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Psych Test #3
Terms in this set (74)
Up until they are about 10 months of age, infants can distinguish among speech sounds:
from any spoken language, whether they have been exposed to it or not.
Compared to early-maturing girls, early-maturing boys:
tend to have more positive experiences.
Which of the following would characterize a child who is in the formal operational stage of cognitive development?
The child is able to think logically and systematically even when dealing with abstract concepts.
According to attachment theory:
the quality of attachment plays an important role in determining an infant's ability to thrive physically and psychologically.
Whenever Julie played with toy vehicles or blocks her mother would be very disapproving. Whenever she played with dolls and domestic toys her mother would smile and praise her. As Julie grew up, she played less and less with "boys'" toys and more and more with dolls, dollhouses, and domestic accessories. This description of gender-role development exemplifies:
social learning theory.
Usually, conflicts between parents and their adolescent children focus on issues of:
control and authority.
Surveys of family sleeping arrangements in more than a 100 cultures around the world revealed that infants customarily slept in the same room or bed as their mothers in:
the vast majority of cultures, but not in the United States.
Your textbook describes the classic "conservation task" in which a 5-year-old child observes equal amounts of liquid in two identical short, wide containers. The child watches as liquid is poured from one short, wide container into a tall, thin container, and is then asked which container holds more water. How does a typical 5-year-old respond?
"The tall, thin container has more water."
The newborn's senses are most keenly attuned to what sort of stimuli?
people, especially faces
According to your textbook, which of the following is the BEST analogy for an individual genotype?
a cookbook filled with millions of recipes
Within hours of being born, an infant displays a preference for his or her mother's _____ over that of a stranger.
Parents who are demanding but unresponsive to their children's needs are called _____, while parents who are demanding yet responsive to their children's needs are called _____.
Which of the following illustrates egocentrism?
While talking on the phone, a little boy holds up four fingers in response to being asked how old he is.
Which of the following statements best represents contemporary thinking on the nature/nurture issue?
The relationship between genetics and environment is interactive; each influences the other.
Sid is seriously ill, and his doctor has warned him that his chances of survival are not good. When Sid's wife visits him in the hospital, Sid tells her that he is feeling much better and expects to be home in a couple of days and back to work in a matter of weeks. According to Kübler-Ross's model of dying, Sid is in which stage of the dying process?
A teratogen is:
a harmful agent, such as a chemical, drug, or disease, that can cause malformations or defects in an embryo or fetus.
Based on the cross-cultural research presented in your text, what can be concluded about parent-offspring relationships during adolescence?
In both collectivistic and individualistic cultures, adolescents are motivated to develop increased independence and autonomy.
According to Erik Erikson, the psychosocial conflict faced in old age is:
ego integrity versus despair.
Temperament researchers agree that individual differences in temperament have a genetic and biological basis. Researchers also agree that:
environmental experiences can modify a child's basic temperament
Which of the following children is likely to hold the MOST rigid gender-role stereotypes?
Aaron, a nine-year-old boy in the fourth grade.
Despite the fact that Crystal is doing above average work in fourth grade, her father tells her that her grades are unsatisfactory and that she is not working hard enough. According to Erikson's theory, Crystal is likely to develop a pervasive sense of:
Marie enters the playroom of the psychology lab with her 1-year-old son Aaron. Aaron ignores the many attractive toys in the room and clings to his mother. Marie leaves the room, and Aaron begins to cry hysterically. When his mother returns and tries to comfort him, Aaron cries harder, kicks, and resists her efforts to hold him. Aaron would most likely be classified as:
Which of the following statements describes the different friendship patterns of boys and girls?
Girls tend to establish and maintain close friendships through compromise and verbal conflict resolution.
Developmental psychologists divide the lifespan into:
eight age-related stages of development.
According to Erikson's theory, the psychosocial conflict that needs to be resolved during adolescence is:
identity versus role confusion.
It was _____ who said, "To be human means to have inferiority feelings. . . . But in the mentally healthy person this inferiority feeling acts as a motive for productivity, as a motive for attempting to overcome obstacles, to maintain oneself in life."
Early in his medical career, Freud investigated the anesthetic properties of _____.
Which definition reflects Freud's view of the id?
the irrational component of personality that seeks immediate gratification
Freud's famous technique of free association involved:
patients spontaneously reporting mental images, thoughts, and feelings as they came to mind.
One explanation discussed in the text for the similarities between adult identical twins who were separated at birth and raised in separate homes is that:
two unrelated people of exactly the same age and sex would also have many traits and preferences in common.
Cross-cultural research on traits has found that:
people in a variety of cultures describe personality in terms of the same basic traits that are identified by the five-factor model.
The inferiority complex is to _____ as basic anxiety is to _____.
While researching a term paper, Marcie read some interesting research on the mental processes we use to form judgments and draw conclusions about the characteristics and motives of others. Marcie was reading research about:
What were the basic results of psychologist Stanley Milgram's original obedience study?
Despite hearing protests from the learner in another room, two-thirds of the subjects continued to administer shocks all the way to the full 450-volt level.
Kitty Genovese was murdered outside her New York City apartment. This tragic event led to intense psychological research on:
altruism and prosocial behavior.
Behavior that is motivated by the desire to gain social acceptance and approval is referred to as:
normative social influence.
The textbook provides several practical suggestions to defend against being manipulated by various persuasion techniques. Which of the following is NOT one of the practical suggestions you can use making important decisions?
Always go with your first impulse and don't look back.
Social psychology is a branch of psychology that focuses on a broad range of topics. Two basic areas of social psychology include:
social cognition and social influence.
Alyssa is a quiet, rather shy young woman who lives at home while attending college. She would rather meet an old friend for coffee than meet new people or go to parties. In terms of Hans Eysenck's model of personality, Alyssa appears to rate high on the trait of _____.
According to Freud, the basic goals of the id are to:
seek pleasure, avoid pain, and reduce tension.
According to Carl Jung, the collective unconscious:
is the part of the unconscious mind that reflects human evolutionary history and is common to all people.
According to psychoanalyst Karen Horney, people who move "away from" other people may have an excessive need for:
independence and self-sufficiency.
Humanistic theories of personality have helped promote the scientific study of:
creativity and the healthy personality.
Dylan wishes to apply the research on "possible selves" to help him become more motivated in college. As a first step, he should:
become consciously aware of the possible selves that he already holds and evaluate their effect on him.
The "Big Five" are:
neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness.
According to Albert Bandura, what is the best way to strengthen your sense of self-efficacy in a particular realm of behavior?
through observational learning and mastery experiences
According to Eysenck's theory, the four basic personality types are:
Extraverted-Neurotic; Extraverted-Stable; Introverted-Neurotic; and Introverted-Stable.
Which of the following statements best describes Jung's notion of archetypes?
Each person inherits mental images that reflect universal human themes.
It was _____ who said, "I dare to believe that when the human being is inwardly free to choose whatever he deeply values, he tends to value those objects, experiences, and goals that will make for his own survival, growth, and development, and for the survival and development of others."
Humanistic psychology is a view of personality that emphasizes:
the study of psychologically healthy people
Freud believed that the Oedipus complex produces _____ in little boys and _____ in little girls.
castration anxiety; penis envy
According to Freud, what was "the royal road to a knowledge of the unconscious activity" of the mind?
the interpretation of dreams
Trait theorists tend to believe that:
there are a small number of source traits that represent a universal way of describing individual personality differences.
In psychoanalyst Karen Horney's view, people who move "against" others have a strong need for:
power and feelings of superiority.
The main strength of projective tests is that:
they provide qualitative information about an individual that can be helpful in psychotherapy.
Jose is a ninth-grader who dreams of becoming a major-league baseball player. Because of his _____, Jose will probably practice longer and harder than the other players on his high school softball team.
If you were a subject in Milgram's original obedience experiment, it is very likely that:
you would play the role of the teacher and get to "shock" the learner.
While Eddie was working alone in the microcomputer lab, he noticed a strange unpleasant smell and immediately went to report the incident. Eddie's behavior:
was not constrained by the bystander effect.
Pamela observes that people don't sit next to strangers on the subway when there are empty seats available. She notices this also happens on the bus, in the movie theater, and in the cafeteria. Pamela's observations suggest that people's behavior in these situations is governed by:
The social group to which a person belongs is called the _____, and the social group to which a person does not belong is called the _____.
Lacey has reviewed the literature on conformity and obedience for a term paper. If her conclusions are similar to those presented in the textbook, she is likely to suggest that:
conformity and obedience are not necessarily bad in and of themselves and are important for an orderly society.
The "rules," or expectations, for appropriate behavior in a particular social situation are called:
The Stanford Prison Experiment demonstrated the powerful influence of:
the indirect pressure of situational roles and implied social rules
Research has found that physically attractive people tend to:
be less anxious in social situations.
Dr. Krane studies questions such as why we conform to group norms, what compels us to obey authority figures, and the conditions under which people will help a stranger. Dr. Krane's research focuses on an area of social psychology called:
Which of the following factors made it easier for the Army Reserve guards to mistreat detainees at Abu Ghraib?
The detainees were members of a different cultural and ethnic group, which made it easier to perceive them as members of a despised and threatening out-group.
In a series of variations of his obedience experiments, Milgram found that the subjects were LEAST likely to deliver high levels of shocks when:
teachers were free to choose the level of shock.
In which of the following scenarios is the person MOST likely to be helped by other people?
Carla's car won't restart and partially blocks the exit drive as her fellow employees are walking to their own cars.
The _____ effect refers to the fact that when people feel good, successful, happy, or fortunate, they are more likely to help others
feel good, do good
Roger was not sure which of two candidates to vote for in the race for mayor. However, after he cast his vote, he felt much more confident that he had made the correct choice. The change in the strength of Roger's attitude about the candidate he voted for is probably the result of:
Leslie is concerned about the environment and consistently sorts her garbage by placing paper, plastic, metal, and glass in their respective recycling containers. This example best illustrates the _____ component of attitudes.
_____ is the tendency of people to believe that the world is fair and that people get what they deserve and deserve what they get.
The just-world hypothesis
When Yoshiko's hard work and ability landed a big contract for her company, she would not accept the credit, insisting it was pure luck. When she failed to get the contract in another situation, however, she said it was her fault for not trying hard enough. This example illustrates:
the self-effacing, or modesty, bias.
The tendency to judge the behavior of the members of your group more favorably than the behavior of members of other groups is called:
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