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129 terms

BMTC 101 Unit 1 A&P

STUDY
PLAY
Define Physiology
The science that deals with the functions of an organism or its parts
Define Cytology
The Study of cells
Define Interstitial
Pertaining to the space between tissues
What is the smallest unit of life?
The Cell
Cell/Plasma Membrane
Delicate structure that encloses the cytoplasm and forms the outer boundary of a cell.
What are the four stages of Mitosis?
Prophase- Chromatin becomes organized
Metaphase- Chromosomes align, nucleoulus disappear
Anaphase- Two daughter cells start to divide
Telophase- Cell division is completed
What is tissue?
Group of specialized cells joined together to perform a function.
What are the four types of tissue?
Epithelial
Connective
Muscle
Nervous
Define Dermatology
Diagnosis and treatmentof skin disorders.
What are the three layers of the skin?
Epidermis
Dermis
Subcutaneous
What do epithelial cells produce?
Keratin which waterproofs the skin and protects the epidermis and underlying structures from injury, drying and invasion of foreign organisms.
What do Melanocytes produce?
Melanin which gives skin it's color and absorbs ultraviolet light.
What layer of skin is called the "True Skin"?
Dermis
What is the Dermis composed of?
Connective tissue, collagen, elastic fibers, blood vessels, hair follicles, nerve ending, smooth muscles and seat/oil glands.
What does Subcutaneous skin contain?
Connective tissue, adipose tissue and nerve endings.
What are Sudoriferous glands and what do they do?
Sweat glands that provide cooling by producing perspiration which evaporates when the body is hot.
What do nerve endings in the skin do?
Carry impulses to and from the central nervous system.
What are the accessory structures of the untegumentary system?
Hair and nails.
What do the nails do?
Protect many sensitive nerve ending found at the end of the digits.
What do the eyelashses/eyebrows do?
Protects the eyes from foreign particles.
Define sprain
A traumatic injury to tends, ligaments or muscles around a joint.
Define strain
Damage usually musculat that results from excessice physical force.
Define Articulation
The point of contact between bones and cartilage or teeth and bones alson known as a joint,
What are the the two groups of the skeletal system?
Axial Skeleton
Appendicular Skeleton
How many bones are in the skull?
22 bones
Which ribs are known as "True Ribs"?
The first seven pairs that arrach directly to the sternum and vertebrea
What ribs are attached only to the seventh rib?
The next three sets also know as false ribs.
What ribs are attached only to the lumbar spine?
The last two sets know as floating ribs.
What is the clavicle?
Collar bone
What are the three sections of the pelvic girdle?
Illium-largest section
Ishium-articulates with the ilium and pubis
Pubis-symphysis pubis joins the two pubic bones
What is the femur?
Longest stronges and heaviest bone of the body.
What are two functions of skeletal muscles?
Providing movement, maintaining body posture
What does the masseter muscle do?
Raises the mandible for cheweing
Flexion
Decreases the angle of a joint. forearm moves towards the upper arm
extension
Increase the angle of a joint forearm moves away from the upper arm
Abduction
Moves a body part away from the midline arm is extended away from the body
Adduction
Moves a body part toward the midline, arm is moved toward the body
Supination
palm is turned upward
Pronation
palm is turned downward
Eversion
twists a body part outward turning the sole of the foot outward
Inversion
Twist a body part inward truing the sole of the foot inward
Nueron
Basic structural and functional unit of the nervous systme and conduct impulses.
Dendrites
Thin receptive branches that differ greatly in size, shape and number and transmit impulses to neron cell bodies.
What are three types of nuerons?
Sensory Neuron
Interneuron
Motor Nueron
What composes the centeral nevrous system?
Brain and Spinal Cord
Cerebrum
Largest and most superiorly situated portion of the brain
Frontal Lobe
Associated with higher mental proscesses (memory)
Parietal Lobe
Associated with general sensation
Brain Stem
Consists of the mid-brain, pons, and medulla oblongata
Pons
Relays impulses for some cranial nerves
Medulla Oblongata
Inferior most portion of the brain before the spinal cord. Controls functions like breathing and heart beat.
Spinal Cord
Conducts motor and sensory impulses to and from the brain
What are the three layers of the Meninges?
1.Dura Mater-Tough outter layer
2. Arachnoid Membrane-delicatd middle layer made of web like connective tissue
3. Pia Mater- vascular inner layer that adhere brain to the spinal cord
Cerebrospinal Fluid
Clear, watery liquid that surrounds the brain. Its a protective cushion and exchanges nutrients and waste.
Sympthetic Division
Fight or flight response
Parasympathetic Dinision
Conserves and Restores energy
Iris
Pigmented structure that gives the eye it's color.
Refraction
The bending of light rays
Convergence
Medical movement of the two eyeballs so they are both directed toward the object being viewed.
Auricle (Pinna)
Cartilage located on each side of the head that collects sound from the environment
Cerumen
"Earwax" Protects external auditory canal against small foreign debris.
Tympanic Membrane (Eardrum)
A thin membran stretched across the auditory canal that separates the outer middle ear. The function is to transport sound to the auditory ossicles through vibration.
Auditory Ossicles
Three ossicles (bones) that transmit vibrations from the tympanic membrane to the fluid in the inner ear.
What are the three ossicles?
1. Malleus-hammer
2. Incus-anvil
3. Stapes-stirrup
Endolymph
Fluid located in the inner ear that ripples when the issicles move, which causes the cochlea to move
Cochlea
A small snail shaped organ that convers the mechanical ripples to the endolymph into nerve impulses
Semicircular Canal
Three semicircular canals situated perpendicularyly to each other in the temporal bone that stimulates nerve endings.
Cardiology
The study of the heart and diseases associated with it.
Vascular
Pertaining to or containin many blood vessels
Cardi/o, coron/o
Heart
What type of tissue is blood
A connective tissue
Erythocytes
Red blood cells that carry oxygen to the cells and carbon dioxide away from the cells.
Leukocytes
White blood cells that seve as the bodys primary defense against infection.
Thrombocytes
Platelets cells that assist in coagulation.
Apex
pointed end of the heart formed by the tip of the left ventricle
Myocardium
Middle layer of the heart wall. Thickest layer and responsible for the pumping action.
What nervous system controls the condustion system of the heart?
Autonomic Nervous System
What does calcium in the blood do?
It increases the strenght of the hearts contraction.
Sinoatrail Node (SA Node)
Pacemaker of the heart located in the right atrium.
Bundle Braches
Transmits impulses throughout the ventricula walls.
What is the purpose of blood vessles and what are they made of?
To carry blood throught the body and made of smooth involuntary muscles.
Aorta
Largest artey in the body
Brachial arteries
Used to take blood pressure
Radial arteries
Supply blood to the hands
Femoral arteries
Supply blood to lower extermities
What are arterioles?
Very small almost mircoscopic arteries.
what are one-way valves in the viens?
Valves that prevent the backflow of blood in the viens
Apena
Absence of breathing
What does the nasal chambers do to the air you breath?
Filter, moisten and warms the air.
Pharynx (Throat)
Connects the oral and nasla cavities
Epiglottis
Flap of tissue that covers the entrance to the larynx to prevent food from entering the trachea
Larynx
where the vocal cords are located
Trachea
Windpipe
Bronchiles
Subdivision of the brochi that provide a passageway for air to reach the lungs
Alveoli
Oxygen exchanges with carbon dioxide by diffusion throught eh alveolar and capillary walls
lungs
Right lung has three lobes left long have two lobews
Pleural Membrane
Enclose and protects the longs
Diaphragm
The primary muscle of respirations
Antigen
A foreign agent that stimulates white blood cells to make anitbodies
Hodgkin's Disease
a malignant tumor of the lymph nodes
Spleen
Organ located in the upper left quadrant of the adbomen that stores red blood cells and destroy red blood cells also makes white blood cells
Adrenal Glands
Two endocrine glands located above the kidneys that produce the hormone adrenalin
Goiter
Enlargement of the thyroid gland
Insulin
Hormone produced by the pancrease and released into the bloodstream which allows sugar to lave the blood and enter the cells
Hypothalamus
A structure in the brain that creates chemicals that are secreted to the pituitary gland to stumulate the release of hormones.
Oxytocin
A hormone that stimulates contration of the muscles of the uterus
Thyroid Gland
Secretes the iodine containing hormon thyroxin which controls the rate of cell metabolism.
What are the charactistics of Hypothyroidism
1. Decreased basal metabolism
2. Absence of sweating
3. Constan fatigue
4. Weight gain
5. Slow heart rate
What does the adrenal medulla secrete?
Adrenalin
What does the destruction of the islet cells lead to?
Diabetes Mellitus
Bile
A yellow/orange fluid produced by the liver that helps digest fats
Cirrhosis
liver disease with a deterioration of the liver cells
Crohn's Disease
Inflammation of the GI tract marked by bouts of diarrhea abdominal cramping and fever
Insulin
hormone produced in the pancrease and released into the blood stream
enter/o
intestines
Movement of food
Peristalsis moves food throught the gastrointestinal tract through successive muscular contrations
Digestion
A process that uses mechanical and chemical breakdown of food so it can be absorbed
Small Intestine
Structure where the greatest amount of chemical digestion and food absorption occurs
Ectopic Prgnancy
Abnormal pregnancy in which the fertilized egg implants itself outside the uterine cavity
Pyelonephritis
Inflammation of the nephrons and renal pelvis of one or two kidneys
Renal Calculi
Soild mass that many form in the urinary tact (kidney stone)
Vas Deferens (Seminal Duct)
Carries sperm to the ejaculatory duct
Where does fertilization of the egg normally occur?
Fallopian tubes
Endometrium
Inner ayer of th euterus that sloughs off every 28-35 days
What is the durations of a norma menstrual cycle?
24-35 days with an average lenght of 28 days.
What is ovulation?
The release of a oocyte(egg) from the ovary into the fallopian tube. Occurs normally on the 14th day of the cycle
Renal Cortex
Outer layer of the kidney that is reddish in color
How much urine does the average adult excrete in 24 hours?
1-2 liters with 95% being water and 5% waste products
Micturition
Process by which urine is expelled from the body.