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Causes of Migration in an Interconnected World
Terms in this set (32)
why was there a new demand for low wage labor?
factories needed raw materials so they needed laborers for cash crop plantations; with slavery abolished they needed a new form of low wage labor.
people worked for a set number of years, usually 5-7, before being free of their contract
why was indentured servitude appealing to lower class people?
it allowed them to work in exchange for their migration costs being covered. after their contract was over, they were free to go back home or move their family over.
why did many Chinese and Indian people become indentured servants and what was the result?
they were forced or tricked into unfair contracts by the British, French, Dutch, and Spanish. they were treated poorly and exploited. the media thought of it as a new form of slavery so it received backlash and ended by 1855 in Britain, 1862 in the U.S., 1874 in Portugal, and 1877 in Spain.
a colony to which nations send their convicts to do hard labor
people found guilty of a crime; prisoners
was established as a penal colony by the British; convicts performed hard labor such as building railroad, regular roads, or sometimes keeping record for government oversight
why did many settlers go to Australia after its establishment as a penal colony?
the weather was ideal for harvesting wool and gold was discovered in 1851 that led to a gold rush.
New Caledonia and Devil's Island
French penal colonies that underfed their prisoners and forced them to do hard labor
a scattered population whose origin lies in a different geographic location
why did a lot of people leave India to work in European colonies?
poverty drove people out of India and they went to work as indentured servants. Britain, and later other nations, offered opportunities for indentured servitude in their colonies that many people took up.
"foreman who oversees workers"; system in Ceylon and Malaya used to recruit labor in Southeast Asia; recruited from their own extended family
"supervisors"; system in Burma for recruiting laborers within a structured system with defined hierarchies and sent them to plantations in Southeast Asia; highly exploitative conditions
why did many Chinese people migrate and what was the result?
they migrated because of poverty and famine and accepted offered of indentured servitude. many migrated to America and played a huge role in the completion of the Trans-Continental Railroad, despite facing much prejudice.
to leave on country or region and settle in another
rebellion against the Qing Dynasty that brought poverty and Disorder to China which caused many people to leave.
was abolished when Ireland became apart of the United Kingdom in 1801
why did Irish people face persecution wherever they migrated?
the Irish were Roman Catholic while the British and Americans were Anglican.
the Corn Laws
regulated the import and export of grain; repealed in 1846
the Great Potato Famine
(1845-1849) a blight (plant disease) killed the potato crops in Ireland and led to many lower-class people migrating to the U.S. and other places.
what caused large waves of emigration from Italy?
7 million left after the unification of Italy in 1851 because of poverty, land divisions over generations, political, and economic reasons related to organized crime.
a colony that is established for people to go and live there
British government service
what did many British do when they migrated to settler colonies?
they went as officers, soldiers in the British army, government officials in the Colonial Service, or managers for plantations or other colonial enterprises
why did many engineers and geologists migrate to South Asia and Africa?
colonial powers wanted to extend industrialization and western technology.
Andrew Geddes Bain
migrated to Cape Town, South Africa in 1816; worked on eight major roads and passes; prepared the first comprehensive geological map of South Africa in 1852; reported back to the British government about the copper mines in Namaqualand in 1854.
what did most people who migrated to Argentina do?
they were mostly businessmen, traders, bankers, and engineers who founded banks, developed trade exports in agriculture, built railroads and other infrastructure, and imported luxuries for the Argentine middle class.
founded by Japan to export Japan's surplus population and commercial goods; tried to start an agricultural settler colony in Mexico in 1892 but failed; send 790 Japanese to Peru in 1899 for contract work
the Gentlemen's Agreement
1907 informal agreement between the United States and Japan that would stated the U.S. would not impose restrictions on Japanese immigration and Japan would not allow further emigration to the U.S.; never ratified and was ended by the Immigration Act of 1924
Immigration Act of 1924
federal law limiting the number of immigrants that could emigrate to the U.S.
what allowed some people who migrated to return to their home societies?
improvements in transportation technology
why did many Japanese laborers go to Hawaii and other places for work?
an agreement in 1885 between Japan and Hawaii allowed Japanese laborers to go to Hawaii to work on the sugar plantations under 3 year contracts which allowed them to return home after
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