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200 terms

Anatomy I final

STUDY
PLAY
Which of the following is not part of the axial skeletal system?
Pectoral girdle
A synovial joint is an example of a
diarthrosis
The clavicle articulates with the scapula at the
acromion
The foramen magnum is found in the
occipital bone
An epiphyseal line in a mature long bone is an example of a
synostosis
The depression on the posterior surface at the distal end of the humerus where the elbow fits in is the
olecranon fossa
Each of the following bones is a component of the orbital complex, except the
nasal bone
Which of the following is not a characteristic of articular cartilage?
It secretes synovial fluid
Which of these is a forearm bone?
radius
The suture that forms the articulation of the two parietal bones is the
sagittal suture
Dislocations are quite painful due to stimulation of pain receptors. One place these receptors are absent is
inside the joint cavity
The radius articulates with the
all of the following (carpals, ulna, humerus)
Which of the following bones is not part of the appendicular skeleton?
sacrum
Extending your leg away from the midline of the body (to the side) is termed
abduction
The bones that form the palm are the
metacarpals
The nasal complex consists of all the following bones, except the
zygomatic
Which of the following movements is a good example of depression?
opening the mouth
Which of the following is not a part of the pelvis?
lumbar vertebrae
Which of the following are the primary spinal curves, present at birth?
thoracic and sacral
What bone articulates with the coxal bone at the acetabulum?
femur
The elbow joint is a ______ joint; while the hop is a _____ joint
hinge, ball-and-socket
The vertebral column contains ___ thoracic vertebrae, ___ cervical vertebrae, and ___ lumbar vertebrae
12, 7, 5
The largest component coxal bone is the
ilium
In a triaxial articulation
movement can occur in all three axes
The ribs articulate with the __________ of the vertebrae.
transverse processes
The greater sciatic notch is a feature on the
ilium
Humans normally have ____ pairs of ribs.
12
The joint that permits the greatest range of mobility of any joint in the body is the
shoulder joint
Which of the following is the heel bone?
calcaneus
Gesturing "yes" with the head depends on which cervical vertebral?
atlas
Which ligament connects the clavicle and the acromion?
acromioclavicular
The only direct connection between the pectoral girdle and the axial skeleton is where the
clavicle articulates with the manubrium of the sternum
The role of the sinuses include
making the skull lighter and production of mucus that moistens and cleans the air (both A and B)
Which of these constitutes the pectoral girdle?
clavicles and scapulae
In the knee joint, the medial and lateral meninsci
act as cushions and conform to the shape of the articulating surfaces
Your friend Gregg is hit in the jaw and when looking at him, his face looks misaligned. You immediately take him to the emergency room and are not surprised to learn that he has a broken
mandible
In the anatomical position, the ulna is located ____ to the radius
medial
As you move cranially along the spinal column, the vertebral foramina become ___, while the vertebral bodies become _____
larger; smaller
The ligament that provides support to the front of the knee joint is the
patellar ligament
The distal carpal bones are
trapezium, capitate, trapezoid, hamate
Fibrous connective tissue called ______ acommodates brain growth in infants
frontanels
The olecranon is on the ____ and the olecranon fossa is on the ____
ulna; humerus
The "rotator cuff" of the shoulder includes every muscle except
coracohumeral
Which of the following is NOT a tarsal bone?
capitate
The largest and strongest articulate at the elbow is the
humero-ulnar joint
Of the following bones, which is unpaired?
vomer
The ligamentum nuchae
helps to hold the head in an upright position
Which of the following ligaments assists in stabilization of the shoulder joint?
coracoacromial and coracoclavicular (both A and C)
Jack gets into a fight and is punched in the nose. Which of the following bones might be fractured?
Ethmoid bone
All of the following statements are true, except one. Which one?
The more movement a joint allows, the stronger the joint
Which of the following statements below is correct?
The longus capitis is a spinal flexor muscle that flexes the neck
In the process of saltatory action potential propagation,
A, B, and D. The action potential is triggered by graded depolarization of the initial segment; at threshold, sodium channels begin to open rapidly; local currents depolarize a sensitive spot distant from the active zone
Muscular force can be adjusted to match different loads by
A, B, and C. Recruiting larger motor units, recruiting more motor units, varying the frequency of action potentials in motor neurons
Which of the following is a member of the hamstring group?
all of the following. Biceps femoris, semitendinosus, semimembranosus
The rabies virus travels to the CNS via
retrograde axoplasmic transport
A muscle that unlocks the knee joint is the
popliteus
Which of the following is false when a muscle contracts?
Zones of overlap get smaller
Put the following in order.
2. Sodium channels open on the muscle cells
1. Calcium is released by the sarcoplasmic reticulum
4. Troponin binds to calcium
5. Tropomyosin slides away from the active site on the actin
3. Myosin binds to the active site on actin
Branches that may occur along an axon are called
collaterals
Neurons in which dentritic and axonal processes are continuous and the soma lies off to one side are called
unipolar
The action potential is conducted into a skeletal muscle fiber by
transverse tubules
When the pectoralis major muscle contracts, it produces
flexion at the shoulder joint
The powerful abductor muscle of the arm is the
deltoid
In a sarcomere, thick filaments contain the ____ in the A band, while the thin filaments contain the ____ in the I band
M line; Z line
Which statement regarding connective tissue below is correct?
The epimysium surrounds the entire muscle, while the endomysium surrounds muscle fibers
Muscles that laterally rotate the thigh include all of the following, except the
gracilis
I bands in skeletal muscle are composed of
thin filaments but no thick filaments
The _____ somatic nervous system controls the skeletal muscles
somatic
What is it called if a second stimulus arrives before the relaxation phase has ended and a second, more powerful contraction occurs
wave summation
In skeletal muscle contraction, which of the following binds to myosin?
ATP
Which of the following does not move the shoulder girdle?
trapezius
Which of the following does not influence the time necessary for a nerve impulse to be transmitted?
whether or not the impulse begins in the CNS
Creatine phosphokinase works to
remove the phosphate from creatine phosphate and add it to ADP
The ____ flexes and adducts the wrist while the ___ extends and abducts the wrist
flexor carpi ulnaris; extensor carpi radialis
The all-or-none principle states that
all stimuli great enough to bring the membrane to threshold will produce identical action potentials
The largest and most numerous of the glial cells in the central nervous system are the
astrocytes
Compared to cardiac muscle cells, skeletal muscle cells
have a shorter refractory period
What type of contraction are you doing when holding a bag of groceries?
isometric
If the chemically gated sodium channels in the postsynaptic membrane were completely blocked,
synaptic transmission would fail
A muscle that assists the muscle that is primarily responsible for a given action by specifically preventing movement at another joint is
fixator
Which of the following is not an anterior neck muscle?
pterygoid muscle
______ line the brain ventricles and spinal canal
Ependymal cells
What enzyme is involved in smooth muscle contraction?
myosin light chain kinaser
The muscle that pronates the forearm and opposes biceps brachii is the
pronator quadratus
The following are the steps involved in transmission at a cholinergic synapse
2, 5, 4, 6, 7, 1, 8, 3
Which of the following interactions between electrical and chemical gradients does not lead to the extablishment of a neuron's resting potential?
electrical forces push sodium ions out of the cell
A muscle that dorsiflexes the foot is the
tibialis anterior
Which lever would be most effective for lifting a very heavy load a short distance?
second class lever
Which of the following is not an oblique muscle?
rectus abdominis
Which of these muscles is not a member of the quadriceps group?
vastus femoris
Which of the following is not involved in creating the resting potential of a neuron?
membrane permeability for sodium ions greater than potassium ions
The _____ muscle is the strongest jaw muscle
masseter
Which of the following muscles is found within the pelvic floor?
all of the above. Pubococcygeus, iliococcygeus, coccygeus, deep transverse perineal
The ion that triggers the release of acetylcholine into the synaptic cleft is
calcium
Tension of a single muscle fiber depends on
all of the above. Detree of overlap, frequency of stimulation, number of pivoting cross-bridges, fivers resting length at the time of stimulation
The ____ is superficial and inserts on the clavicles and scapular ____ ; while the ___ is deep and inserts on the scapular ____.
trapezius, spines; rhomboid, border
IPSPs (inhibitory postsynaptic potentials)
are local hyperpolarizations
During the Cori cycle, in the liver
glucose is produced from lactic acid
Each of the following terms is used to describe the shape of a muscle, except
hallucis
The following are the main steps in the generation of an action potential
4, 6, 7, 1, 2, 3, 5
The pituitary gland and thyroid gland are organs of the ______ system
endocrine
Which of the following bones is classified as "irregular" in shape?
vertebra
A type of intracellular junction that stops materials from crossing an epithelium between cells is termed an
occluding junction
The type of cells that form the strata in the epidermis are
keratinocytes
When body temperature rises, a center in the brain initiates physiological changes to decrease the body temperature. This is an example of
negative feedback
A rib is an example of a ____ bone
short
Epithelium is connected to underlying connective tissue by
a basal lamina
The tough "horny" superficial layer of the epidermis is known as the
stratum corneum
The ankle is ____ to the knee.
distal
The region of a long bone between the end and the shaft is known as the
metaphysis
The epithelia that line body cavities and blood vessels are classified as
simple squamous
The layer of the skin that contains bundles of collagen and elastic fibers responsible for the strength of the skin is the ____ layer
reticular
The chin is _____ to the nose.
inferior
_____ are cells that develop into osteoblasts
osteoprogenitor cells
Simple cuboidal epithelium is found
forming the kidney tubules
Which plane divides the body into right and left parts?
sagittal
All of the following of the subcutaneous layer, except it
is attached to the dermis by a basement membrane
Which of the following is a type of secretion in which the cell lyses?
holocrine
The central canal of an osteon contains
blood vessels
The ____ glands in the axilla become active at the time of puberty.
apocrine sweat
The serous membrane covering the stomach and most of the intestines is called the
peritoneum
Connective tissue fibers are produced mainly by
fibroblasts
The following are major steps in the process of intramembranous ossification.
4, 2, 1, 3.
4. MEsenchymal cells aggregate
2. Osteoblasts differentiate within mesenchymal connective tissue
1. Clusters of osteoblasts form osteoid that becomes mineralized
3. Spicules of bone radiate out from the ossification centers
In a penetrating wound, ____ divide to produce mobile cells that repair the dermis.
fibroblasts
Which of the following terms refers to the upper arm?
brachial
The framework of stroma of organs such as the spleen, liver, and lymph nodes is made up of ____ tissue.
reticular connective
Endochondral ossification begins with the formation of a
cartilage model
______ are cells in the epidermis that are part of the immune system.
dendritic cells
The mediastinum
B&C. separates the pleural cavities and contains the pericardial cavity
Which of the following membranes line cavities that communicate with the exterior of the body?
muccous
If the papilla of the hair follicle is destroyed,
the follicle will lose its blood supply
Secondary ossification centers occur
in the epiphyses
Which of the following organs is not contained within the abdominal cavity?
ovary
Which of these refers to the dense connective tissue that surrounds a muscle and blends with the tendon?
deep fascia
Skin can regulate effectively even after considerable damage has occurred because
stem cells persist in both epithelial and connective-tissue components of the skin even after injury
The liver is primarily located in the ____ quadrant.
right upper
Myosatellite cells are found in association with
skeletal muscle
Parathyroid hormone functions in all of the following ways, except that it
inhibits calcitonin secretion
While walking barefoot on the beach, Joe stepped on a thorn that penetrated through the sole of his foot to the dermis. How many layers of epidermis did the thorn penetrate?
5
while standing erect, the direction of caudal is
downward
Microscopic examination of a tissue reveals a loose framework of fibers embedded in a large volume of fluid ground substance and adipocytes and mast cells fibers. This tissue would most likely have come from the
superficial fascia between skin and muscle
Vitamin D is necessary for
absorption calcium and phosphate ions
Jaundice is indicated by
a yellowish skin coloration
Which term is incorrectly identified?
crural-calf
After a fracture of the diaphysis has healed, the thickened region that results is called the
external callus
Examination of a tissue sample reveals groups of cells united by junctional complexes and interlocking membranes. The cells have one free surface and lack blood vessels. The tissue is most likely ____ tissue.
epithelial
Which assessing a patient, you discover that after pinching the skin on the back of the hand, it remains peaked. This is a sign of
dehydration
A fracture at the ankle involving both lower leg bones is often called a _____ fracture.
pott
Endocrine glands empty their products into ____ and are referred to as ____ glands, while exocrine gland secretions empty into ____ or onto surfaces.
interstitial fluid; ductless; ducts
How would removing hydroxyapatite from bone matrix affect the physical properties of a bone?
The bone would be more brittle.
The reflex movement of the head toward a loud noise is directed by the mesencephalon. Which nuclei accomplish this?
inferior colliculi
Cerebrospinal fluid enters the blood circulation at the
superior sagittal sinus
A highly sensitive tactile receptor composed of dendritic processes of a single myelinated fiber that makes contact with specialized cells of the stratum germinativum is a
tactlie (merkel) disk
Cerebrospinal fluid flows within the
subarachnoid space
The medial nuclei of the thalamus
connect emotional centers in the hypothalamus with the frontal lobe.
As the ____ nerve approaches the knee, it divides into two branches, the fibular and tibial nerve
sciatic
All of the following are true of muscle spindles, except that they
are found in tendons
The afferant neuron that carries the sensation to the CNS is a ____ neuron
first-order
The ____ filters are relays sensory information to cerebral cortex.
thalamus
The ___ nerve distributes to the tripecs brachii, while the ___ nerve distributes to the biceps brachii.
radial; musculocutaneous
In which plexes does the ulnar nerve originate?
brachial
The posterior horns of the spinal cord contain mainly
sensory nuclei
Mary is in an automobile accident and suffers a spinal cord injury. She has lost feeling in her lower body. Her doctor tells her that swelling is compressing a portion of her spinal cord. Which part of her cord is likely to be compressed?
ascending tracts
The posterior nuclei of the thalamus include the
A,B,C. medial geniculate, lateral geniculate, pulvinar
Damage to the preoptic area of the hypothalamus leads to which problem?
intense thirst
The ____ is a strand of fibrous tissue that provides longitudinal support as a component of the coccygeal ligament.
filum terminale
During embryonic development, which of the following secondary brain vesicles will form the cerebrum?
telencephalon
Specialized ____ cells form the secretory component of the choroid plexus.
ependymal
Viral disease that destroys the cells of the anterior gray horn will
lead to muscle weakness or paralysis
A very large, fast-adapting tactile receptor that is composed of a single dendrite enclosed by concentric layers of collagen that detects deep pressure is a
lamellated corpuscle
A labeled line is
a link between a receptor and a cortical neuron.
Sensory information that arrives at the CNS is routed according to the ___ of the stimulus.
both A and C. modality and speed
After suffering a blow to the back of the head, Phil loses his vision. The blow probably caused damage to the
occipital lobe.
What loss would result from cutting through the medial lemniscus of the right side?
loss of fine touch sensation on the left side of the body
Nerve tracts or fasciculi make up the
anterior white columns
The ____ reflex complements the flexor reflex by activating contralateral muscles.
crossed extensor
All of the following are true of a prickling pain sensation, except that the
receive conscious attention
Which nerve distributes to the hamstrings
sciatic nerve
Which ascending tract does not decussate?
posterior spinocerebellar tract
Which cervical plexus nerve does not distribute to the skin of the shoulder and upper chest?
ansa cervicalis
The spinal tract that relays information concerning crude touch and pressure to the CNS is the
anterior spinothalamic
Which of the cranial nerves is named for the fact that it "wanders", that is, innervates structures throughout the thorax and abdomen?
vagus
The third and fourth ventricles are linked the
aqueduct of the midbrain
Sensory encoding of the perceived location of the stimulus depends on
the specific location of the cortical neuron that is stimulated
Which sensation does the vestibulocochlear nerve carry?
A and B only. hearing and equilibrium
The layer of the meninges in direct contact with the spinal cord is the
pia mater
Bladder fullness is to ____ as blood pH is to ____
baroreceptors; chemoreceptors
Each of the following nerves originates in the lumbar plexus, except the ____ nerve
femoral
A patient develops a tumor of a cranial nerve that leads to difficulty in spreading from a loss of tongue movement. Which cranial nerve is affected?
hypoglossal
Which of these dural folds is mismatched with its location?
falx cerebri; transverse fissure
Neurons from the nucleus gracilis
decussate before entering the medial lemniscus
The only sensation that is received directly by the cerebrum is
olfaction
Sensory innervation of the lower teeth and gums is by the ___ nerve
mandibular branch of the trigeminal
Peripheral adaptation _____ the number of action potentials that reach the CNS.
decreases
Jean needs to have a tooth in her mandible filled. Her dentist injects a local anesthetic to block pain afferents in one of her cranial nerves. What cranial nerve does the dentist numb?
trigeminal
The layer of connective tissue that surrounds a fascicle within a peripheral nerve is the
perineurium
Bill contracts a viral disease that destroys cells in the posterior gray horns in his spinal cord. As a result, which of the following would you expect?
loss of sensation in the torso
Joe begins to experience mood swings and disturbed thirst and hunger. Imaging studies indicate that a brain tumor is the likely cause of these disorders. In what part of the brain is the tumor most likely located?
hypothalamus
The respiratory rhythmicity center is located in
the medulla oblongata
The obturator nerve is distributed to the
adductors of the hip