NASM Personal Training Terms
Terms in this set (142)
Cumulative sensory input to the central nervous system from all mechanoreceptors that sense body position and limb movement.
Proprioceptively Enriched Environment
An unstable yet controlled physical situation in which exercises are performed that causes the body to use its internal balance and stabilization mechanisms.
3 stages of OPT
Stabilization, Strength, Power
Benefits of OPT
Physiologic:Improved cardiorespiratory efficiency, enhance endocrine and lipid adaptations, increase metabolism, increase tissue tensile strength, increase bone density.
Physical: Decrease body fat, increase lean body mass,
Performance: Strength, power, endurance, flexibility, speed, agility, and balance.
What is stabilization Endurance (Phase 1)
Increase muscular endurance and stability while developing optimal communication between one's nervous system and muscular system (neuromuscular efficiency).
What are the goals of phase 1 stabilization endurance?
Improve muscular endurance, enhance joint stability, increase flexibility, enhance control of posture, improve balance and stabilization, Superior way to alter body composition.
What is strength Endurance (Phase 2)
Enhance stabilization endurance while increasing prime mover strength. This is accomplished through supersets, two exercises that are performed back to back.
Phase 2 Strength Endurance Superset
1. More traditional strength move that work the prime mover strength.
2. Integrated exercise performed in less stable environment, challenges stabilization muscles to maintain postural stabilization. Ex: Barbell bench press followed by stability ball pushup.
What is phase 3 Hypertrophy?
Growth of maximal muscle growth. High volume, high loads, low reps
What is phase 4 Maximum strength training?
Maximal prime mover strength by lifting heavy loads. Goals: Increase motor unit recruitment, high loads, low reps.
What is Phase 5 power training?
Development of speed and power. Achieved through supersets. One traditional strength move followed by power move of similar joint dynamics. Example: Incline dumbbell press and medicine ball chest pass. This improves rate of force production. Goals: Enhance neuromuscular efficiency, speed strength, prime mover strength, dynamic flexibility.
The combination and interrelation of the nervous, muscular, and skeletal systems
What is the nervous system?
Communication network within the body, made up of nerves.
What are the three functions of Nervous system
Sensory, integrative, Motor function.
What is a neuron?
Functional unit of nervous system
Three functions of neuron
Sensory (afferent), Interneurons, Motor (efferent)
What is CNS made up of?
Brain and spinal cord
What is peripheral nervous system?
Cranial and spinal nerves that go throughout the body.
Sensory receptors responsible for sensing distortion in body tissues, notices changes in pressure and tough.
Receptors responsible for sensing change in length of the muscle and the rate of change. Causes the muscles to contract
Golgi Tendon Organs
Receptors that notice change in tension of the muscle and the rate of the change. Causes the muscle to relax.
What are joint receptors?
Located in and around the joins, they respond to pressure acceleration and decceleration in the joint.
framework for our structure
Provide resting place for muscles and protect vital organs.
What are joints?
Movable junctions where two or more bones meet. Movement occurs at joints.
Skull, rib cage, vertebral column
Includes upper and lower extremities
What are depressions?
Flattened or indented portion of bone, where muscle can be attached. Includes fossa and sulcus.
What is a Process?
Projection protruding from bone where muscles, tendons, and ligaments can attach. Includes process, condyles, epicondyles, tubercles, and trochanters.
Joint motion. Roll, slide, spin.
Joints that are held together by a joint capsule and ligaments and are most associated with movements in the body (80%). Makes synovial fluid, has greatest capacity for motion.
Motions of synovial joints
Gliding, condyloid, hinge, saddle, pivot, ball and socket.
Have no joint cavity, fibrous tissue, or cartilage in the uniting structure. Little to no movement. No fluid.
Primary connective tissue for a joint. Provides stability, input to the nervous system, guidance, and the limitation of improper joint movement. Are characterized by poor vascularity (blood supply) Imprortant to consider repairing capabilities when deciding number of days to rest.
Series of muscles that move the skeleton. Generates internal tension. Manipulates bones to produce movement
Structures that attach muscle to bone and provide the anchor from which the muscle can exert force. Characterized by poor vascularity.
What makes muscle cells different?
They have structures called myofibrils. They contain the contractile components of muscle tissue, the actin (thin) and myosin (thick)
Functional unit of muscle that produces muscular contraction and consists of repeating sections of actin and myosin. It lies between two Z lines.
What protein structures are important for muscle contraction?
Tropomyosin and troponin. Both located on the actin.
The contraction of a muscle generated by neural stimulation. Essential for a muscle to contract.
What is a motor unit?
A motor neuron and all of the muscle fibers it innervates.
Chemical messengers that cross synapses to transmit electrical impulses from the nerve to the muscle.
Sliding filament Theory?
Process of how the contraction of the filaments within the sarcomere takes place, after the muscle has been given the order to contract via neural activation. 1) Sarcomere shortens
2) Z lines converge- myosin heads attach to actin filament- shortening of the muscle.
Process of neural stimulation creating muscle contraction. Starts with initiation of a neural message and end up with a muscle contraction.
Type 1 muscle fiber
Slow twitch, red, has higher number of capillaries and mitochondria, improved delivery of oxygen, smaller, more resistant to fatigue, produce long term contractions necessary for stabilization and postural control.
Type 2 muscle fiber
Fast twitch, white, fewer capillaries, low oxidative capacity, fatigue quickly, large, quick to produce maximal tension, important for movements requiring force and power.
4 Muscles that work together as muscle movers
Agonist- Prime mover
Synergist- Assist prime mover
Stabilizer- Stabilize while prime mover and synergist work
Antagonist- Oppose prime mover
A system of the body composed of the cardio and resp. system that supports the kinetic chain.
System composed of heart, blood, and blood vessels
What is the heart?
A hollow muscular organ that pumps a circulation of blood through the body by means of contraction. Has 4 hollow chambers.
What is the Mediastinum?
The space in the chest between the lungs that contains all the internal organs of the chest, except the lungs.
What is the sinoatrial node (SA) and the atrioventricular node (AV)?
SA is the pacemaker, and AV delays
What is an atrium?
The superior chamber of the heart that receives blood from the veins and forces it into the ventricles. Act like reservoirs. Right atrium gather deoxygenated blood returning to the heart from the body, and the left atrium gathers oxygenated blood from the lungs.
The inferior chambers of the heart that receives blood from its corresponding atrium and in turn forces blood into the arteries
Fluid that circulates in the heart, arteries and veins which carries nutrients and oxygen to the bod and also rids the body of waste products. Three function: Transportation, regulation, protection.
Network of hollow tubes that circulates the blood throughout the body.
Vessels that carry blood away from the heart.
Small terminal branches of the artery, which end in capillaries.
Smallest blood vessels that connect venules with arterioles. The place where substances are exchanged between tissues.
Very small veins that connect capillaries to larger veins.
System of organs (lungs and respiratoy passageways) that collects oxygen from the external environment and transports it to the blood stream.
The process of actively contracting inspiratory muscles to move air into the body.
Process of actively or passively relaxing the inspiratory muscles to move air out of the body.
What is the conduction passageway and the respiratory passageway?
Conduction (all the structures that air travels through before entering the respiratory passageway) Respiratory (Alveoli and alveolar sacs)
What is Oxygen Consumption
The use of oxygen by the body. At rest, oxygen consumption, or VO2, is about 3.5 mL of oxygen per kg of body weight per minute. This is typically referred to as 1 MET. VO2= Q x a - V02.
Maximum Oxygen Consumption
VO2 Max is the best means of gauging cardiorespiratory fitness. It is the highest rate of oxygen transport and utilization achieved at maximal physical exertion. Ranges from 11 to 23 MET.
What does Aerobic mean?
What does Anaerobic mean?
What is Bioenergetics?
The biology of energy transformations and exchanges withing the body, and between it and the environment.
What is Adenosine Triphosphate?
ATP is a cellular structure that supplies energy for many biomechanical cellular processes by undergoing enzymatic hydrolysis. It is composed of a nitrogen based compound, adenine, a 5 carbon sugar called ribose, and three phosphates.
What is the ATP-CP pathway?
Provides energy for high intensity short duration bouts of exercise, such as power and strength forms of training. This system is activated at the onset of activity, regardless of intensity. Occurs through interactions of ATP and CP with enzymes, resulting in ADP. By breaking up one of the high energy phosphate bonds, energy is released. This system is limited in its capacity to sustain energy- only 10 seconds. It is anaerobic.
Anaerobic system that uses the breakdown of carbs (glucose) to rapidly produce ATP. One glucose molecule produces 2 ATP. Limited to 30 to 50 seconds of moderate to high intensity activities, like a set of 8 to 12 reps.
Relies primarily on carbs and fats for the production of ATP. This is the slowest producing of the three systems. It is aerobic. One glucose molecule will produce 36 ATP. Longer than 30 seconds, predominant in activities of more than 2 minutes.
The study that uses principles of physics to quantitatively study how forces interact within a living body.
Breathing often associated with high stress or anxiety.
1) Breathing becomes more shallow, using the secondary respiratory muscles.
2) The secondary muscles used play a major postural role, connecting directly to the cervical and cranial positions of the body. This causes headaches, lightheadedness, dizziness.
3) Excessive breathing leads to altered CO2 and O2 content in the blood.
4) Leads to more feelings of anxiety.
5) Inadequate O2 and retention of metabolic waste within muscles can cause stiffness and fatigue.
6)Inadequate joint motion.
Positioned on the opposite side of the body
Positioned on the same side of the body.
Rotation of a joint away from the middle of the body.
Rotation of a joint toward the middle of the body.
An influence applied by one object to another, which results in an acceleration or decceleration of the second object. Forces are characterized by magnitude and direction.
Force Velocity Curve
Refers to the ability of muscles to produce force with increasing velocity. As the velocity of a concentric muscle increases, the ability to produce force decreases.
Muscle grouping together (synergistic) to produce movement around a joint. Muscles in a Force-couple provide divergent pulls on the bone or bones they connect with. This is because each muscle has different attachment sites, and pulls at a different angle, creating different forces on that joint.
Movement of the bones around joints.
"Turning Effect" a force that produces rotation around joints. The closer the weight is to the joint, the less torque it creates.
What is Motor Behavior?
The process of the body responding to internal and external stimuli.
What is Motor Control?
Study of posture and movements and the involved structures and mechanisms that the central nervous system uses to assimilate and integrate sensory information with previous experience. Response to environmental stimuli. Concerned with neural structures that are involved with motor behavior and how they produce movement.
Groups of muscles that are recruited by the central nervous system to provide movement. Muscles operate as a functional unit. Through practice of proper movement patterns, these synergies become automated.
Cumulative sensory input to the central nervous system from all mechanoreceptors that sense position and limb movements.
Gathering and interpreting information to select and perform the proper response. The cooperation of the nervous and muscular system in gathering information, interpreting, and executing movement.
Repeated practice of motor control (study of posture and movement and response to stimuli, integrated with previous experience) which leads to a change in the ability to produce complex movements. Permanent changes with practice. Looks at how movement is learned and retained for future use. Feedback is required.
The use of sensory information and sensorimotor integration to help the kinetic chain in motor learning.
The process whereby sensory information is used by the body to reactively monitor movement and the environment. A guide useful for positioning. Sensory information used includes length-tension relationship (posture), force couple relationships, and arthrokinematics.
Information provided by some external source, such as a fitness professional, videotape, mirror, or heart rate monitor to supplement the internal environment. Two main forms of external feedback. Knowledge of results and knowledge of performance.
Knowledge of Results
Used after the completion of a movement to help inform the client about the outcome of the performance. Telling the client the squat was "good" or if they could "feel" or "see" their form. This increases awareness and augments the other forms of sensory feedback.
Knowledge of Performance
Information about the quality of the movement during an exercise. Ex: Noticing the client's feet were externally rotated and the knees were excessively adducting during a squat, and asking them if they felt or saw anything different. Allows for understanding performance errors. Can also aid in motivation.
What is a fitness assessment?
A systematic problem solving method that provides the health and fitness professional with a basis for making educated decisions about exercise and acute variable selection. An ongoing gathering of information to modify and progress a program.
What is subjective information?
General medical history, occupation, lifestyle, personal information.
What are some common injuries?
1. Ankle sprains (decrease neural control to the gluteus medius and gluteus maximus)
2. Knee Injuries (decrease in neural control to muscles that stabilize the patella and kneecap and lead to further injury)
3. Low back injury (decreased neural control to stabilizing muscles of the core, resulting in poor stabilization of the spine)
4. Shoulder injuries (altered control of the rotator cuff muscles, instability of shoulder joint)
What are some common chronic conditions?
Cardiovascular disease, coronary heart disease, coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, hypertension, high cholesterol, stroke, lung and breathing conditions, obesity, diabetes mellitus.
Heart Training Zones
One) builds aerobic base and aids in recovery
Two) Increases endurance and trains the anaerobic threshold
Three) Builds high end work capacity
What four points does NASM use to measure body fat? Also called Durnin-Womersley Formula
Biceps, Triceps, Subscapular, Iliac Crest
Where does NASM measure for body circumference?
Neck, Chest, Waist, Thighs, Calves, Biceps
What to look for in an overhead squat assessment?
Assess dynamic flexibility on both sides of the body as well as integrated total body strength. View the feet ankles, and knees from the front. View the lumbo-pelvic hip complex, shoulders, and cervical complex from the side. Look for feet turned in or out, knees turned in or out, LPHC leaning forward or lower back arching. Look for shoulder complex with arms falling forward.
What to look for in a single leg squat assessment?
Assesses ankle proprioception, core strength, and hip joint stability. View the knee from the front. See if the knee moves in or out.
What to look for in a pushing assessment?
Look at the Lumbo pelvic hip complex and see if the lower back arches. Look at shoulder complex and see if shoulder elevate. Look at head to see if head protrudes.
What to look for in a pulling assessment?
Look at lumbo pelvic hip complex to see if low back arches. Look at shoulder to see if they elevate. Look at head to see if it protrudes.
Basic performance tests?
The Davies test and shark test, bench press for upper body strength, squat for lower body strength.
The normal extensibility of all soft tissues that allow the full range of motion of a joint.
Capability to be elongated or stretched.
Postural Distortion Pattern
Predictable patterns of muscle imbalances. Compensated movement. Shows lack of structural integrity in the form of altered length-tension relationships, force-couple relationships, and arthrokinematics.
Alteration of muscle length surrounding a joint. Caused by abnormal structural and functional efficiency of the kinetic chain. Some muscles are overractice (forcing compensation to occur and some are underactive allowing compensation to occur.
Consistently repeating the same pattern of motion, which may place abnormal stresses on the body.
Cumulative Injury Cycle
Cumulative Injury Cycle is Tissue Trauma> Inflamation> Muscle Spasms> Adhesions> Altered Neuromuscular Control> Muscle Imbalance> Injury.
States that soft tissue models along the lines of stress with inelastic collagen matrix that forms in a random fashion (knots). This matrix blocks regular lengthening, causing relative flexibility.
Designed to improve muscle imbalances and altered joint motion. It uses the principles of autogenic inhibition. It includes self myofasicle release and static stretches. It is appropriate for stabilization level or Phase 1.
The process of using agonists and synergists to dynamically move the joint into a range of motion. This increases motor-neuron excitability, creating reciprocal inhibition of the muscle being stretched. Suggested for preactivity warm up, as long as no postural distortion patterns are present. 5 to 10 reps, held for 1-2 seconds.
Altered Reciprocal Inhibition
Muscle inhibition caused by a tight agonist, decreasing neural drive to the functional antagonist. Alters length-tension relationships and force-couple relationships, produces synergistic dominance , and leads to faulty movement patterns.
Process when neural impulses that sense tension is greater than the impulses that cause muscles to contract, providing an inhibitory effect to the muscles spindles. Static stretching. The tension stimulates the Golgi tendon, which overrides muscle spindle activity in the muscle being stretched, causing relaxation in the overactive muscle and allowing of optimal lengthening.
1-3 sets, 20 to 30 seconds
Stabilization Balance Training
Involve little joint motion. Improves reflexive joint stabilization contractions. Learns to contract the right muscles at the right time.
Strength Balance Training
More dynamic eccentric and concentric movement of the balance leg through a full range of motion. Require dynamic control in mid-range of motion. Improve neuromuscular efficiency of the entire kinetic chain.
Power Balance Training
Develop high levels eccentric strength, dynamic neuromuscular efficiency, and reactive joint stabilization.
Quick, powerful movement involving an eccentric contraction followed immediately by an explosive concentric contraction.
Stabilization Reactive Training
Involve little joint motion. Establish optimum landing mechanics, postural alignment, and reactive neuromuscular efficiency. Hold landing for 3 to 5 seconds.
Power Level Reactive Training
Involves entire muscle action spectrum and contraction velocity spectrum used during integrated, functional movements. Improve rate of force production, eccentric strength, reactive strength, reactive joint stabilization, dynamic neuromuscular efficiency, and optimum force production. Performed as fast as explosively possible.
The body increases its functional capacity to adapt to its stressor. Kinetic chain increases its capabilities to efficiently recruit muscle fibers and distribute oxygen and blood to the proper areas in the body.
Specific Adaptation to Imposed Demands. Body will specifically adapt to the type of demand placed on it. You get what you train for.
Refers to weight and movements placed on the body.
Refers to the speed of contraction and exercise selection. For high levels of power in legs, you need low weight high velocity contractions. Must be performed in plyometric manner.
Refers to the energy demand placed on body.
Stabilization adaptation. Ability to produce and maintain relatively low levels of force for prolonged periods. Overcome gravity, ground reaction forces, and momentum. Better posture.
Stabilization adaptation to resistance training. The ability of the body to maintain postural equilibrium and support joints during movement. THE MOST IMPORTANT adaptation. Low intensity, high reps.
Strength level adaptation to resistance training. Ability to produce higher levels of force for relatively prolonged periods. Low reps, more sets, high levels of force. Supersets.
Strength level resistance training
emphasis on the nervous and muscular system
Enlargement of skeletal muscle fibers in response to overcoming force from high volumes of tension. Increase in the cross sectional area of individual muscle fibers.
Maximal strength in terms of resistance training
Max force that a muscle can produce in a single effort.
Power level resistance training
Power is ability of neuromuscular system to produce the greatest possible force in shortest amount of time. Both heavy and light weights must be moved as fast as possible.
Acute variables for intensity and reps and sets
Stabilization: 12-25 reps, 1-3 sets, 50-70%
Strength: 1-12 reps, 2-6 sets, 70-100%
Power: 1-10 reps, 3-6 sets, 30-45% of one rep max, or 10% of body weight.
20-30 seconds - 50% ATP and CP
40 seconds - 75% recovery
60 seconds - 85-90% recovery
3 minutes - 100% recovery
Total amount of work performed within a specified time. Volume is always inversely related to intensity. You cannot safely perform high volumes of high intensity exercises for any extended length of time.
Higher volume training (3-4 sets of 9-20 reps) produces cellular adaptation
high intensity training with low training volume (4-6 sets of 1-5 reps) produces greater neurologic adaptaions.
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