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a process by which one nation extends its influence and power into another nation either by diplomacy or force
a medicine that treats the tropical disease malaria; reduced the danger of living in warm, humid regions; example of technology that helped European nations expand into Africa
why did Britain want a canal across Egypt?
to connect the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea and make a shorter sea-based route to Asia
the Suez Canal
built in 1869 and made a shorter sea-based route to Asia; went through Egypt connecting the Mediterranean Sea with the Red Sea; the British seized it from the Ottomans in 1882
unpaid workers who were forced to work on projects as a form of taxation; main form of labor used to construct the Suez Canal
what were some colonies Britain established in West Africa to spread Western ideals?
Sierra Leone, Gambia, Lagos, and the Gold Coast
established in 1787; home for freed enslaved people from throughout the British Empire; used as a base to try and stop of the export of enslaved people from the region
used as a base to try and stop the export of enslaved people from the region
became a crown colony in 1861 and served as a base for the annexation of Nigeria
became a crown colony in 1874; part of now Ghana
what is the significance of the treaty signed by Britain with King Jaja of Opobo
Britain signed it to recognize the King as ruler and agreed to fair trading terms, as they did with many other African powers, but they betrayed the agreements and started colonizing by force
people from the imperial country relocate and actually live there
France kicked the Ottomans out of this place in 1830 and established a settler colony
Scramble for Africa
European nations competed to colonize Africa
Otto von Bismarck
German leader with little interest in imperialism but held the Berlin Conference to keep peace between European powers competing for land in Africa
European leaders met and divided up Africa equally amongst themselves
what was the significance of the Berlin Conference?
the European powers drew colonial boundaries wherever they wanted which divided long united African groups and combined rival groups; they DID NOT INVITE ANY AFRICAN LEADERS
Dutch colony established at Cape of Good Hope in 1652; British replaced the Dutch there during the Napoleonic Wars
Dutch-speaking descendants of the 17th century Dutch settlers who inhabited the Cape Colony
(1880-1881) British and Afrikaners fought over land; the British army drove the Afrikaners and the Africans from their lands and forced them into concentration camps
refugee campos that were segregated by race with poor medical care, sanitation, and food rations; many people imprisoned there died
King Leopold II
Belgian king who ruled from 1865-1909 who claimed Congo for himself (not Belgium) and grew rich by enacting policies of brutality among the people
Congo Free State
a large area in Central Africa that was privately controlled by Leopold II of Belgium; in 1908 the Belgian state took it from him and conditions somewhat improved
modern day Ethiopia; one of the only African countries unclaimed by Europeans; Italy attempted to conquer it in 1895 but failed
country founded by formerly enslaved people from the U.S.; had a dependent relationship with the U.S. but was unclaimed by Europeans
How did Britain conquer all India?
the British East India Company gradually claimed land from the weakened Mughal Empire and eventually conquered all of India; they recruited Indian soldiers called "sepoys" to fight
native Indian soldiers recruited by Britain to help conquer India; tried to rebel against the British in 1857 but failed
AKA Sri Lanka; island off the South coast of India
Seven Years' War
(1756-1763) AKA French and Indian War; France lost to Britain which drove them out of India letting Britain claim India for themselves
spheres of influence
areas in which western powers had exclusive trading rights in their designated "sphere"
how did western powers get exclusive trading rights in China?
China was weak from natural disasters and internal rebellions so western powers with their industrialized militaries were able to threaten China to give them the trading rights
(1850- 1864); peasants, workers, and miners rebelled against the Qing Dynasty; Qing won because of help from warlords and French and British intervention; example of internal problems that weakened China
what other problems weakened China during the Qing Dynasty?
the Yellow River (Huang He) changed course which flooded some areas and left others in a drought. Famine followed as a result; the bubonic plague broke out
anti-imperialist group that attacked Chinese Christians and western missionaries; they were encouraged by Empress Dowager Cixi and killed 100,000 people between 1899 and 1901
Empress Dowager Cixi
conservative Qing empress who encouraged the Boxers and ordered that all foreigners be killed in1900
rebellion against Chinese Christians and Western missionaries that ended up killing 100,000 people with only 200-250 of those being foreigners; undermined the Qing's legitimacy
established in 1893 by Japan that set up colonies in China, Korea, Southeast Asia, and the Pacific islands; lasted until the end of World War II
what did the Dutch do during this time?
they seized control of the Spice Islands in 1641; the VOC set up trading posts on the Portugal archipelago; VOC ended up going bankrupt so the Dutch government took control of the Dutch East Indies; the islands began producing cash crops for the Dutch economy
French colony made up of Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia
British colony conquered in the 1870s that was the world's greatest producer of natural rubber and also had an abundance of tin and gold
modern day Thailand that was not colonized by Europeans; industrialized by setting up Western-style schools and building railroads
country continent that was colonized by Britain
a colony where prisoners are sent to do labor as punishment
why did many British settlers go to Australia?
they discovered Australia's climate was perfect for the production of wool and copper and gold were natural resources so by the 1820's Britain conquered the entire continent and it became a regular colony
British settler colony that became a part of New South Wales
indigenous people of New Zealand
Treaty of Waitangi
guaranteed that the rights of the Maori indigenous people would be protected by Britain and gave them a separate colony
Why did the Maori and the British go to war after the signing of the Treaty of Waitangi?
the Maori were given their own colony and the British did not respect that and stole their land so they went to war; the Maori lost
in what is now Oklahoma; the indigenous people in America were forced to relocate there
Trail of Tears
the harsh journey the indigenous people of North America were forced to take to the Indian Territory; many died from exposure, malnutrition, disease, and exhaustion
issued in 1823 by President James Monroe states that European nations could not intervene in the affairs of the countries in the Western Hemisphere
white people's belief that they had "a natural and inevitable right to expand to the Pacific Ocean"
in 1898 America declared war against Spain, fought, and won territory including the Philippines, Guam, Puerto Rico, and Cuba
Roosevelt's 1904 extension to the Monroe Doctrine that states if countries in Latin America demonstrated "instability" then the United States would intervene.
What are some features of a State-Run Colony?
Western institutions slowly replace the local culture, often defended by claims of helping the indigenous population
What are some features of a Settler Colony?
focus on control and use of land, settlers remove or dominate the indigenous population, most common in sparsely populated lands
What are some features of Economic Domination?
commonly based on exploiting raw materials and hiring low-wage labor, local government remains in control but becomes weak
Examples of State-Run Colonies:
British West Africa and Belgian Congo
Examples of Settler Colonies:
British South Africa, Australia, and New Zealand; French Algeria
Examples of Economic Domination:
British in China, French in China, and United States in Latin America
Outcomes of State-Run Colonies:
exploitation of indigenous labor, loss of indigenous culture, creation of non-native elite and mixed native and non-native middle class, imperialist countries rule by corporations or states guided by Western policy
Outcomes of Settler Colonies:
loss of indigenous culture, genocide, spread of disease; forced conversion to Western business, political, and religious ideas; exploitation of indigenous labor, indigenous populations forced into extreme poverty and addiction
Outcomes of Economic Domination:
social destabilization based on economic exploitation, monoculture and lack of agricultural diversity, soil depletion and environmental damage
What did Empress Catherine II ("the Great") do for Russian expansion?
annexed half of Poland from the Ottomans
the Great Game
a rivalry between the Russian and British empires for dominance in Afghanistan
What did Alexander I do for Russia expansion?
annexed Finland, Moldova, Georgia, Azerbaijan, and part of Armenia
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