs of all school-age children
(3) Consultant = assists student, families, in info gathering + decision-making about health needs + resources
(4) Counselor = Supports students
(5) Direct Caregiver = nursing care to ill or injured
(6) Health Educator = prepare people/community to make well-informed health decisions
(7) Researcher = contributes to knowledge for school health + educational needs
SIDS (lay babies on their backs)
Get immunizations, keep free from injury
MVAs, substance abuse, STIs, Mental Health
Osteoporosis (Weight-bearing exercise, and calcium), Heart dz, DM, cancer prevention (pap smears)
Heart dz, cancer prevention (Prostate and testicular), Liver dz (alcohol)
Heart dz, CVAs, pneumonia, poly-pharmacy, cancer/injury prevention
Times of transitions
Divorce, death in fam, etc. creates high risk for health issues in family.
A family diagram that depicts each member of the family and shows connections between the generations. (Fam hx of illness)
A form of documentation diagramming a family's social environment.
Often r/t substance abuse, Males are more likely.
Under reported, tell them not to bath after the assault and to get immediate medical care
More prevalent in men and those over 65
The withholding of financial support or the illegal or improper exploitation of funds or other resources for one's personal gain.
Community factors that increase violence
Unemployment, poverty, social isolation
Signs of child abuse
Presence of wounds in varying stages of healing, unusual fear of others, small round burns, forearm spiral fractures
Signs of child neglect
Poorly nourished appearance, inadequate clothing, consistently tired, inconsistent attendance, poor hygiene or obsession with cleanliness, left alone for long periods, unable to relate to adults or form friendships
Families with children, migrant workers, unemployed, veterens, HIV/AIDS, mental health pt.
KEY HEALTH ISSUES:
TB, infestations (scabies, lice), mental illness, HIV/AIDS,
KEY HEALTH ISSUES:
substance abuse, suicide, spinal cord injuries, amputations, PTSD, depression.
KEY HEALTH ISSUES:
TB, dental dz, skin cancer, DM, obesity, suicide, work related injuries
mode of transmission
Chicken pox, TB, pertussis, influenza
Salmonella, Hep. A, E. coli, botulism
Cholera, Shigellosis, typhoid fever
Lime dz, maleria, rocky mountain spotted fever
HIV, Hep. B, C, D, syphilis, HPV, gonorrhea
Lice, scabies, impetigo, c. diff., mono (through saliva)
The resistance of a group to an attack by a disease to which a large proportion of the members of the group are immune
Active Natural immunity
Natural exposure to antigen
Development of antibodies
Active Artificial immunity
vaccination. Deliberate exposure to an antigen (vaccine)
Passive Natural immunity
Transfer of antibodies from a mother to her fetus or baby
Passive Artificial immunity
Injection of antibodies
Mandated by state, and local regulations
State notification to CDC is voluntary
Nationally notifiable diseases
Diseases in which physicians are required by law to report.
Peep in book
Person exposed is recommended to get IV ciprofloxacin after exposure
White center w/bulls-eye red ring
Recommended to get vaccine if going into crowded environments
Pertussis (whooping cough)
Erythromycin for those exposed (fam members treated prophylactically)
Starts as rash on the face then moves down
Early sign is sore (Chancre) on genitals
1. Disaster Prevention
2. Disaster Preparedness
3. Disaster Response
4. Disaster Recovery
Surveillance, inspections, immunizations, risk assessment
With respect to natural hazards, refers to the actions of individuals, families, cities, states, or entire nations taken before a hazardous event to plan for that event and to minimize losses.
Disaster action plan, kits, drills etc.
- saving people
- providing immediate assistance (triage)
- assessing damage
Coordinate care and start process of recovery
The procedures and processes for restoring an organization following a disaster
Highest priority: national security = easily transmitted + high mortality rates
* Smallpox (variola) [High fever, N/V]
* Botulism toxin
* Anthrax (severe dyspnea when inhaled)
* Hemorrhagic viral fevers
Second-highest priority: Moderately easy to transfer + high morbidity/mortality rates
Third-highest priority: emerging pathogens that can be engineered for mass dissemination (easy to produce) + high morbidity/mortality rates
Provider puts out a request to another provider or resource that can provide expert advice and/or services
Provider requests or recommends management of one or more of pt. concerns to another provider or can recommend other support services.
Assist w/ transition between acute care to community-based care.
Evaluate pt. medical, psycho-social and financial needs. Collab w/ patient, fam, insurance, heath care providers, etc.
Use information and technology to communicate, manage knowledge, mitigate error, and support decision making.
Use of technology to deliver health-related services and information, including telemedicine
Helpful in rural areas where they lack specialists.
Nurse roles in health policy
Advocate for changes in health policy
Help lobby legislators
Serve in public office
Help form coalitions
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