Describe the eyeblink reflex.
Stimulation: shine bright light at eyes, clap hand near head
Response: infant quickly closes eyelids
Function: protects infant from strong stimulation
Describe the rooting reflex.
Stimulation: stroke cheek near corner of mouth
Response: head turns toward source of stimulation
Function: helps infant find nipple
Describe the sucking reflex.
Stimulation: place fingers in infant's mouth
Response: infant sucks finger
Function: permits feeding
Describe the swimming reflex.
Stimulation: place infant face down in pool of water
Response: baby paddles and kicks in swimming motion
Function: helps infant survive if dropped in water
Describe the moro reflex.
Stimulation: hold infant on back and let head drop slightly, or produce sudden loud sound against surface supporting infant
Response: infant makes embracing motion
Describe the palmar grasp reflex.
Stimulation: place finger in infant's hand
Response: infant grasps finger
Function: prepares infant for voluntary grasping
Describe the tonic neck reflex.
Stimulation: turn baby's head to one side which lying on back
Response: infant lies in fencing position
Function: may prepare infant for voluntary reaching
Describe the stepping reflex.
Stimulation: hold infant under arms, permit feet to touch a surface
Response: infants lifts one foot after another
Function: prepares infant for voluntary walking
Describe the babinski reflex.
Stimulation: stroke sole of foot from toe to heel
Response: toes fan out and curl
Describe the withdrawal reflex.
an attempt to avoid pain, body part jerks backwards/away, extension of the body part on opposite side
Describe regular/NREM sleep.
Infant is at full rest and shows little or no body activity. The eyelids are closed, no eye movements occur, the face is relaxed, breathing is slow and irregular (8-9hrs in newborn)
Describe irregular/REM sleep.
Gentle limb movements, occasional stirring, and facial grimacing occur. Although the eyelids are closed, occasional rapid eye movements occur, breathing is irregular (8-9 hrs)
Infant is falling asleep or waking up. Body is less active than in irregular sleep but more active than in regular sleep. The eyes open and close; when open, eyes have a glazed look. Breathing is even but a little faster than in regular sleep (varies)
Describe quiet alertness.
The infant's body is relatively inactive, with eyes open and attentive. Breathing is even (2-3 hrs)
Describe waking activity and crying.
The infant shows frequent bursts of uncoordinated body activity. Breathing is very irregular. Face may be relaxed or tense and wrinkled. Crying may occur (1-4hrs)
What is the NBAS? NNNS?
The NBAS evaluates the baby's reflexes, muscle tone, state changes, responsiveness to physical and social stimuli and other reactions.
NNNS is specially designed for use with newborns at risk for developmental problems because of low birth weight, preterm delivery, prenatal substance exposure, or other conditions.
What do NBAS/NNNS test help with?
Scores are used to understand each infant's capacity to initiate caregiver support, to adjust his behavior to avoid being overwhelmed by stimulation and to recommend appropriate interventions.
Changes in scores, rather than a single score, provides the best estimate of the baby's ability to record from the stress of birth.
These tests help parents of newborns interact more effectively with their babies.
What is classical conditioning?
A neutral stimulus is paired with a stimulus that leads to a reflexive response. When baby's nervous system makes the connection between the two stimuli, the new stimulus will produce the behavior by itself. Classical conditioning helps infants recognize which events usually occur together in the everyday world, so that can anticipate what is about to happen next.
What is operant conditioning?
Infants act, or operate, on the environment, and stimuli that follow their behavior change the probability that the behavior will occur again. A stimulus that increases the occurrence of a response is called a reinforcer. Removing a desirable stimulus or presenting an unpleasant one to decrease the occurrence of a response is called punishment.
What is recovery?
A new stimulus, change in the environment, causes the habituated response to return to a high level talk more about familiarity/novel preference, remote memory, etc
What is imitation?
Copying the behavior of another person. Using imitation, infants explore their social world, getting to know people by matching their behavioral states. As babies notice similarities between their own actions and those of others, they start to learn about themselves.
Describe the overall sequence of motor development during the first two years. What are gross and fine motor skills?
Gross motor development - control over actions that help infants get around in the environment, such as crawling, standing and walking
Fine motor development - smaller movements such as reaching and grasping
Organization and direction in infants' motor achievements have a cephalocaudal and proximodistal trend.
Explain dynamic systems theory of motor development,
According to the dynamic systems theory of motor development, mastery of motor skills involves acquiring increasingly complex systems of action. When motor skills work as a system, separate abilities blend together, each cooperating with others to produce more effective ways of exploring and controlling the environment.
Discuss support for the dynamic systems approach stemming from microgenetic and cross-cultural research.
To find out how infants acquire motor capacities, researchers conduct microgenetic studies, following babies from their first attempts at a skill until it becomes smooth and effortless.
Cross-cultural research illustrates how early movement opportunities and a stimulating environment contribute to motor development. Cultural variations in infant-rearing practices affect motor development.
What four factors make up a motor skill?
Each new skill is a product of four factors: CNS development, body's movement capacities, child's goals, environmental supports for the skill
Describe the development of reaching and grasping
Reaching and grasping start out as gross, diffuse activities and move toward mastery of fine movements.
Prereaching - poorly coordinated swipes toward an object
Reaching is largely controlled by proprioception - sense of movement and location in space. Reaching improves as depth perception advances and as infants gain greater control fo body posture and arm/hand movements.
Ulnar grasp - clumsy motion in which the baby's fingers close against the palm
Pincer grasp - thumb and index finger are used opposably
Explain how early experiences affect reaching and grasping
Babies with a mobile reach for objects earlier than infants given nothing to look at. A group that had massive stimulation also reached sooner than unstimulated babies but the infants looked away and cried a lot. More stimulation pushes babies beyond their current readiness to handle stimulation and can undermine development of important motor skills.
Describe infants' sensitivity to touch
Birth: responds to touch and pain, distinguishes shape of object in palm
1-6 mo: Engages in exploratory mouthing of objects
Describe infants' sensitivity to taste and smell
Birth: distinguishes sweet, sour and bitter (prefers sweetness), distinguishes odors, prefers smell of own mother's amniotic fluid and the lactating breast
1-6mo: prefers a salty taste to plain water, readily changes taste preferences through experience
Summarize the development of hearing in infancy
Birth: Prefers complex sounds to pure tones, distinguishes sound patterns, makes distinctions between speech sounds, turns eyes/heard in direction of a sound
1-6mo: organizes sound into elaborate patterns, identifies location of sound more precisely, becomes sensitive to syllable stress patterns in own language
7-12mo: recognizes same melody played in different keys, screens out sounds not used in own language, detects speech units crucial to understand meaning
What are the steps in depth perception?
Birth-1mo: Sensitivity to kinetic cues (respond to motion, objects coming close to them)
2-3mo: Sensitivity to binocular cues (two eyes with slightly different views of the visual field)
5-12mo: Sensitivity to pictorial cues, wariness of heights (3D cues)
What are the steps in pattern perception?
3wks: poor contrast sensitivity, prefers large simple patterns
2mo: can detect detail in complex patterns, scans internal features of patterns
4mo: can detect patterns even if boundaries are not present
12mo: can detect objects even if 2/3 of drawing is missing
What is face perception?
Infants' tendency to search for a structure in a patterned stimulus. Newborns prefer to look at photos and drawings of faces with features arranged naturally rather than unnaturally.
2mo: recognize and prefer their mothers' facial features
3-4mo: make fine distinctions between features of different faces
What is object perception? Describe size and shape constancy.
Perception of the world of independently existing objects, in 3D form.
Size constancy - perception of objects size as stable, despite changes in size of its retinal image (evident in first week of life)
Shape constancy - perception of an object's shape as stable, despite changes in the shape projected on the retina (present in first week of life)
These are built-in capacities that help babies detect a coherent world of objects.
Describe babies' perception on object identity. Describe object unit and object's continuous path of movement.
Young infants are not sensitive to indicators of an object (shape, texture, color). They rely on motion and spatial arrangement to identify objects.
Object unity - can integrate each object's diverse features into a unified whole and rely more on indicators, less on motion.
Object's continuous path of movement - infants also become able to register an object's path of movement without seeing the entire path.
What is intermodal and amodal sensory properties? What are the steps?
Intermodal perception - making sense of simultaneous input from more than one modality/sensory system by perceiving them as integrated wholes
Amodal sensory properties - info that is not specific to a single modality but that overlaps two or more sensory systems
Birth: detect amodal sensory properties
3-4mo: prefer matching sights and sounds
5-6mo: reach for object in the dark, coordinating sight and touch
What is intermodal perception's contributions to other domains of functioning?
Intermodal stimulation facilitates social and language processing. It also fosters psychological development. Early parent-infant interaction presents baby with a rich context using all senses for expanding intermodal knowledge. With intermodal stimulation, babies process more info, learn faster and show better memory. It is a capacity for infants to build an orderly, predictable world.
Explain the differentiation theory of perceptual development.
1. Infants search for invariant features of the environment (those that remain stable in a changing perceptual world)
2. Note stable relationships between features (visual patterns, intermodal relationships)
3. Gradually detect finer and finer features (differentiation)
What are affordances?
The action possibilities that a situation offers an organism with certain motor capabilities.
Discovered by acting on the environment.
Make actions future-oriented.
Discuss research on early deprivation and enrichment, and explain how it sheds light on the question of whether infancy is a sensitive period of development.
Studies have soon that infants reared in underprivileged environments are affected by abnormal development. The earlier they are exposed to more stimulating environments, the better the recovery from the deprivation. If later, some deficits will still be apparent and the recovery is not as good.
Environments that overwhelm children with expectations beyond their current capacities also undermine development. Trying to prime babies with stimulation they are not ready for can cause them to withdraw, threatening their spontaneous interest and pleasure in learning.
Peaks between 2-4 mo of age.
Leading cause of death of infant mortality in industrialized nations.
Quitting smoking, changing infant's sleep position and removing bedclothes can reduce incidence.
Describe adult responsiveness to infant crying.
Interpretation of cry: adults use intensity and context, accuracy improves with experience
Adult characteristics: Empathy, child-centered attitude, perception of control over crying
What are ways to soothe a baby?
Hold on shoulder, walk and rock
Ride in carriage, car, swing
Let cry for a short time
Describe the course of physical growth from birth through adolescence, including changes in body size.
Body size - During infancy, changes are most rapid. Two types of growth curves: distance curve plots average size of children at each age, indicating typical yearly progress toward maturity; velocity curve. Plots average amount of growth at each yearly interval revealing timing for growth spurts.
During infancy/childhood, girls are slightly shorter than boys but around 10-11. They grow taller because their pubertal growth spurt takes place 2 years earlier than boys. At age 14, girls are surpassed by boys.
Describe the course of physical growth from birth through adolescence, including changes in body proportions.
Body proportions - During puberty, growth proceeds in reverse direction of cephalocaudal/proximodistal growth. Hands, legs and feet accelerate first, followed by torso.
Describe the course of physical growth from birth through adolescence, including changes in muscle-fat makeup.
Muscle-fat - Fat peaks at 9mo, girls have more at birth. From age 8, girls add more fat on arms, legs, trunk. During adolescence, girls add and boys lose.
Muscle is added slowly during birth/infancy and childhood. At adolescence, boys add much more
Describe skeletal growth, including the usefulness of skeletal age for estimating physical maturity.
The best estimate of a child's physical maturity is skeletal age - a measure of development of the bones of the body. Growth centers in the bones, called epiphyses, appear at the ends of each long bone. As growth continues, they get thinner and disappear. After that, no further growth in bone length is possible. Skeletal age can be measured by X-ray and determining the number of epiphyses and the extent to which they are fused.
Describe changes in gross motor skills across childhood and adolescence.
By age 2, gaits become smooth and rhythmic.
3-6 hopping, galloping, skipping
4-5 use a smooth, flexible motion involving many body parts
7-12 improved balance, strength, agility, speed
Boys develop more strength, speed and endurance.
Athletic pressure on boys (which may lead to more practice)
Discuss hormonal influences in puberty?
GH and thyroxine increase around ages 8-9. Estrogens are more present in girls. Adrenal androgens are released by adrenal glands and influence girls' height spurt and stimulate growth of underarm and pubic hair.
Androgens are more present in boys. The testes release testosterone which leads to muscle growth, body and facial hair, and male sex characteristics.
What are the benefits of team sports?
Regular physical activity, greater social competence, self-esteem.
Parents and coaches must emphasize effort, improvement, and teamwork. Not competition.
Describe the pituitary gland, hypothalamus, growth hormone, thyroxine.
Pituitary gland - releases the most important hormones for human growth
Hypothalamus - structure that initiates and regulates pituitary secretions
GH - Only pituitary secretion produced continuously throughout life, affects development of all tissues except CNS and genitals
Thyroxine - hormone released by thyroid gland that is necessary for brain development and for GH to have its full impact on body size
Discuss factors that contribute to worldwide variations, secular trends, and asynchronies in physical growth.
Shortest children are found in S. America, Asia, Pacific islands, parts of Africa. Tallest children found in N. & Central Europe, Australia, Canada, US.
Heredity and environment contribute to variations.
Secular trends in physical growth are changes in body size and rate of growth from one generation to the next. Improved health and nutrition are responsible for gains. Secular trends are smaller for low-income children. Regions with poverty, famine and disease have no secular change or secular decrease.
Describe the development and functions of neurons and glial cells.
Neurons are nerve cells that store and transmit info. They send messages to one another by releasing neurotransmitters.
Glial cells cause dramatic increase in brain size during infancy and early childhood. They make up had the brain's volume and are responsible for myelination.
Describe the development of the cerebral cortex,
The cerebral cortex surrounds the brain, being the largest brain structure. It accounts for 85% of the brain's weight and contains the greatest number of neurons and synapses.
Explain the concepts of brain lateralization
Brain lateralization - specialization of the two L and R hemispheres.
Left - responsible for verbal abilities, positive emotion, sensory info and control of R side of body, sequential, analytical processing.
Right - responsible for spatial abilities, negative emotion, sensory info and control of L side of body, holistic, integrative processing
Explain the concepts of brain plasticity
Brain plasticity - In infants and young children, parts of brain are not yet specialized. If part of the cortex is damaged, other parts can take over the tasks it would have handled. Language recovers better than spatial skills. Still have some problems with complex mental skills. Older children, even adults, have some plasticity.
Describe the link between brain lateralization and handedness.
Handedness reflects the greater capacity of one side of the brain to carry out skilled motor action- dominant cerebral hemisphere.
Right handed - left hemisphere
Left handed - both hemispheres
May be genetic basis but affected by experience: position in uterus, practice
Few left-handers show developmental problems: left hemisphere damage may link left-handedness and some mental problems
Describe the development and functions of the cerebellum, the reticular formation, the hippocampus, and the corpus callosum.
Cerebellum - aids in balance and control of body movement. Fibers linking the cerebellum to cerebral cortex grow and myelinate from birth through preschool years, contributing to gains in motor coordination.
Reticular formation - structure in the brain stem that maintains alertness and consciousness. It generates synapses and myelinates from early childhood into adolescence.
Hippocampus - plays a vital role in memory and in images of space that helps us find our way. Undergoes rapid formation of synapses and myelination in the second half of the first year.
Corpus callosum - large bundle of fibers connecting the two hemispheres. Production of synapses and myelination of the CC increase at the end of the first year, peak between 3-6 years and continue more slowly through adolescence.
Summarize evidence for the existence of sensitive periods in brain development. (Experiment-expectant and experiment-dependent brain growth)
Experience-expectant brain growth - young brain's rapidly development organization, which depends on ordinary experiences (opportunities to see and touch objects, hear language and sound, move about and explore environment)
Experience-dependent brain growth - additional growth and refinement of established brain structure as a result of specific learning experiences that occur throughout lives, varying widely across individuals and cultures
No evidence exists for a sensitive period in the first 5-6 years for mastering skills that depend on extensive training. Rushing early learning harms the brain by overwhelming its neural circuits.
Describe evidence indicating that heredity is an important factor in physical growth.
Identical twins are much more alike in body size than fraternal twins. Genes influence growth by controlling the body's production of and sensitivity to hormones.
Weights of adopted children correlate more strongly with those of their biological than of their adoptive parents.
Discuss age-related nutritional needs, including the importance of breastfeeding
Nutrition is crucial during first two years because the baby's brain and body are growing rapidly. Infants' energy needs are twice those of an adult.
Breastmilk - provides correct balance of fat and protein, ensures nutritional completeness, helps ensure healthy physical growth, protects against many diseases, protects against faulty jaw development/tooth decay, ensures digestibility, smooths the transition to solid foods
Describe the influence of the social environment on children's food preferences
Children tend to imitate the food choices and eating practices of people they admire. Repeated, unpressured exposure to a new food also increases children's acceptance. Too much control limits children's opportunities to develop self-control. When parents offer bribes, children tend to like the healthy food less and the treat more. Frequency of family meals is associated with healthy eating.
Describe children's eating behavior in childhood period
Appetites become unpredictable, some become picky eaters. There is a decline in appetite due to slowdown of growth. They stick to familiar foods.
Describe adolescents' eating behavior.
Likely to skip breakfast, omit fruits and veggies from diet, consume empty calories, eat on the run. Fast food restaurants are a popular choice as well as vending machine purchases.
Iron, calcium, magnesium, vitamin B2 deficiencies are common.
Marasmus - wasted condition of the body caused by a diet low in all essential nutrients.
It appears in the first year of life when a baby's mother is too malnourished to produce enough breast milk and bottle-feeing is also inadequate. The staving baby becoming painfully thin and is in danger of dying.
Kwashiorkor - caused by an unbalanced diet very low in protein. They disease strikes after weaning, between 1-3yrs. The child's body breaks down its own protein reserves and the belly enlarges, feet swell, hair falls out, skin rash appears.
Learning and behavior are seriously affected. Malnutrition probably interferes with growth of neural fibers and myelination. The child becomes irritable and listless.
Discuss the incidence, causes, consequences, and treatment of obesity
Obesity - a greater than 20% increase over healthy weight based on BMI. Obesity rates are increasing in countries that lean towards sedentary lifestyles and diets high in meats and refined foods.
Causes: Heredity accounts for only a tendency to gain weight
Reduced sleep may promote weight gain
Parental feeding practices
Consequences: Emotional, social and school difficulties
Mistreatment by others
Treatment: Treatment programs that focus on diet and lifestyle
Schools can serve healthier meals and ensuring regular physical activity
Explain how disease interacts with malnutrition to affect physical growth
Poor diet suppresses the immune system, making children far more susceptible to disease.
Disease, major contributor to malnutrition, hinders physical growth and cognitive development. Illness reduces appetite and limits the body's ability to absorb foods.
Describe the importance of oral rehydration therapy (ORT) and immunization in protecting children from infectious disease.
Most developmental impairments and deaths due to diarrhea can be prevented with ORT, where sick children are given a glucose, salt and water solution that replaces the fluids the body loses.
Widespread immunization has led to a decline in childhood disease. In areas where many parents have not immunized their children, outbreaks of whooping cough and rubella have occurred.
Nonorganic failure to thrive
Nonorganic failure to thrive is a growth disorder resulting from lack of parental love. Infants who have it show signs of marasmus but no organic/biological cause can be found for children's failure to grow. Failure-to-thrive babies anxiously watch nearby adults and rarely smile at their caregiver. Mothers of these infants are cold, distant, impatient and hostile. Unhappy marriages or parental psychological disturbance contributes to the caregiving problems.
Psychosocial dwarfism is a growth disorder that usually appears between 2-15 years, due to extreme emotional deprivation which decreases GH production. Typical characteristics: short stature, decreased GH secretion, immature skeletal age, serious adjustment problems.
Describe sexual maturation in girls and boys
Girls - budding of breasts, growth spurt, pubic hair, menarche, finish breast/pubic hair growth, underarm hair appears
Boys - testes enlargement, changes in texture/color of scrotum, pubic hair, penis growth, underarm hair, facial/body hair, deepening of voice, spermarche
What are genetic and environmental influences on pubertal timing
Heredity contributes substantially to timing of pubertal changes. Nutrition and exercise make a difference. More weight and fat may trigger sexual maturation (leptin released by fat cells that signals the brain that girls' energy stores are sufficient for puberty).
Menarche is greatly delayed in poverty-stricken regions. Early family experiences may also contribute to the timing of puberty. One theory suggests that humans have evolved to be sensitive to emotional quality of childhood environments. When children's safety and security are at risk, is it adaptive for them to reproduce early.
Cite evidence indicating that puberty is not inevitably a period of storm and stress.
The notion of adolescence as a biologically determined period of storm and stress is greatly exaggerated. Certain problems (eating disorders, depression, suicide, lawbreaking) occur more often in adolescence than earlier. But the overall rate of serious psychological disturbance rises only slightly from childhood and is the same as in the adult population. Emotional turbulence is not a routine feature.
Social environment is responsible for the range of teenage experiences.
Discuss adolescents' reactions to the physical changes of puberty, noting factors that influence feelings and behavior
For girls who have no advance info, menarche can be shocking and disturbing. Today, fewer girls are uninformed and they get info from their mothers. Some families treat it as a milestone and express less conflict over girls reaching sexual maturity. Virtually all boys know about ejaculation but many say that no one spoke to them before. They get info from their own reading. Girls can tell a friend that they are menstruating but fewer boys tell anyone about spermarche. Boys get less social support than girls for the physical changes of puberty.
Discuss the impact of pubertal timing on adolescent adjustment, noting sex differences, as well as immediate and long-term consequences.
Early-maturing boys - relaxed, independent, self-confident, physically attractive.
Late-maturing boys - anxious, overly talkative, attention-seeking
Early-maturing girls - unpopular, withdrawn, lacking in self-confidence, anxious, prone to depression
Later-maturing girls - positive body image, lively, sociable, popular
Describe the symptoms of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, and cite factors within the individual, the family, and the larger culture that contribute to these disorders
Anorexia is an eating disturbance in which young people starve themselves because of a compulsive fear of getting fat. It has a genetic influence. Abnormalities in neuroT in the brain, linked to anxiety and impulse control, may make some individuals more susceptible. Problem eating behavior in childhood is linked to anorexia. Mothers of these girls have high expectations for physical appearance, achievement, and social acceptance and are overprotective and controlling. Fathers tend to be emotionally distant.
Bulimia - strict diet and exercise, pinge and purge
Discuss individual, social, and cultural influences on adolescent sexual attitudes and behavior.
NA attitudes relatively restrictive. Media contradicts family messages. More liberal over the past 40 years.
Early sexual activity is more common among young people from economically disadvantaged homes.
Personal - early puberty, tendency to violate norms, little religious involvement
Family - step, single parent, or large family, weak parental monitoring and parent-child communication
Peer - sexually active friends or siblings
Educational - Poor school performance, low educational goals
What are reasons for not using contraceptive in adolescents?
Concern about image, adolescent risk-taking, social environment, forced intercourse
What is the sequence of coming out?
6-12yrs - feeling different
11-15yrs - confusion
Timing varies - self-acceptance
Cite factors involved in the development of homosexuality.
Heredity contributes to sexuality. It may be X-linked. Certain genes affect the level or impact of prenatal sex hormones, which modify brain structures in ways that induce homosexual feelings and behavior. Girls exposed prenatally to very high levels of androgens or estrogens are more likely to become gay/bi. Gay men also tend to be later in birth order and have a high number of older brothers. Mothers with several male children sometimes produce antibodies to androgens, reducing the prenatal impact of male sex hormones on the brains of later-born boys.
Discuss the risk of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), particularly AIDS, during adolescence.
Adolescents have the highest incidence of STDs of all age groups. STDs can lead to sterility and life-threatening complications. AIDS is the most serious.
Discuss factors related to adolescent pregnancy and parenthood
Factors that heighten the incidence of teen pregnancy: effective sex ed reaches too few teens, convenient low-cost contraceptive services for teens are scarce, many family live in poverty which encourages young people to take risks without considering future implications.
Teen parents are many times more likely to be poor. Their backgrounds include low parental warmth and involvement, domestic violence and child abuse, repeated parental divorce/remarriage, adult models of early unmarried parenthood, residence in neighborhoods where other teens display similar risks.
What are the prevention strategies of adolescent pregnancy and parenthood?
More sex education
Skills for handling sexual situations
Info & access to contraceptives
Academic & social competence
What are interventions foradolescent pregnancy and parenthood?
Help staying in school
Job & life-management training
Describe Piaget's cognitive-developmental theory, noting key concepts of this approach.
Constructivist approach - children discover/construct virtually all knowledge about their world through their own activity.
What are the three characteristics of Piaget's stage sequence?
-General theory of development; cognition changes in an integrated fashion following a similar course
-Invariant stages that always occur in a fixed order, no stage can be skipped
-Universal stages, characterize children everywhere
What are schemes? Mental representations?
Organized ways of making sense of experience; internal depictions of info that the mind can manipulate
Describe Piaget's idea of adaptation
Adaptation - building schemes through direct interaction with the environment. During assimilation, use current schemes to interpret the external world. In accommodation, create new schemes or adjust old ones after noticing that our current way of thinking does not capture the environment completely.
Describe Piaget's idea of organization.
Schemes changes through organization which is a process that occurs internally; when children form new schemes, they rearrange them, linking them with other schemes to create an interconnected cognitive system.
Describe the major cognitive achievements of Piaget's six sensorimotor substages.
Circular reaction - stumbling onto a new experience cause by baby's own motor activity and then repeating it again and again into a strengthened scheme. (primary, secondary, tertiary)
Goal-directed behavior - coordinating schemes to solve simple problems (such as in object hiding task)
Object permanence - understanding object still exists when out of sight
A-not-B search error - look in A hiding place even though see the object being hid in B hiding place
Deferred imitation - ability to remember and copy behavior of models who are not present
Discuss recent research on sensorimotor development, noting its implications for the accuracy of Piaget's sensorimotor stage.
Violation-of-expectation method is used to test object permanence. Recent studies have claimed evidence for object permanence in the first few months of life, earlier than what Piaget thought.
Piaget was right in the timing of object search, A-not-B, make-believe.
He was wrong in timing of object permanence, deferred imitation, categorization, problem-solving by analogy - all earlier than he thought
Describe perceptual and conceptual categorization in babies.
Perceptual - based on similar overall appearance or prominent object part
Conceptual - based on common function and behavior; event categories
Describe advances in mental representation during the preschool years, including changes in make-believe play, drawing ability, and understanding of the relationship between symbols and the real world
Make-believe play reflects and contributes to children's cognitive and social skills. Make-believe strengthens a variety of mental abilities.
Drawing progresses from scribbles to first representational forms, and then realistic drawings.
Not until 20-22 months, children can apply dual representation.
Describe what Piaget believed to be the deficiencies of preoperational thought.
Young children are incapable of operations - mental representations of actions that obey logical rules.
Egocentric and animistic thinking - egocentrism is the failure to distinguish others' symbolic viewpoints from one's own. Animistic thinking is the belief that inanimate objects have lifelike qualities.
These children lack the ability to conserve and their understanding is characterized by centration and irreversibility.
The children also have difficulty with hierarchical classification - organization of objects into classes and subclasses.
Discuss recent research on preoperational thought, and note the implications of such findings for the accuracy of Piaget's preoperational stage.
Children younger than Piaget thought have some appreciation of others' perspectives. Piaget overestimated preschoolers' animistic beliefs. Animistic thought comes from incomplete knowledge of objects.
Preschooler's do not display illogical characteristics that Piaget saw. Can do simplified conservation, can reason by analogy, use causal expressions.
Everyday knowledge is categorized.
Young children's poor performance in appearance vs reality is not due to difficulty distinguishing appearance from reality but they have trouble with the language of these tasks. They can solve the tasks in nonverbal ways.
Describe the major characteristics of concrete operational thought, including limitations of cognition during this stage.
In concrete operational stage, thought becomes more logical, flexible and organized.
Features: conservation, classification, seriation, spatial reasoning (directions and cognitive maps)
Limits: children think in an organized, logical fashion only when dealing with concrete info they can perceive directly (problems with abstract ideas). Continuum of acquisition (gradual mastery of logical concepts)
Discuss recent research on concrete operational thought, noting the implications of recent findings for the accuracy of Piaget's concrete operational stage.
Culture and schooling is influential, affects performance on tasks. Going to school gives experience on Piagetian tasks. Relevant non-school experiences of some cultures can help too.
Investigators conclude that the forms of logic required by Piagetian tasks do not emerge spontaneously but are heavily influenced by training, context and cultural conditions.
Describe the major characteristics of Piaget's formal operational stage, and discuss the consequences of adolescents' newfound capacity for abstract thought.
Hypothetico-deductive reasoning - start with a hypothesis when faced with a problem, from which adolescents deduce logical, testable inferences (Pendulum problem)
Propositional thought - ability to evaluate logic of propositions without referring to real-world circumstances
What are the consequences of abstract thought?
Self-consciousness and self-focusing - imaginary audience, sensitivity to criticism, personal fable
Idealism and criticism
Decision making - do not think rationally, inexperience, overwhelming options
Discuss recent research on formal operational thought and its implications for the accuracy of Piaget's formal operational stage.
Even young children show glimmerings of hypothetico-deductive reasoning, although less competent at it than adolescents.
Children cannot grasp logical necessity of propositional reasoning.
Some adults even fail hypothetico-deductive tasks and have trouble reasoning with propositions that contradict real-world facts. They may only be able to think abstractly and systematically on tasks in which they have had extensive guidance and practice in. Formal operations may not be universal. Culture and society can influence mastering of formal operational tasks.
Describe three educational principles derived from Piaget's theory.
Sensitivity to children's readiness to learn
Acceptance of individual differences
Discuss two recent challenges to Piaget's theory.
Researchers think that children's efforts to assimilate, accommodate and reorganize structures cannot adequately explain patterns of change. Piaget's belief that infants and young children must act on the environment to revise their thinking is too narrow a notion of how learning takes place. He placed too much emphasis on the child's initiative.
Experts agree that children's cognition is less broadly stagelike than Piaget believed.
Summarize the core knowledge perspective of cognitive development
Belief that infants begin life with innate, special-purpose knowledge systems referred to as core domains of thought. These prewired understandings permit a ready grasp of new, related info and therefore supports early, rapid development of certain aspects of cognition. '
This theory is the most serious consideration of beginnings of thinking.
The domains are: physical and numerical knowledge.
Children are viewed as naïve theorists, building on core knowledge concepts to explain their everyday experiences in physical, psychological and biological realms.
What are limitations of the core knowledge perspective?
Limitations: Amount and nature of inborn knowledge hotly debated, suggests environment and experience work together but doesn't explain how, suggests cognitive development is independent and little attention to learning with others
What is the theory theory?
The theory of children as theorists. After observing an event, children draw on innate concepts to explain or theorize about its cause. They test theory against experience and revise theory if needed.
Describe children's understanding of death.
Development of death concept: permanence, inevitability, cessation, applicability, causation
Cultural influences affect children's understanding of death.
Enhancing children' understanding - use direct explanations, teach preschoolers human biology, be culturally sensitive
Explain Vygotsky's sociocultural theory of cognitive development, noting the importance of social experience and language.
Belief that cognition is based on social interactions and language.
Infants are endowed with basic perceptual, attention and memory capacities. They develop during the first 2 years through direct contact with the environment. Then, rapid growth in language leads to a profound change in thinking.
Contrast Piaget's view of children's private speech with that of Vygotsky.
Egocentric speech reflects Piaget's belief that young children have difficulty taking the perspective of others and therefore "talk for self" and say things regardless of whether a listener can understand. Cognitive development and social experiences bring an end to egocentric speech, such as disagreements with agemates which show that others hold different viewpoints.
Children's private speech - Self-directed speech. Helps guide behavior in confusing and moderately challenging tasks. It gradually becomes silent, into inner speech.
Vygotsky believed that language helps children think about mental activities and behavior and select courses of action. Believed that these are the foundations for higher cognitive processes and believed that children speak to themselves for self-guidance. As they get older and find tasks easier, self-directed speech is internalized and silent.
Explain how Vygotsky's concept of the zone of proximal development expands our understanding of early cognitive development.
Zone of proximal development - a range of tasks too difficult for the child to do alone but possible with helps of adults/more skilled peers.
Describe features of social interaction that foster cognitive development.
Intersubjectivity - process of 2 participants who being a task with different understandings and arrive at a shared understanding. It creates a common ground for communication as each partner adjusts to the perspective of the other.
Scaffolding - adjusting the support offered during a teaching session to fit child's level of performance. Direct instruction, break task down in manageable units, and suggest strategies, by the adult.
Guided participation - broader concept than scaffolding that refers to shared endeavors between expert and less expert participants without specifying precise features of communication
Discuss Vygotsky's view of the role of make-believe play in development.
Make-believe play - unique, broadly influential ZOPD in which children advance themselves as they try out a wide variety of challenging skills.
Imaginary substitutions help children separate thinking from objects.
Rules strengthen capacity to think before acting.
Discuss how Vygotsky's ideas have been applied in educational settings.
Assisted discovery, peer collaboration
Reciprocal teaching - teacher and a few students form a collaborative group and take turns leading dialogues on the content of a text passage. Within the dialogues, group members apply four cognitive strategies: questioning, summarizing, clarifying, and predicting
Cooperative learning - small groups of classmates work toward common goals (with expert peers).
Summarize the strengths and limitations of Vygotsky's theory.
-Helps explain cultural diversity in cognition
-Emphasizes importance of teaching
-Focus on language deemphasizes observation and other learning methods
-Says little about biological contributions to cognition
-Vague in explanation of change
What are the social origins of make-believe play?
Make-believe play is a major means by which children grow cognitively and learn about important activities in their culture.
Toddlers need encouragement to participate in imaginative make-believe play.
Mothers and siblings play an important role in modeling make-believe play.