40 terms


The person credited with first recognizing (in the 1860s) that living cells cannot arise spontaneously, but arise only from previously existing cells, is _____.
1) Louis Pasteur
2) Robert Hooke
3) Rudolf Virchow
4) Anton van Leeuwenhoek
5) Watson
The function of the cell cycle is to produce daughter cells that _____.
1) are genetically identical to the parent cell (assuming no mutation has occurred)
2) have the same number of chromosomes as the parent cell but not the same genetic content
3) have a random assortment of maternal and paternal chromosomes
4) have the same number of chromatids as the parent cell had chromosomes
5) none of the above
Sister chromatids _____.
1) are created when DNA is replicated
2) are attached at the centromere prior to division
3) are separated during mitosis
4) have matching copies of the chromosome's DNA
5) all of the above
The complex of DNA and protein that makes up a eukaryotic chromosome is properly called _____.
1) a chromatid
2) a chloroplast
3) chromatin
4) a chromoplast
5) a centrosome
The region of a chromosome holding the two double strands of replicated DNA together is called _____.
1) chromatin
2) a centriole
3) a centromere
4) a chromatid
5) an aster
If an intestinal cell in a grasshopper contains 24 chromosomes, a grasshopper sperm cell would contain _____ chromosomes.
1) 3
2) 6
3) 12
4) 24
5) 48
The centromere is a region in which _____.
1) chromosomes become aligned during metaphase
2) microtubules are fastened to the centrioles during anaphase
3) the new cell plate forms in telophase
4) sister chromatids are attached to one another in prophase
5) the chromosomes are connected to the cell plate in metaphase
How many maternal chromosomes are present in a somatic human cell not engaged in cell division?
1) 23
2) 46
3) 92
4) 184
5) none of the above
A cell entering the cell cycle with 32 chromosomes will produce two daughter cells, each with _____.
1) 16 chromosomes
2) 32 chromosomes
3) 32 pairs of chromosomes
4) 64 pairs of chromosomes
5) none of the above
"Cytokinesis" refers to _____.
1) division of the entire cell
2) division of the nucleus
3) division of the cytoplasm
4) reduction in the number of chromosomes
5) movement of a cell from one place to another
Chromatids are _____.
1) found only in aberrant chromosomes
2) held together by the centrioles
3) identical copies of each other if they are part of the same chromosome
4) the bacterial equivalent of eukaryotic chromosomes
5) composed of RNA
If a cell contains 60 chromatids at the start of mitosis, how many chromosomes will be found in each daughter cell at the completion of the cell cycle?
1) 15
2) 30
3) 45
4) 60
5) 120
A biochemist measured the amount of DNA in cells growing in the laboratory and found that the quantity of DNA in the cells doubled _____.
1) between prophase and anaphase
2) between the G1 and G2 phases
3) during the M phase of the cell cycle
4) between the G2 phase and prophase
5) between anaphase and telophase
A cell biologist carefully measured the quantity of DNA in grasshopper cells growing in cell culture. Cells examined during the G2 phase of the cell cycle contained 200 units of DNA. What would be the amount of DNA at G1 of the cell cycle in one of the grasshopper daughter cells?
1) 50 units
2) 100 units
3) between 50 and 100 units
4) 200 units
5) 400 units
During interphase, the genetic material of a typical eukaryotic cell is _____.
1) dispersed in the nucleus as long strands of chromatin
2) dispersed in the cytoplasm as long strands of chromatin
3) condensed and the chromosomes are often visible under the light microscope
4) attached to microtubule spindle fibers
5) transported through the nuclear pores
DNA replication occurs in _____.
1) prophase of both mitosis and meiosis
2) metaphase of meiosis only
3) the S phase of interphase in both somatic and reproductive cells
4) the G1 phase of interphase in reproductive cells only
5) the cytokinesis portion of the cell's life cycle
Chromatids form _____.
1) during G1
2) during G2
3) during the S phase
4) at the start of mitosis
5) at the start of meiosis
If a somatic human cell is just about to divide, it has _____ chromatids.
1) 92
2) 23
3) 46
4) 0
5) There is insufficient information to answer the question.
Which one of the following does not occur during mitosis?
1) the movement of chromosomes to opposite poles
2) condensed chromatin
3) separation of chromatids
4) replication of chromosomes
5) alignment of chromosomes along the cell's equator
During what phase in the cell cycle, would you find the most DNA per cell?
1) G1
2) G2
3) S1
4) S
5) prophase II
In telophase of mitosis, the mitotic spindle breaks down and the chromatin uncoils. This is essentially the opposite of what happens in _____.
1) prophase
2) interphase
3) metaphase
4) S phase
5) anaphase
Which of the following phases of mitosis is essentially the opposite of prometaphase in terms of the nuclear envelope?
1) telophase
2) metaphase
3) S phase
4) interphase
5) anaphase
Assume that you are dealing with a species in which the number of chromosomes in each somatic cell is 14. How many sister chromatids are present in the early telophase of mitosis?
1) 0
2) 7
3) 14
4) 28
5) none of the above
At which point in the cell cycle do centrosomes begin to move apart to two poles of the cell in a dividing human skin cell?
1) S phase
2) G2 phase
3) prophase
4) metaphase
5) anaphase
The phase of mitosis during which the chromosomes move toward separate poles of the cell is _____.
1) telophase
2) anaphase
3) metaphase
4) prophase
5) prometaphase
One event occurring during prophase is _____.
1) the beginning of the formation of a spindle apparatus
2) the synthesis of a new nuclear envelope
3) the alignment of chromosomes in a single plane
4) cytokinesis
5) division of the centromere
During anaphase of mitosis _____.
1) the centromeres divide
2) the centrioles are at opposite poles
3) a spindle made of microtubules is present
4) identical chromatids move to opposite poles
5) all of the above
Which one of the following represents a mismatch or incorrect description?
1) prophase: chromosomes become more tightly coiled
2) metaphase: chromosomes line up on the equatorial plane
3) metaphase: the nuclear envelope disappears
4) anaphase: there is movement of the chromosomes to the poles
5) telophase: chromosomes become more extended
Sister chromatids separate during _____.
1) anaphase
2) G1 phase
3) G2 phase
4) metaphase
5) prophase
In animal cell mitosis, the cleavage furrow forms during _____.
1) anaphase
2) the G1 phase
3) cytokinesis
4) metaphase
5) prophase
At which stage of mitosis are chromosomes lined up in one plane in preparation for their separation to opposite poles of the cell?
1) prophase
2) metaphase
3) anaphase
4) telophase
5) interphase
You would know a dividing cell was a plant cell rather than an animal cell if you saw that _____.
1) it had formed a cell plate
2) it had two pairs of centrioles during prophase
3) it had microtubules
4) the nucleolus was visible during metaphase
5) it had formed a cleavage furrow
Which one of the following processes does not occur in dividing bacteria?
1) replication of DNA
2) separation of the origins of replication
3) mitosis
4) binary fission
5) inward growth of the plasma membrane
During binary fission in a bacterium _____.
1) the two DNA molecules float free in the cell and are guided to daughter cells by a spindle-like apparatus
2) the origins of replication move apart
3) the two DNA molecules divide in half, forming four DNA fragments
4) the two DNA molecules attach to the centrioles
5) the two DNA molecules break up into plasmids
Binary fission in bacterial cells involves _____.
1) prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase
2) disintegration of the nuclear membrane
3) distribution of a copy of the single parental chromosome to each daughter cell
4) formation of a cell plate
5) formation of a spindle apparatus
When a cell in S phase is fused with a cell in G1, _____.
1) DNA synthesis begins immediately in the original G1 nucleus
2) the replication of DNA occurring in the original S nucleus is terminated
3) the two nuclei fuse and further division is arrested
4) the chromosomes of the original G1 nucleus condense in preparation for mitosis
5) the original G1 cell will divide immediately
Tissue culture experiments with PDGF demonstrate that without this substance _____.
1) bacterial cells lose their resistance to antibiotics
2) cells divide in an uncontrolled fashion, confirming its role as a cell division inhibitor
3) fibroblasts fail to divide
4) animal cells are unable to attach to the substratum
5) the various kinases, such as MPF, are unable to bind to cyclin
You would be unlikely to see which of the following human cells dividing?
1) nerve cell
2) skin cell
3) cancer cell
4) cell from an embryo
5) intestinal lining cell
Observations of cancer cells in culture support the hypothesis that cancer cells _____.
1) do not exhibit density-dependent inhibition
2) produce molecules that inhibit the growth factors required for cell division
3) exhibit anchorage dependence
4) spend the majority of their time in the G0 phase
5) all of the above
What is the difference between a benign tumor and a malignant tumor?
1) Benign tumors arise by transformation; malignant tumors do not.
2) Cells of benign tumors do not metastasize; those of malignant tumors do.
3) Cells of benign tumors metastasize; those of malignant tumors do not.
4) Benign tumors will not kill you; malignant tumors will.
5) Benign tumors do not arise by transformation; malignant tumors do.