42 terms

middle ages

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Why did Europe turn to feudalism?
With the Emperors not having much power or authority in this time, the people had to turn to a local leader, so the nobles of the area protected them. In return the people gave the food and services.
What role does loyalty and
oath play in the middle ages?
people swear loyalty in return for land
How is power distributed in fuedalism?
1. king
2. lords
3. vassels
4. serfs
What were the religious beliefs during the middle ages?
they were catholic
What role did the church play in medieval
life?
the church was the center of medieval life -every village and town had a church building-religious services were held daily-provided education to children-helped the poor and the sick
Why was the church so powerful in the middle ages?
As they worked in law and medical areas therefore people looked up to them and they could profiteer from this, adding to their power. Also, they had scared most of the peasants into paying them money so they could have a spot in "heaven"
Salvation
goal is heaven, god is the truth do what the church tells you and live a moral life
damnation
if you sin you go to hell
Courtly Love
An idealized form of love in which a knight or courtier devotes himself to a noblewoman who is usually married and feigns indifference to preserve her reputation.
life for a king in the middle ages
granted land to lords and in return received military service, money, payments and advice
life for a lord in the middle ages
grants land to knights and in return receives military service and protection
life for a serf in the middle ages
work on land of nobles and lords and knights little freedom and provide upper classes with food and services
feudalism
A political system in which nobles are granted the use of lands that legally belong to their king, in exchange for their loyalty, military service, and protection of the people who live on the land
life for a knight or vassel in the middle ages
7-14: training
14-21: assistent to a knight
quintain: practice skills and jousting
21+ knighthood ceremony
difference between how the medieval mind functioned between the early and late
Middle Ages.
-balance of trade
-first everything revolved around religion and then they got sciences (logic)
-increased food surplus
-new laws were created
-education
-monestries
What were some of the necessary developments for the emergence of towns and cities? What
was a medieval city like?
The cities were unable to handle the population and there was no sewage system, no clean water, no fire or police departments.
guilds
Association of merchants or artisans who cooperated to protect their economic interests
How did the medieval worldview influence the Middle East and Europe in their reactions
towards the plague?
they thought it was a punishment sent by god
How can Chartres Cathedral and the Book of Hueres be used as evidence to show the
changing European worldview? *
It had propaganda in it as a form of trade and food surplus, and literature demonstrated through pictures as a form of education
What two main things did a monarch have to control in order to centralize power for *himself?
noble vassels and church officials
How did the formation of Parliament influence the future of European society?*
It took away power from the king
Manoralism
System that described economic and political relations between landlords and their peasant laborers during the Middle Ages.
lord
receives a land grant from the monarch, highest social class in feudalism
vassalage
a system of swearing military loyalty to a local lord that was usually quite expensive and took a lot of time
Fief
Land granted by a lord to a vassal in exchange for loyalty and service
feudal contract
-The unwritten rules that determined the relationship between a lord and his vassal
-$ for lords eldest daughter
-ransom if lord was captured
serfs
A person who lived on and farmed a lords land in feudal times, Could not be bought or sold but their labor belonged to the lord.
church
Christian place of worship
monastery
A community in which monks lead lives devoted to religion.
monk
A man who has taken a solemn vow to devote his life to prayer and service in a monastery
chivalry
A code of behavior for knights in medieval Europe, stressing ideals such as courage, loyalty, and devotion
troubadours
A medieval poet and musician who traveled from place to place, entertaining people with songs of courtly love
three-field system
a system of farming developed in medieval Europe, in which farm land was divided into three fields of equal size and each of these was successively planted with a winter crop, planted with a spring crop, and left unplanted.
merchant class
merchants, traders, and artisans
Crusades
A series of holy wars undertaken by European Christians to free the Holy Land from Muslim rule.
Aristotle
greek philosopher who's texts were translated to help medieval europe
flying buttress
made to hold up walls, and takes pressure off of higher walls
rose window
stain glass
seven liberal arts
grammar, rhetoric , dialect, arithmetic, astronomy, music, geometry
Magna Carta
guaranties certain political rights and takes away some of kings power. no taxation without representation, jury trial and protection of the law
Parliament
A body of representatives that makes laws for a nation
how did monarchs control vassals and church officials
1. building castles
2. getting allegiance and loyalty through the oaths
3. symbolic ways of flaunting their power through ceremonies
4. limiting legal powers.
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