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35 terms

Artifacts

STUDY
PLAY
Artifacts
Any irregularity on an image that is not caused by the proper shadowing of tissue by the primary beam
Three classifications
Storage and handling artifacts

Exposure artifacts

Processing artifacts
Processing Artifacts
Most of the artifacts that occur during processing are caused by the transport system of the processor, and are of the pressure-type that sensitize the emulsion and appear as higher optical density
Roller marks
Guide shoe marks occur when the guide shoes are sprung or incorrectly positioned and are found on the leading or the trailing edges of the film parallel to the direction of film travel through the processor
Dirty Rollers
Dirty or warped rollers can cause "emulsion pick-off" and or "gelatin buildup, which results in "sludge" deposits on the film
Chemical Fog
Usually results from incorrect or inadequate processing chemistry or processing technique
Wet-Pressure Sensitization
A common artifact that is produced in the developing tank

Irregular or dirty rollers cause pressure during development and produces small circular patterns of OD
QUESTION: What are the three general areas of artifact classification?
ANSWER: Processing, exposure, and handling and storage artifacts.
Image fog
Caused by the temperature or the humidity being too high

Prevention--store films in a cool, dry place at optimum conditions

68 degrees F or lower
30-60% relative humidity
Pressure marks
Pressure marks can occur if the film is stacked too high
Light or radiation fog
White-light leaks in the darkroom or within the film cassette causes streak-like artifacts of increased OD
Hypo Retention
A yellow-brown stain appears on the film after a long storage period indicating a problem with hypo retention from the fixer
Static
Cause by a buildup of electrons in the emulsion and is most noticeable during winter or periods of extremely low humidity

Three distinct patterns: crown, tree, and smudge
Crown static
resembles a crown
Tree static-
-tree or bush-like with fingerlike processes emanating outward from point of discharge
Smudge static-
assumes characteristic of black smudges
Handling and Storage Artifacts (Static) **Prevention
Clean intensifying screens regularly with commercial electrostatic cleaner solution recommended by the manufacturer
QUESTION: What are the ideal storage conditions for radiographic film?
ANSWER:
68 degrees F
and 30-60%
relative
humidity.
Kink marks (crescent or crinkle marks)
Artifacts (kink marks or scratches) can be caused by incorrect or rough handling during loading and unloading film cassettes or storage either before or after processing
crescent or crinkle marks)
Appearance is semi-circular in shape (half-moon)

Film is bent around tips of fingers

Emulsion is damaged
QUESTION: What are the three types of static artifacts?
ANSWER: Crown, tree, and smudge.
QUESTION: What is the most common type of artifact and how do we prevent its occurrence?
ANSWER: Crescent or crinkle marks. It is prevented by properly handling x-ray film when loading and unloading cassettes.
Artifacts associated with how the radiographer conducts the examination
Incorrect screen-film match

Poor screen-film contact

Warped cassette

Incorrect positioning of the grid

Patient preparation
Screen-film match
Radiographic film and intensifying screens are designed to complement each other and to produce the highest quality image with the lowest patient radiation exposure

Mismatching of film and screens often increases patient radiation dose
Screen-film contact
Intensifying screens are designed to so that each sheet of film can be sandwiched tightly between them

Poor film-screen contact can produce lack of detail
Warped Cassette
Cassette backs and fronts may warp due to incorrect storage or traumatic handling

A warped cassette can cause a loss of contact between the film and intensifying screens causing a diverging of the light photons from the screens causing a loss of detail and contrast
Incorrect grid positioning
Correct tube/grid alignment is essential to prevent the undesirable absorption of primary radiation known as "grid cut-off"
Patient preparation
Patient preparation is essential for producing artifact-free images
QUESTION: What is the primary cause for a blurred image artifact?
ANSWER: Patient movement during film exposure
Automatic Processing Artifacts
Most of the artifacts that occur during processing are caused by the transport system of the processor, and are of the pressure-type that sensitize the emulsion and appear as higher optical density
Roller marks
**Guide shoe marks
Guide shoe marks occur when the guide shoes are sprung or incorrectly positioned. The marks are found on the leading or the trailing edges of the film they are straight and run parallel in the direction of film travel through the processor
Dirty rollers
Dirty or warped rollers can cause "emulsion pick-off" and /or "gelatin buildup, which results in "sludge" deposits on the film
Chemical fog
Usually results from incorrect or inadequate processing chemistry or processing technique
Wet-pressure sensitization
A common artifact that is produced in the developing tank

Irregular or dirty rollers cause pressure during development and produces small circular patterns of OD
Manual Processing Artifacts
Using manual processing it takes approximately one hour to prepare a completely dry and ready-to-read radiograph