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Arts and Humanities
History of Europe
L2: Revolution Brings Reform and Terror
test on thursday, may 27
Terms in this set (38)
Declaration of Man and Citizen
This was the new constitution that the National Assembly wrote that gave all citizens free expression of thoughts and opinions and guaranteed equality before the law
What rights did the Declaration of Man and Citizen include?
Liberty, property, security, resistance to oppression, freedom of speech, and freedom and religion
-the articles emphasized the equality of all men, promoting the development of human rights + outlined civil rights to protect individuals' freedom
What 3 things would revolutionary leaders chant?
Olympe de Gouges (1748-1793)
A feminist and female writer of the declaration of the rights of women. In 1793, she was declared enemy of the Revolution and executed
What did The National Assembly's early reforms focus on?
They focused on the Church:
-the assembly took over church lands and declared that the Church officials and priests were to be elected and paid as state officials
-they took lands from the Catholic Church and gained political independence
The profit from selling the Church's land was used to pay off __________?
France's huge debt
Why was the decreasing power of the Church a problem for many French peasants?
Most French peasants were devout Catholics and they believed a pope should rule of a church independent of the state. This led to them opposing the assembly's reforms.
Where did Louis XIV attempt to flee and what did his "escape" increase?
The Royal family attempted to flee to the Austrian Netherlands. Louis' "escape" only increased the influence of radical voices in government.
What major reforms did the National Assembly introduce?
Issued the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen; reformed the Church
In September of 1791, a new Constitution was written that created a LIMITED CONSTITUTIONAL MONARCHY
Government led by a monarch whose powers were limited by a Constitution, and who was required to consult Parliament
This 1791 Constitution created the LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY
a French congress with the power to create laws and approve declarations of war; established by the Constitution of 1791
-King had executive power to enforce laws
The Legislative Assembly split into 3 to solve old, persistent problems.
-Explain the political beliefs of the Radicals, the Moderates, and the Conservatives
Radicals (left hall): opposed monarchy
Moderates (center): wanted some changes, but not as much as the radicals
Conservatives (right hall): upheld limited monarchy; wanted a few changes
people who leave their native country for political reasons, like the nobles and others who fled France during the peasant uprisings of the French Revolution (told horror stories)
Sam-culottes ("those without knee branches")
in the French Revolution, a radical group made up of Parisian wage-earners and small shopkeepers who wanted a greater voice in government, lower prices, and an end to food shortages
How did differences of opinion on how to handle such issues as food shortages and debt affect the Legislative Assembly?
These differences caused the Assembly to split into 3 factions: radicals, moderates, and conservatives.
What was the biggest fear of European countries in regards to the increasing revolutionary ideas across France?
Monarchs and nobles in European countries feared similar revolts would break out in their own countries.
What did Austria and Prussia demand from France? What was the result?
They urged France to restore Louis to an absolute monarchy. The result was that The Legislative Assembly declared war in April 1792.
20,000 Parisians invaded Tuileries on August 10, 1792.
-the mob massacred royal guards
Whom ended up in prison?
Louis, Marie Antoinette, and their children
What occurred shortly after, in September that led to multiple nobles, priests, and royalist sympathizers dying?
There were threats that the supporters of the King that were imprisoned were going to break out to defend royalty. So citizens raided the prisons and murdered over 1,000 prisoners. Additionally, citizens also murdered multiple nobles, priests, and royalist sympathizers to prevent them from helping defend the royalty family.
Under pressure from radicals, the legislative assembly set aside the Constitution of 1791. What did the legislative assembly declare next?
It declared the king deposed, it dissolved the assembly, called for the election of a new legislature and resulted in the National Convention, declaring France a republic (adult male citizens had the right to vote and hold office).
Jacobins take control:
Who were the Jacobins?
(most of the individuals involved in the govt changes of Sept 1792): members of a radical political organization during the French Revolution
Explain the significance of Jean-Paul Marat and Georges Danton
JPM: during the Revolution --> he edited L'Ami du Peuple (Friend of the People) → in editorials, he called for the death of the king's supporters
GD: a lawyer; devoted to rights of the poor Persians
The National Convention reduced Louis XVI's role from a king to a ___________? How did they decide to execute him after being tried for treason?
from a king to a common citizen and prisoner; Louis was beheaded by the guillotine
Why was the guillotine used?
it was a more humane way of execution and it provided equality even in death (Revolutionary Justice) Dr. Guillotine said the device was efficient, humane, and democratic & the tried individual would not feel pain.
Jacobin leaders did what in response to Great Britain, Holland, and Spain joining Prussia and Austria against France?
In February 1793, Jacobin leaders ordered a draft of 300,000 French citizens between 18 and 40 to fight in the war, and in 1794, they sent an 800,000 army with women to join them.
What did the September Massacres show about the mood of the people?
The People were impatient and fearful. They were willing to act violently.
Give 3 examples of the "enemies" of the Jacobins
1. Peasants who were horrified by the king's execution
2. Priests that would not accept government control
3. Rival leaders who stirred up rebellion in the provinces
(1758-1794) (had been a lawyer that defended the poor): Leading figure of the French Revolution; he was known for his intense dedication to the Revolution. He became increasingly radical and led the National Convention during its most bloodthirsty time.
What did Robespierre do to build "a republic of virtue?"
He changed the calendar, divided the year into 12 months of 30 days, renamed each month, terminated Sundays because radicals considered religion old fashioned and dangerous, and closed all churches in Paris.
In July of 1793, Robespierre became the leader of the Committee of Public Safety. Who were they?
Consisted of 12 men policing France dedicated to "protecting the Revolution from its enemies." Under Robespierre' leadership, the committee had "enemies" tried in morning and guillotined in afternoon.
Reign of Terror
the period, from mid-1793 to mid-1794 when Maximilien Robespierre ruled France nearly as a dictator and thousands of political figures and ordinary citizens were executed
Robespierre believed virtue was equal to terror which insured _________?
his distorted view of JUSTICE.
Follow up question: Who were the "enemies" of the Revolution according to Robespierre and provide a specific example?
They were radicals who challenged Robespierre's leadership . They were punished for being "less radical" than Robespierre. More specifically, in 1794, Georges Danton was a target and Marie Antoinette was killed as well.
What was the irony of the Committee of Public Safety?
85% of the people they murdered were peasants or members of urban poor/middle class.
What caused the end of The Reign of Terror on July 28, 1794?
Members of the National Convention turned on Robespierre and demanded his arrest and execution.
Post Terror: there was a dramatic shift of French public opinion
They had gotten weary of the Terror and were angry about skyrocketing prices for bread, salt, and other necessities of life.
1795: How did moderate leaders respond to the people's shift in opinion post Terror?
Moderate leaders in the National Convention drafted a new plan that placed power in the hands of the upper-middle class, called for a 2-house legislature, and created an executive body of 5 men, a directory of 5 moderates, and assigned Napoleon Bonaparte to command France's armies.
S: Why did members of the National Assembly turn on Robespierre?
The French people were tired of the Terror and they wanted economic stability and peace in the country.
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