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Terms in this set (54)
Nutrition has always played
a significant role in your life.
The number one reason most people choose certain foods is taste - they like the flavor. Two widely shared preferences are for the sweetness of sugar and the savoriness of salt.
High fat foods also appear to be
a universally common preference.
People sometimes select foods out of habit. EX: Drinking orange juice in the morning or eating cereal for breakfast.
Ethnic Heritage and Regional Cuisines:
people tend to prefer the foods they grew up eating. Every country, has its own typical foods and ways of combining them into meals.
Meals are often social events, and sharing food is part of hospitality. Social customs invite people to accept food or drink offered by a host or shared by a group - regardless of hunger signals.
Another major influence on food is _______. The food industry competes for our food dollars, persuading consumers to eat more- more food, more often.
Availability, Convenience, and Economy:
people often eat foods that are accessible, quick, and easy to prepare, and within their financial means. EX: processed frozen foods over a real cooked meal.
products that have been preserved so they will not spoil as quickly as fresh, whole foods. EX: Microwave meals or ready to eat meals.
What are the six classes of nutrients?
carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, vitamins, minerals, water
sugars and starches. The are considered organic, and they yield energy. They are also known as macronutrient because the body requires them in relatively large amounts.
organic, energy yielding macronutrients.
organic, energy yielding macronutrients as well.
are also organic but they do not provide energy. Instead, they facilitate the release of energy from carbohydrate, fat, and protein. Considered micronutrient.
How many vitamins are there?
inorganic and do not yield energy. They are micronutrient because only small amounts are required.
Water is considered
inorganic and does not yield energy.
Essential nutrients is
the nutrients that foods must supply. Basically the nutrients that your body needs. EX: Carbohydrates, Lipids, Protein, Water, Vitamins, and Minerals
Which essential nutrient provides the environment in which nearly all the body's activities take place?
What is meant by micronutrient(s)? Details and characteristics?
Micronutrients are vitamins and minerals that are required only in small amounts.
What is meant by macronutrient(s)? Details and characteristics?
Macronutrients are those nutrients that are needed in relatively large amounts. For instance, Carbohydrates fat, and proteins.
Define calories; measure of what kind of energy?
a measure of heat energy. Energy provided by foods and beverages is measure in kilocalories.
Energy from foods; define energy density; how many calories per gram (energy density) does each nutrient have?
a measure of the energy a food provides relative to the weight of the food (kcalories per gram).
Calculate how many total calories are found in a food if provided grams of CHO, PRO and fat.
Multiply the carbohydrate by 4 then multiply the protein by 4 and multiple the fat by 9 and add all the results together.
What nonnutritive substance contributes energy, but does not sustain life?
What happens when the body uses energy-yielding nutrients?
The bonds between the atoms and break and release energy.
Which energy-yielding nutrients are found in the part of the structural component of muscles and help regulate digestion?
the science of how nutrients affect the activities of genes
how genes affect the activities of nutrients
the complete set of genetic material (DNA) in an organism or a cell. The study of genomes is called genomics.
The scientific method
a method of procedure that has characterized natural science since the 17th century, consisting in systematic observation, measurement, and experiment, and the formulation, testing, and modification of hypotheses.
an unproven statement that tentatively explains the relationship between two or more variables.
an inert, harmless medication given to provide comfort and hope
a process of choosing the members of the experiment and control groups without bias.
the simultaneous increase, decrease, or change in two variables. If A increases as B increases, or if A decreases as B decreases the correlation is positive.
as one variable increases, the other decreases
An experiment in which neither the subjects nor those who interact with them and measure the response variable know which treatment a subject received.
research the incidence, distribution, and control of disease in a population. Strengths: Can narrow down the list of possible causes, and can raise questions to pursue through other research. Weaknesses: Cannot control variables that
test cause-and-effect relationships between variables
DRI (Dietary Reference Intakes)
a set of nutrient intake values for healthy people in the united states and canada.
Estimated Average Requirement (EAR)
the average daily amount of a nutrient that will maintain a specific biochemical or physiological function in half the healthy people of a given age and gender group
Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA)
the average daily amount of a nutrient considered adequate to meet the known nutrient needs of practically all healthy people; a goal for dietary intake by individuals
Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL)
the maximum daily amount of a nutrient that appears safe for most healthy people and beyond which there is an increased risk of adverse health effects
Estimated Energy Requirement (EER)
the average dietary energy intake that maintains energy balance and good health in a person of a given age, gender, weight, height, and level of physical activity
Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range (AMDR)
ranges of intakes for the energy nutrients that provide adequate energy and nutrients and reduce the risk of chronic diseases
deficient energy or nutrients
an account of clients current and past health status and disease risks.
a nutrient deficiency caused by inadequate dietary intake of a nutrient
a deficiency in the early stages, before the outward signs have appeared
· Of the top seven causes of death in US, how many are linked with diet?
What is the leading cause of death in the US?
Approximately how many people in the US are overweight and obese?
a condition or behavior associated with an elevated frequency of a disease but not proved to be causal. Leading risk factors for chronic diseases include obesity, cigarette smoking, high blood pressure, high blood cholesterol, physical inactivity, and a diet high in saturated fats and low in vegetables, fruits, and whole grains.
plants of the bean and pea family, with seeds that are rich in protein compared with other plant derived foods.
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