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A&P Chapter 3 Questions

End of chapter questions.
The three major parts of the cell are ______, _______, and ________.
Plasma membrane, cytoplasm, and nucleus.
Cell death that is genetically programmed is known as _________.
Cell death that is due to tissue injury is known as _________.
_________ are special DNA sequences located at the ends of chromosomes and whose erosion contributes to cellular aging and death.
The mRNA base sequence that is complimentary to the DNA base sequence ATC would be ________.
(T or F)
A small membrane surface area will increase the rate of diffusion across the cell membrane.
(T or F)
The cells created during meiosis are genetically different from the original cell.
(T or F)
An important and abundant active mechanism that helps to maintain cellular tonicity is the Na+/K+ ATPase pump.
If the concentration of solutes in the ECF and ICF's are equal, the cell is in a(n) _________ solution.
(e) Isotonic
Which membrane protein is incorrectly matched with it's function?
(c) Carrier: allows cells to recognize each other and foreign cells.
Which of the following organelles function primarily in decomposition reactions?
(a) Proteosomes, Lysosomes, Peroxisomes
(a) mitosis
(2) somatic cell division resulting in the formation of two identical cells.
(b) meiosis
(3) reproductive cell division that reduces the number of chromosomes by half
(c) prophase
(5) Stage when chromatin fibers condense and shorten to form chromosomes
(d) metaphase
(7) stage when centromeres of chromatid pairs line up at the center of the miotic spindle.
(e) anaphase
(6) stage when centromeres split and chromatids move to opposite poles of the cell
(f) telophase
(8) stage when chromosomes uncoil and revert to chromatin
(g) cytokinesis
(1) cytoplasmic division
(h) interphase
(4) stage of cell division when DNA replication occurs
(a) cytoskeleton
(2) network of protein filaments that extend throughout the cytosplasm, providing cellular shape, organization, and movement.
(b) centrosome
(9) an organization center for growth of the mitotic spindle
(c) ribosomes
(3) site of protein synthesis
(d) rough ER
(5) site where secretory proteins and membrane molecules are synthesized
(e) smooth ER
(11) functions in synthesizing fatty acids and steroids, helping liver cells release glucose into the bloodstream, and detoxification.
(f) Golgi Complex
(8) modifies, sorts, packages, and transports molecules synthesized in the Rough ER
(g) lysosomes
(1) membrane enclosed vesicles formed in the Golgi complex that contain strong hydrolytic and digestive enzymes
(h) peroxisomes
(6) membrane enclosed vesicles that contain enzymes that oxidize various organic substances
(i) mitochondria
(10) function in ATP generation
(j) cilia
(7) short microtubular structures extending from the plasma membrane and involved in movement of materials along the cells surface.
(k) flagellum
(13) long microtubular strucure extending from the plasma membrane and involved in movement of a cell.
(l) proteasomes
(4) contain enzymes that break apart unneeded, damaged, or faulty proteins into smaller peptides.
(m) vesicles
(12) membrane bound sacs that transport, transfer, or secrete proteins.
(a) diffusion
(3) random mixing of particles in a solution due to the kinetic energy of the particles: substances move from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration until equilibrium is reached
(b) osmosis
(9) Movement of water from an area of higher to an area of lower water concentration through a selectively permeable membrane
(c) facilitated diffusion
(1) passive transport in which a solute binds to a specific carrier on one side of the membrane and is released on the other.
(d) primary active transport
(5) uses energy derived from hydrolysis of ATP to change the shape of a carrier protein which "pumps" a substance across a cellular membrane against its concentration gradient.
(e) secondary active transport
(11) indirectly uses energy obtained from the breakdown of ATP; involves symporters and antiporters
(f) vesicular transport
(4) transport of substances either into or out of the cell by means of small spherical membranous sacs formed by budding off from existing membranes.
(g) phagocytosis
(8) type of endocytosis in which large solid particles are taken in
(h) pinocytosis
(7) type of endocytosis that involves the nonselective uptake of tiny droplets of extracellular fluid
(i) exocytosis
(2) Movement of materials out of the cell by fusing of secretory vesicles with the plasma membrane
(j) receptor mediated endocytosis
(10) process that allows a cell to take specific ligands from the ECF by forming vesicles.
(k) transcytosis
(6) vesicular movement involving endocytosis on one side of a cell and subsequent exocytosis on the opposite side of the cell.