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maxillary bone

support the upper teeth; form the inferior orbital rim

palatine bones

form posterior portion of the hard palate; back roof of mouth

nasal bones

support the superior portion of the bridge of the nose; connected to cartilages that support the distal portions of the nose

inferior nasal conchae

create turbulance in air passing throught the nasal cavity; promotes warming and humidification of inhailed air

zygomatic bones

rim and lateral wall of the orbit; cheeckbone

lacrimal bones

part of the medial wall of the orbit; eye socket


inferior portion of the bony nasal septum


lower jaw

occipital bone

posterior, lateral and inferior surfaces of the cranium; lower back of head, above the neck; below the lambdoid sture; home of occipital crest

parietal bone

superior and lateral surfaces of the cranium; top side of the head (2) divided by sagittal suture

frontal bone

anterior portion of the cranium; roof of orbits; helps flush mucous of frontal sinuses; in front of coronal suture

temporal bones

lateral wall of the cranium; articulates with facial bones and mandible; protects organs of inner ear; attachment site for muscles that close the jaw and move the head; surrounded by squamous suture


floor of the cranium; strengthens sides of skull


anteromedial floor of the cranium; roof of nasal cavity; part of nasal septum

hyoid bone

attachment site for muscles of the larynx, tongue, and pharynx; in the neck

auditory ossicles

located in the ear cavity; play a key role in hearing


reinforce posterior and lateral walls of the thoratic cavity

vertebrosternal ribs

1-7; true ribs

vertebrochondral ribs

8-10; false ribs

vertebral ribs

11-12; floating ribs; attached only to vertabrae and muscles of the body wall


breastbone; anterior midline of thoracic wall; includes the manubrium, body, and xiphoid process

jugular notch

located between clavicular aritculations

cervival vetebrae

C1-C7; neck; support skull; long split tip; stabalize positions of brain and spinal cord; allow controlled head movements

thoracic vertabrae

T1-T12; chest; long, slender, not split; support weight of head, neck, upper limbs, and chest.

lumbar vertebrae

L1-L5; inferior of back; blunt and broad; support weight of head, neck uper limbs and trunk


under the lumbar vertebrae; protects reproductive, digestive, and urinary organs


under the sacrum; tail bone; consists of 3-5 vertabrae


part of pectoral gridle; superior, lateral border or manubrium


part of pectoral gridle; bone connected to humerus and clavicle; shoulder blade


brachium (top part of arm)


forearm; thumb side


forearm; pinky side

carpal bones

8 bones, from pinky to thumb: (proximal) pisiform, triquetrum, lunate, scaphoid, (distal) hamate, capitate, trapezoid, trapezium

metacarpal bones

5 bones between carpals and phalanges; support the hand


5 finger bones; 5 toe bones

hip bones

2 in the pelvic gridle; consists of the ilium (superior), ischium (posterior), and pubis (anterior)


thigh; connected to the hip bone; longest and heaviest bone in the body


kneecap; large sesamoid bone


shin bone; large medial bone of the leg


parallel to the tibia; bears no weight; site of attachment of muscles that move the foot and toes

tarsal bones

ankle bones

metatarsal bones

5 bones between tarsals and phalanges of the foot

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