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Semester 2 Final Study Guide
Terms in this set (59)
What are the "power houses" of the cell
What is something important that occurs in the mitochondria. what it is? what is the process? What does it make?
The citric acid cycle or Kreb's cycle takes pyruvate acid and oxygen and metabolizes it into 36 ATP and carbon dioxide.
Your Joints: Know all of them: Moveable, immovable, the types (saddle, hinge, etc.)
Moveable: ball and socket(shoulders,hips),gliding(wrist/ankles), pivot(radius/ulna), saddle(carpals/metacarples), and hinge(elbows,phalanges). Immovable: Sutures(facial bones)
Trace air molecules from the nose/mouth to the alveoli.
Enters the nose/mouth, goes through the oropharynx or nasopharynx, enters the larynx, down through the trachea into the bronchi, into the left or right at the carina, into the brochioles, and into the alveoli.
Know the pathway of a blood cell through circulatory system.
Enters the right atrium from the vena cava, goes through the tricuspid valve into the right ventricle, goes through the semi-lunar valve or pulmonary valve into the pulmonary artery, carried to the lungs where it is oxygenated and sent to the pulmonary vein, enters the left atrium, passes through the mitral valve/bicuspid valve into the left ventricle, through the aortic valve into the aorta. From aorta it is sent to the body.
There is a body system that is not required for organism survival. Which one is it?
Where is blood purified (Several answers)? But what happens if those do not work? What is done?
Liver and Kidneys. If they do not work patient will require dialysis.
How does food get from your mouth to your rectum and out? What are the technical terms for chewing, removal, and movement through the GI tract called?
Food enters the mouth. Goes down the oropharynx into the esophagus. Then enters the stomach, passes through the pyloric sphincter/valve into the small intestines(duodenum, jejunum, ileum) then into the large intestines, rectum ,anus, toilet. Chewing: Mastication. Movement: peristalsis. Removal: Excretion.
Do we have bacteria in us? If so, what does it do? What do we call it?
Yes. It prevents pathogens from attaching to certain sites. We call it normal flora.
What is a drugs half life?
Time it takes for the drugs active ingredients effects to be cut in half.
What is biotransformation?
special name given to the metabolism of medications.
What is pharmacokinetics?
How medications are transported into and out of the body.
What is pharmacodynamics?
How a medication interacts with the body to cause its effects.
What is bioavailability?
amount of medication that is still active after it reaches its target tissue.
What do diuretics do? Are there different forms of diuretics?
Helps remove fluid from the body. Types: Potassium sparing (amiloride) acts at collecting tubule. Loop Diuretic (Lasix) acts on loop of Henley. Thiazides (hydrochlorothiazide) acts on distal convoluted tubule. Osmotic agent (mannitol) acts on proximal tubule, descending loop, and the collecting duct.
Vaughn- Williams Classes of Drugs.
(S)oon to (B)e (K)ing of the (C)astle
Class 1: (S)odium channel
Class2: (B)eta blockers
Class 3: Potassium(K)
Class 4: (C)alcium
Someone screws up on scene. Who is on the hook? Hint: did you write the report?
Paramedic on scene and medical director. Use common sense based on question.
What do you call the document once you've submitted a report, but you want to add or change something in the original report?
What should be in the subjective part of a narrative?
What the patient tells you.
What is oxytocin used for, especially for EMS use?
To control post-partum hemorrhaging.
Giving IM injections. Sizes, amounts, and where.
Size: 21-23 gauge.
Dorsal gluteal: 5ml
Vastus lateralis(lateral quad): 5ml
Rectus femoris(lateral thigh): 5ml
OG/NG. How do you give meds? What do you do next?
Flush tube with 50-100ml normal saline. Mix crushed tablet with 30ml warm water. Administer medication. Flush again with 50-100ml normal saline. Do not crush time release medications.
Parenteral and enteral routes. Know the difference, and know which ones are which.
Enteral Routes: Oral, Gastric Tube, Rectal
Parenteral Routes: Intradermal, subcutaneous, intramuscular, intravenous, intraosseous.
The standard IV needle we use in EMS, what is the technical term for what type of system it is?
Over the needle catheter.
What do we call IV that is blown? The technical term?
Know the difference between crystalloid, a colloid, and blood products.
Colloid: Plasma protein fraction, Albumin, Dextran, Hetastarch.
Crystalloid: Lactated Ringers, Normal Saline, Dextrose .
Blood Products: Whole blood
Know the levels between mild, moderate, and severe hypoxia, especially when taking about O2 saturation.
Mild Hypoxia= 91-94%
Know the narrowest part of the upper airway for both adult and a pediatric patient.
Adult: Glottic opening (directly behind adam's apple/ thyroid cartilage)
Pediatric: Cricoid cartilage
Be able to describe crackles, rhonchi, rales, pleural rub, and wheezing.
Crackles/ Rales: Wet, fine fluid/bubbling in smaller bronchioles
Rhonchi: Thick fluid/mucous in bronchioles. Coarse
Pleural Rub: Sandpaper sound.
Wheezing: Musical squeaking or whistling.
Stridor: High pitched upper airway.
Manual airway maneuvers. Know what they are and do not forget them.
Know when and when not to RSI.
Indications: Impending or actual respiratory failure from any cause.
impending or actual inability to protect the airway from any cause.
combativeness 2nd to presumed head trauma.
hypoxemia despite maximal therapy.
Contraindications: Predicted difficult airway.
Short ETA to hospital
Only one medic on scene.
Ability to manage patient with less risky procedures.
When the only indication is airway protection.
Tidal volumes, minute volumes, residual volumes. Know those terms.
Tidal Volume: volume in one respiratory cycle approx 500.
Minute volume: amount of air moved in one minute.
Residual volume: Amount of volume left at the end of maximal expiration.
What is the definition of shock?
The inadequate perfusion of body tissues. Hypoperfusion.
Blood Types. Which one can be given to anyone? Which one can receive any type of blood
Universal donor: Type O
Universal Receiver: AB
What is normal PH? What are the normal levels of HCO3 and PCO2? Be able to read blood gas levels.
Normal PH: 7.35-7.45ph
Normal HCO3: 22-26 mEQ
Normal PCO2: 35-45 mmHG
What are the most common cations intracellular and extracellular?
What is pulmonary edema? When Do we see it?
Pulmonary Edema is excess fluid in the lungs. Usually caused by a heart condition such as CHF but also by pneumonia, exposure to certain toxins/drugs, and high elevations.
You are in paramedic class. What are you Learning?
How much percentage of water is a normal person?
60% or 2/3rds
As a paramedic, do you have your own license? If not, who do you work under?
No. We practice under the medical directors license.
The patient condition changes. What should you do (and although reassess is right, where do you start)?
History taking is done using what pneumonic normally?
You have more patients than resources. What is that usually called and what do you use to sort them?
MCI, START triage.(Respirations, Perfusion, and Mental Status) 30:2: Can Do
Define Scope of Practice, standing orders, treatment guidlines.
Scope of Practice: Range of duties and skills of paramedics and other levels of ems certifications are allowed and expected to perform.
Standing Orders: Treatment, procedures, preauthorized by medical director.
Treatment guidelines: Same as standing orders/protocols.
What is a DNR. Who has to sign it?
Do Not resuscitate order. Physician and Patient/ power of attorney must sign.
What level drives respirations?
PCO2 except in COPD patients in which PO2 drives respirations.
How many leads are needed to detect life threatening arrhythmias?
What are the signs of Pulmonary embolism?
Sudden chest pain, dyspnea, tachycardia, cyanosis, diaphoresis, hypotension
What are the signs of aortic aneurysm?
Chest/ back/ abdominal pain, trouble breathing, hypotension, LOC, dyspnea, trouble swallowing, palpating mass in abdomen.
What are the signs of Diaphragmatic rupture?
Dyspnea, hypoxia, hypotension, JVD.
How do test visual acuity?
Use a Wall Chart
What do we call it when we feel vibrations through the chest?
What is clubbing? What does it mean?
Rounding of the nails. Usually indicates hypoxia from COPD
What is Clammy skin?
What is referred pain?
pain that is felt in a location other than where the pain originates
Know the Terms facilitation, interpretation, clarification, and reflection.
All Active listening Skills.
Facilitation: Encouraging your patient to provide more information.
Interpretation: Link events and make associations based on information given by patient.
Clarification: Ask patient to help you understand what has been said.
Reflection: Check your understanding of what has been said.
Drug Calc Master Formula
VOH/DOH x DD/1ml x 60GTTs/1min
Know up and over, down and under, rear , oblique, and lateral mechanisms of injury. Why is each one a problem? Which one has a higher mortality rate?
Self explanatory. Lateral has highest mortality rate.
Know how to treat a sucking chest wound. Know the other name for it.
Open pneumothorax: Provide supplemental O2 and cover with occlusive dressing taped or sealed on 3 sides.
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