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Chap. 22 Ecosystem Ecology
Terms in this set (13)
The long-term average of atmospheric conditions.
Local atmospheric conditions over a short period of time
The amount of biological or living diversity per unit area. It includes the concepts of species diversity, habitat diversity and genetic diversity.
The natural process by which heat is radiated from Earth's surface and trapped by gases in the atmosphere, helping to maintain Earth at a temperature that can support life.
A measure of the total greenhouse gases produced by human activities.
What is the difference between climate and weather?
The climate in any given area refers to the long-term average of atmospheric conditions. Weather describes local atmospheric conditions over a short interval—the sun or clouds, wind or rain predicted in your weekly forecast. If the weather demonstrates a consistent change over a long period of time—consistently warmer winters, for example—that can indicate a change in the climate. Climate change is defined as any substantial change in climate that lasts for an extended period of time (decades or more). One contributor to current climate change is global warming, a recent and continuing increase in the average global temperature.
Ecosystem interactions are changed by altered climate. Chapter 20 gave examples of this in infographic 20.9 and Chapter 21 talked about alterations in infographic 22.2. Apply this concept to eutrophication -What ecosystem interactions might be altered by climate change in Lake Whatcom?
What are examples of greenhouse gases?
carbon dioxide, methane, water vapor
How does the greenhouse effect work?
The greenhouse effect is a natural process by which heat radiated from Earth's surface is absorbed by heat-trapping gases in the atmosphere, maintaining a global temperature that can support life. Rising levels of greenhouse gases have led to the enhanced greenhouse effect.
Study infographic 22.9.
a.Where does photosynthesis and respiration fit in with this figure?
b.Which aspects of the carbon cycle use/produce the most gigatons of carbon?
c.How many gigatons are added by human activity (excluding cellular respiration) each year?
As it cycles through the environment, carbon moves between organic and inorganic forms. For example, animals take in organic carbon when they eat other organisms and release inorganic gaseous CO2 into the atmosphere as a by-product of cellular respiration. Similarly, when organisms die, decomposers in the soil use the dead organic material for food and energy, releasing some of the carbon during respiration as CO2.
Plants, photosynthetic bacteria, and algae take up CO2 during photosynthesis and convert it into organic sugar molecules, thus reducing atmospheric CO2 levels. Photosynthesis, respiration, and decomposition form a cycle that keeps carbon dioxide at a relatively stable level in the atmosphere. But human actions, like deforestation and burning fossil fuels, inject carbon dioxide that was not otherwise moving into the cycle
How are atmospheric CO2 levels measured?
Air bubbles trapped in glacial ice from Greenland and Antarctica provide a historical measure of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Ice cores drilled at these sites provide data on very long term changes in CO2 levels (and temperature), going back hundreds of thousands of years. These data show, for example, that levels of CO2 have cycled in patterns that correlate with major ice ages. Since 1958, scientists have also directly measured CO2 in the atmosphere—for example, at the Mauna Loa Research Station, which sits atop an inactive volcano in Hawaii. When combined, these data show that atmospheric CO2 has been rising steadily since the industrial revolution—increasing from about 280 parts per million (ppm) in 1800 to more than 400 ppm in 2017—or more than 40%
Summarize the findings from the figure in infographic 22.10.9.Which human practice emits the most greenhouse gases per year? See infographic 22.11
Electricity emits 30.4% of green house gasses
Natural selection favors structures that increase functionality within the ecosystem. Communities respond to ecosystem changes. What does that mean for best practices in reducing our carbon footprint?
With this steep rise in greenhouse gases have come steadily rising temperatures around the globe, with most of that warming occurring since the 1970s. Virtually all climate scientists agree that greenhouse gases emitted by human activities—primarily driving gasoline-powered cars and burning coal to generate electricity—have caused most of the global rise in temperature observed since the mid-20th century. That is, this global warming is anthropogenic—caused by humans
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