6 stages of language acquisition and development
1)prelinguistic stage - silent period...crying, cooing, babbling
2)holophrastic stage - one-word communication
4)telegraphic stage - may omit some syllables in words, substitute sounds
5)intermediate dev stage
a pretended, ironic refusal of something that one wants or denial of something about a person that is not true
ad hominem argument
uses some irrelevant information about an opponent to attack an opponent's argument
modifies or limits a noun or pronoun
1)descriptive-names quality of object...blue car
2)limiting-restricts meaning or indicates qty or #
3)possessive-her jacket, their house
5)interrogative-Which car belongs to you?
6)numerical-one ticket, second half of school year
limits or describes verb, adjective, or another adverb
John walks slowly.
John walks very slowly.
John walked outside earlier.
Age of Johnson
1750 - 1790
transition toward upcoming romanticism
Dr. Samuel Johnson, James Boswell, Edward Gibbon, Robert Burns, Thomas Gray, William Cowper, George Crabbe, Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, Thomas Paine
Albert Camus and Jean Paul Sartre
are associated with existentialism. This philosophical movement, which began in the nineteenth century, values human freedom and responsibility. Existentialists consider more traditional schools of philosophy too far removed from human experience.
commonly described as an existentialist. In simple terms, existentialists believe that each individual creates meaning in life through free will, choice, and personal responsibility
All in a hot and copper sky
The bloody Sun, at noon,
Right up above the mast did stand,
No bigger than the moon.
Samuel Taylor Coleridge (D) was the only one of these poets who used the type of ballad stanza seen in these lines. These lines are an excerpt from Coleridge's poem "The Rime of the Ancient Mariner."
reference to historical, literary, or otherwise generally familiar character or event that helps make an idea understandable
An allusion is an indirect reference to a literary work.
The phrase "like an albatross around his neck" is an allusion to Coleridge's poem "The Rime of the Ancient Mariner."
use of words that allow alternative interpretations - may expand literal meaning, but may promote errors in understanding
sentence that changes its grammatical structure in the middle , often to suggest disturbance or excitement
foot consisting of 3 syllables in which 1st two are short or unstressed and final one is long or stressed
Twas the NIGHT before CHRISTMAS, when all THROUGH the HOUSE...
was an acclaimed confession poet who dealt with her long battle with depression in her work. She won a Pulitzer Prize in 1974.
type of personification. Both living and non-living objects take on human characteristics.
APA - American Psychological Association
used in social sciences
Davis, Anita Price. (2005). Reading instruction essentials. Boston: American Publish Company.
sometimes is an extended metaphor or an address to an absent person or to an abstract or nonhuman entity
apostrophe example - John Donne's "The Sun Rising"
Busy old fool, unruly Sun
Why dost thou thus
Through windows, and through curtains, call on us?
--addressing of an absent person or a personified thing rhetorically
add 's to singular nouns and indefinite pronouns
add 's to singular nouns ending in s
add only ' to plural nouns ending in s or es
add 's to plural nouns not ending in s
add 's to last word in compound words or groups
add 's to last name when indicating joint ownership
add 's to both names if intent shows ownership by each person
Possessive pronouns change forms w/o addition of '
Use possessive form of a noun preceding a gerund
An argument that used fear
indicates the use of which of an appeal to emotion. An appeal to emotion uses fear, security, pity, flattery, etc. to help prove a written or stated argument.
use of narrative is an effective form of argument that "should not be considered innocent moments of entertainment in political communication"
Aristotle's "Organum" is an example of what period of literature
Greek Classical and Hellenistic period
Audience of writing
Who will be reading my work
How old are they
What background do they have in subject
What interests/opinions might they have
Are there words/terms I should define
1700 - 1750
Imitation of Virgil and Horace's literature in English letters - principal English writers include Joseph Addison, Sir Richard Steele, Jonathan Swift, Alexander Pope, Francois-Marie Arouet Voltaire
author of Up from Slavery
Booker T. Washington - It tells the story of his childhood as a slave and his work as a pioneer in providing educational opportunities for African-Americans.
The author that most likely wrote a poem that began, "anyone lived in a pretty how town"?
E.E. Cummings (A), who often wrote his name as e.e. cummings. Cummings is renowned for his fractured syntax. He does not follow the rules that govern the construction of normal English sentences
ballad (closed-form poem)
short poem comprised of short verses intended to be sung or recited - simple in theme and author anonymous - center on love and hate, lust and murder, knights, and the supernatural
Ballad Stanza example
All in a hot and copper sky
The bloody Sun, at noon,
Right up above the mast did stand,
No bigger than the moon.
The ballad stanza has four lines. The first and third lines have four stressed syllables, and the second and fourth lines have three. Only the second and fourth lines rhyme.
Before reading a short story by Nathaniel Hawthorne, a teacher works with students to construct a semantic map of words related to the setting and time period of the story. The main reason for doing this is
To help students relate their prior knowledge to the plot and themes of the story.
The best time to conduct a conference with a student about a writing project
is during the revision stage, while there is still an opportunity for the student to do something about the issues that come up in the conference.
"Big Six" poets that helped shape Romantic poetry
Percy Shelley, William Wordsworth, William Blake, John Keats, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, and Lord Byron.
uses knowledge of author's life experiences to gain better understanding of the writer's work.
blank verse (closed form poetry)
unrhymed, but has strict rhythm - rules - must be written in iambic pentameter
Shakespeare, John Milton
taking words from another language....jam and tote (African) macho and spaghetti (European)
Breaking away from ongoing action to give necessary background facts is which of the following?
The exposition conveys necessary background facts. It is a paragraph or it can go on for about a page or so. It's the author telling the reader something instead of showing the reader something.
The Caldecott Medal
is awarded to the most distinguished picture book published in America each year
1625 - 1649
John Milton, George Herbert, Robert Herrick, and "Sons of Ben" write during reign of Charles I and his Cavaliers.
800 - 850
emerges in Europe -
Central Europe - texts include medieval grammars, encyclopedias, etc.
Northern Europe - marks setting of Viking sagas
Catcher in the Rye protagonist is a student
Holden Caufield The novel chronicles his experiences in New York after being expelled from a private prep school in Pennsylvania
cause and effect
rhetorical technique that a pharmaceutical sales representative might use when trying to convince doctors to prescribe certain medications to their patients
Herrick, Carew, Lovelace,Ben Jonson....wrote in polished, lyrical, erotically charged poems of gallantry and courtship....followers of King Charles I
personalities that make up the story
protagonist - good, positive character in story
antagonist - bad or evil character in story
Chomsky - Poverty of Stimulus argument
Children still manage to learn language even though most people make many mistakes while talking - interrupt or correct themselves, change their minds
Chomsky stages of language
1st prelinguistic stage - includes crying, cooing and babbling.
4th stage - telegraphic stage - when a child is likely to leave out some syllables in words
5th stages - intermediate
Chomsky - Universal Grammar
basis upon which all languages are built 1) children acquire mother language with ease 2) children deduce rules from language they hear
Classes of pronouns
The classes of pronouns include personal, relative and indefinite. Interrogative and demonstrative are also classes of pronouns.
Classical Greek Period
800 - 200 BCE
Golden Age of Greece
sophisticated age of the polis (city-state) and early democracy
Gorgias, Aesop, Plato, Socrates, Aristotle, Euripides, Sophocles
Classical Period (1200 BCE-455 CE)
Homeric or Heroic Period 1200-800 BCE
Classical Greek Period 800-200 BCE
Classical Roman Period 200 BCE - 455 CE
Paristic Period 70 CE- 455 CE
Classical Roman Period
200 BCE - 455 CE
Greece culture gives way to Roman power - Plautus and Terence
Rome in dictatorship under Julius Caesar then monarchical empire of Caesar Augustus
period later known as Roman Imperial period
Ovid, Horace, Virgil
group of words that contain a subject and predicate
independent - complete thought
dependent (subordinate) - incomplete thought
poet adheres to form, number of lines, rhyme scheme, meter, and/or shape
to introduce a list (one item may constitute a list)
to introduce a list preceded by as follows or the following
to separate two independent clauses when 2nd clause is restatement or explanation of 1st
to introduce word or word group that is restatement, explanation, or summary of the 1st sentence
to introduce a formal appositive
to separate introductory words from a quotation, if the quotation is formal, long, or paragraphed separately
reflects the people and the place - may describe the discovery of new lands - not the same as realism
The Color Purple
Alice Walker's novel focuses on the life of African-American women in the South during the 1930s.
in a series
with a long introductory phrase
to separate sentences with two main ideas
to separate an introductory subordinate clause
to slow the flow of the sentence
with nonrestrictive elements
to set off direct quotations
to set off contrasting elements
Commonwealth Period or Puritan Interregnum 1649 - 1660
Under Oliver Cromwell's Puritan dictatorship, John Milton continues to write; other writers of the period include Andrew Marvell and Sir Thomas Browne
contains two independent clauses and at least one dependent clause
ex: I am going to college, and Susan is going when she gets her paperwork completed.
has a dependent clause and an independent clause
ex: Because I missed the bus, I will be late for school.
made up of two independent clauses
joined by a coordinating conjunction (and, but, so) OR
a correlative conjunction (either-or, neither-nor) OR
ex: My mom cooked eggs for me, and she fixed oatmeal for my brother.
can be experienced with one of your five senses: you can see, hear, smell, taste and feel them
states true implications and hypothetical scenarios as well as their end results
one character reveals thoughts and ideas
ex: Laura Ingalls Wilder's books - reader knows exactly what Laura is thinking, but not what Mary is thinking
The conflict between Atticus vs. Bob Ewell in "To Kill a Mockingbird"
indicates person versus person conflict.
conflict in plot
unsettled issues in story to keep reader interested
man vs man
man vs self
man vs society
man vs nature
man vs supernatural
word that connects words, phrases, and clauses
coordinating - join of equal rank... and, but, or, nor
subordinating - although, after, because, if
connotation of a word
is based on the meaning that we bring to it. It can be as the result of emotional or cultural factors.
involves sounds of words - repetition of consonant sounds, especially at the end of stressed syllables
pair of words that link balanced words, phrases, or clauses. The correlative conjunctions are both/and, either/or, just as/so, neither/nor, not only/but also, whether/or
requires readers to respond emotionally to something they read...thinking of another way of treating a situation, another way of solving a problem, speculating whether plot could have occurred in another place or time
one of the highest levels of understanding - requires reading and thinking beyond the printed text .... true/false, fact/opinion, detecting propaganda, recognizing bias/fallacies, identifying stereotypes, making assumptions
foot is 3 syllables in which 1st is long or stressed and next 2 are unstressed or short
TAKE her up TENderly...
Delimiting a topic for writing
(going more narrow)
limit subject to 1 person/1 example
limit subject to specific time or place
limit subject to specific event
limit subject to specific condition,purpose,procedure
phrase or string of words that contains a subject and verb, but does not express a complete thought
ex: because I do not feel good
subdivision of a language related to regional differences and/or social class...may differ in sound, vocabulary, and grammar
correct MLA format for the author's name in a citation for the book David Copperfield?
Dickens published many novels in installments.
This is known as serial publication. Some critics have suggested that Dickens' novels are so long because he was paid for each installment.
misuse of language - often deliberate and calculating to mislead
ex: physical persuasion instead of torture
preowned instead of second-hand
compositions in prose or poetry that present in pantomime or in dialogue "the conflict or contrast of character"
on stage, for television
Dryden's "The Conquest of Granada"
is an example of the English Neoclassical period which took place during the 17th and 18th centuries.
Early Tudor Period
1485 - 1558
War of the Roses ends in English with Henry VII claiming the throne - Martin Luther's split with roman Catholic church marks emergence of Protestantism - first Protestant church in England - Edmund Spenser (poet)
E.E. Cummings' works
sometimes repeated a letter in such a way that it was visually interesting to see and sometimes more visually relevant to the meaning of the poem itself. He broke words and sentences in half between lines to create different sounds or emphasis, which wouldn't be as impactful if one only heard his poems.
elegy (type of lyric - closed form poem)
poem with mournful lament for someone or for something, such as love or an idea
1558 - 1603
Queen Elizabeth I saves English from both Spanish invasion and internal squabbles. Her reign marked by early works of Shakespeare, Christoper Marlowe, Thomas Kyd, and sir Philip Sidney.
Enlightenment (Neoclassical) Period
1660 - 1790
Restoration Period (1660 - 1700)
Augustan Age (1700 - 1750)
Age of Johnson (1750 - 1790)
Enlightenment (Neoclassical) Period
1660 - 1790
Neoclassical refers to increased influence of classical literature - enlightenment refers to reverence for logic and disdain for superstition - period marked by rise of deism, intellectual backlash against Puritanism, and America's revolution against England
epic (closed-form poem)
story poem vast in length, written with dignified language, celebrates achievements of a hero - theme is human grief or pride, divided loyalties
Beowulf, Don Quixote
is usually lengthy, narrative featuring heroic deed or events significant to a group or nation. Haiku is a 3-line, unrhyming poem.
extended fictional narrative, written in the form of letters, diaries, and journal entries
metonymic - moves from one experience to the next
synecdochic - goes from part to whole to back
metaphoric - focuses on similarities that tie the experiences together
ironic - takes a reflective stance towards experience
one of the three modes of persuasion that Aristotle discussed in "Rhetoric"
with ethos one appeals to authority to strengthen an argument
ethos is a starting place
substitution of less-offensive words for words considered explicitly offensive
ex: passed away instead of dead
"Everything That Rises Must Converge"
is a short story that was written by Flannery O'Connor. It was published in 1965.
example of the negative social impacts of industrialism
Mary Barton (1848) is known as the "condition of England" novel - is the first novel by English author Elizabeth Gaskell, published in 1848
Existentialism (movement in literature)
19th and 20th centuries - emphasized individual existence, freedom, and choice - argue that moral choice involves objective judgment of right and wrong, while they contend there is not objective, rational basis for moral choice
Soren Kierkegaard, Blaise Pascal, Friedrich Nietzsche, Martin Heidegger, Jean-Paul Sartre
Expectations of audience of writing
untrained or lay audience - expects background info and more description - profit from graphics/visuals to connect with human interest aspect of article
managerial audience - need particulars to make an informed decision
experts - often "theorists" or "practitioners" - document formats are elaborate and technical, source reliable/up-to-date/accurate citations
attempts to explain or describe something. This paragraph attempts to explain the concept of internal customers.
communication through speaking, writing, and gestures...word retreival, rules of grammar, word/sentence structure, word meaning
metaphor that is developed for several lines and sometimes throughout the entire essay or poem
Fair Use Doctrine
Under the fair use doctrine, teachers are allowed to make a limited number of copies of copyrighted works for use in the classroom.
follow a certain pattern - present an "ideal" /convey message
element of magic - witches, wizards, magical animals, talking beasts
magic 3 - 3 wishes, 3 attempts to achieve goal, 3 siblings
stereotyping - characteristic of fairy tale
ex: Cinderella, Snow White
characterized by double rhyming, or rhyme involving two syllables e.g. tricky and picky, flying and dying
seeks to correct or supplement what is regarded as predominantly mail-dominated critical perspective with a female consciousness
way of adding information and description to writing
1)simile-compare dissimilar things using like, than, or as
2)metaphor-implied/direct comparison of dissimilar things
3)analogy-comparison one thing to another thing
4)personification-giving human characteristics to inanimate objects
5)cliches-phrases that become meaningless because of their frequent use "Have a good day"
first aspect of maturation required for child's language acquisition is the ability to
form and hold mental pictures - ability to form, recognize, and use symbols
first science fiction novel.
Mary Shelley's Frankenstein, published in 1818, -contains an implicit warning that science gives man the power to play God.
The flaw that usually leads to the downfall of a hero in Greek tragedy
hubris -Hubris is excessive pride. The Greeks applied the term to anyone who challenged the gods or their laws, or who acted in a way that shamed or humiliated others. When Achilles dragged the corpse of Hector behind his chariot, he was guilty of hubris.
Flesch-Kincaid formula measures two things to assign a reading level to a text
average number of syllables per word
Average length of sentences
told in the language of the people - don't always have a moral - purpose is entertainment - humor may be coarse
the following authors used Irish settings or themes in their work
John M. Synge, William Butler Yeats, James Joyce ... Synge's best-known play, The Playboy of the Western World, is set in a public house in County Mayo. Several poems by Yeats concern Irish history and folklore. Joyce's best-known novel, Ulysses, is set in Dublin.
the following describe the adventures of characters stranded on an island
The Tempest, Robinson Crusoe, The Lord of the Flies
particular attention to formal elements of the work - such as language, structure, and tone.
Formalism approach to literature
little importance on historical or biographical context when analyzing text. This approach focuses on grammar and syntax, as well as meter and tropes
wrote My Bondage and My Freedom. It is an autobiographical slave narrative and was published in 1855
consonant sound made by passing a continuous stream of air though a narrow passage in the vocal tract
Frost's "The Road Not Taken"
is representative of The Modern period of American literature which took place between 1900 and 1945.
George Bernard Shaw
authored more than 50 plays that utilized satire as a way to discuss social criticism and reform
branch of language study or linguistic study which deals with the means of showing the relationship between words in use
18th century poets - Gray, Young, Parnell - often wrote in a cemetery - focused their work on death and bereavement
The Great Vowel Shift,
completed in the sixteenth century, marked the transition from Middle English to Modern English - The term Great Vowel Shift is used to describe a fundamental change in the way vowels were pronounced. The reasons for this change are unclear, but it spread quickly because the dialect spoken in London, where the change was strongest, became the standard dialect for most of England.
Greek Classical and Hellenistic period of historical literature
took place between the 8th to 2nd centuries BC
Which of the following was originally written for adults in the eighteenth century but soon became popular with younger readers?
A Christmas Carol
Japanese poetry expresses one thought written in 17 syllables with 3 lines of 5,7,5 syllables, respectively
addresses the issue of revenge. Hamlet struggles to decide on the appropriate way to avenge the death of his father.
Hamlet, King Lear, & Romeo and Juliet
classified as a tragedy - A tragedy is a drama in which an individual is confronted with a series of catastrophic events. Ancient Greek tragedies are typically based on a conflict between a hero and the gods or fate. Shakespearean tragedies focus more on conflicts within an individual or between individuals.
The Headless Horseman
Washington Irving's "The Legend of Sleepy Hollow", what is the name of the "legend"
Heart of Darkness
set in Africa. The novella, by Joseph Conrad, tells the story of a journey down the Congo River to a remote outpost operated by a man who has lost his grip on sanity after spending many years in the jungle.
Hemingway's The Old Man and the Sea
This novella focuses on Santiago, an old Cuban who struggles with a giant marlin in the Gulf Stream.
Henry David Thoreau
wrote about his experiences living in a cabin near Walden Pond. Thoreau spent two years in the woods to experience a life of simplicity and self-reliance.
use history to understand a literary work more clearly...looks at social and intellectual currents in which the author wrote
Magna Carta is signed in England
Christopher Columbus sets sail across the Atlantic
Protestant Reformation begins
Puritans arrive in New England
would not evaluate the opinions expressed in student writing. It would evaluate how well the writing focuses on opinions (A) and organizes information to support them (B), (C), but it would not evaluate the opinions themselves.
Holistic scoring rubrics usually consist of one descriptive scale
As its name states, holistic scoring rubrics take a "wholly" approach to assessing students on a particular writing task. Because holistic rubrics only use one descriptive scale, they are generally easier and quicker to produce than an analytical scoring rubric.
Homeric or Heroic Period
1200 - 800 BCE
Greek legends passed along orally -
Chaotic period of warrior princes, wandering sea traders, and fierce pirates
Homer's The Iliad and The Odyssey
How does the author establish the setting for a story
by describing the smells, colors, and scenes a character is experiencing. (An author may describe a character's past to deepen the reader's understanding of a character, but this approach has nothing to do with the setting)
hybrid language used for communication between different cultures that interact but other wise do not share a common language
is the villain in Othello. Throughout the play, he plans schemes to get what he wants and ultimately causes the death of Desdemona.
I. Comedies II. Histories III. Tragedies IV. Romances
The First Folio divides Shakespeare's plays into which of the following genres?
I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings
is the only one of these works that is autobiographical. The book chronicles the early life of African American writer Maya Angelou.
literary style that employs details and mental associations to develop subjective and sensory impressions rather than merely recreating objective reality
phrase or string of words that includes a subject and verb and expresses a complete thought
ex: I do not feel well.
In Divine Comedy by Dante, how many Terraces are there in Purgatory?
seven - It is shaped like a mountain and the seven Terraces represent levels of suffering.
In Divine Comedy by Dante, who are in which circle?
the unbaptized reside in the First Circle - Although they are not actively being punished, they are forced to lament being separated from God.
Third Circle - the misers reside in Hell
Fourth Circle - gluttons life in slush made from hail/freezing rain
Sixth Circle - the heretics reside in Hell
Seventh Circle - violent reside -Their guard is the Minotaur.
involves making generalizations based on particular facts or examples they have from the reading
informal reading inventory
student reads graded passages and responds to comprehension questions specifically designed to detect ability to grasp main idea, to draw conclusions, to inference, to remember details, to understand vocabulary
In Greek mythology, Hera
is the god of women and marriage. In Roman mythology, her equivalent is Juno.
In Greek mythology, Hermes
is the "messenger of the gods". He is also known as the "patron of travelers".
In Greek mythology, muses
assist artists in their creations. Muses are thought to be a source of knowledge that creative people can tap into.
"in medias res"
story that begins in the middle of the action - such as The Odyssey, that begins in the middle of the action
interpretive or inferential comprehension
second level of understanding - requires reading between the lines - all answers are not physically found - requires figuring out the answer...draw conclusions, inferencing, generalizing, speculating, predicting, summarizing
In The Picture of Dorian Gray,
the protagonist sells his soul in order to retain his youth. This is reminiscent of Faust, where the main character sells his soul for knowledge
inverted pyramid approach to writing
most important information is presented first -This style of writing began with journalists. Most news stories are organized this way. The rationale behind this approach is that the longer people read, the more their attention starts to fade.
It is more accurate to use the term "conventions" rather than "rules" when describing standard punctuation because
There is no single authority that defines standard punctuation.
1603 - 1625
Shakespeare writes his later works, and Aemilia Lanyer, Ben Jonson, and John Donne
archetype of metaphysical poets - British lyric poets of the 17th century - interested in metaphysical concerns, a philosophy that investigates principles of reality transcending those of any particular science
John Milton's Paradise Lost
is an epic poem. An epic poem is a long narrative poem that chronicles events that have an important place in a society's cultural history.
Jonathan Swift is best known as
satirist. His two most famous works, Gulliver's Travels and A Modest Proposal, are satires of British society.
is meant to be informal. Journals give students a chance to experiment and try out new approaches to writing without being concerned about grades. Journals should not be used to evaluate a student's knowledge of grammar and punctuation.
The Joy Luck Club
Amy Tan - portrays the cultural conflicts experienced by different generations of Chinese American families.
Kafka's stories are often senseless, disorienting, and menacing. - characters feel incapable of dealing with their surreal environment
poetic phrases comprised of figurative language used as descriptive phrases in place of the ordinary name of something e.g. whole-road = ocean, ring-giver=king
keys to analyzing a text
read or reread the text w/specific questions in mind
marshal basic ideas, events, and names
think about your personal reaction to the book
identify/consider most important ideas
locate specific evidence/passages related to main ideas
use knowledge of passage in test, essay, research, presentation, discussion, enjoyment
Krashen - Acquisition-learning hypothesis
acquired system - unconscious, people learn by interacting with others...not concerned with structure of utterances but with communicating
learned system - formal instruction...studying rules
Krashen - Affective filter hypothesis
external factors that act as a filter to impede acquisition - motivation, self-confidence, and anxiety.
Krashen - Input hypothesis
learners progress along natural order when second language is one step ahead of their level in the natural order ...students must go through levels of acquiring language
Krashen - Monitor hypothesis
acquired system is affected by learned system - learners monitor their speech by applying grammar...speakers have time to think about form and structure of sentences
Krashen - Natural order hypothesis
natural order that second language learners acquire target language
1) produce single words
2) string words together on meaning not syntax
3) identify elements that begin/end sentences
4) identify elements w/i sentences & can rearrange them to make questions
Lady Audley's Secret (1862) is an example of sensational novels
Robert Audley goes into detective mode as he tries to figure out what happened to a dear friend as well as uncover the true identity of his uncle's wife. While going throughout this exploration, Audley encounters lies, deceit and even an attempt to kill him.
Late or "High" Medieval Period
1200 - 1485
Tumultuous period marked by Middle English writings of Geoffrey Chaucer, "Gawain" or "Pearl" Poet, the Wakefield Master, William Langland. Boccaccio, Petrarch, Dante, and Christine de Pisan.
tone, figurative language, allusion, diction, voice, point of view, style, plot, setting, character, theme
the literary movement based on the belief that human beings do not have a soul or any life apart from their physical existence?
naturalism - Naturalistic works tend to emphasize the darker side of life, including such things as poverty, disease, and injustice.
belief that human beings exist entirely in the order of nature and do not have a soul or any participation in a religious or spiritual world beyond nature - naturalistic texts often describe the futile attempts of human beings to exercise free will in a universe that reveals free will as an illusion -
word or phrase that signifies an object or event which in turn signifies something else, or offers a range of interpretations beyond itself
"A Raisin in the Sun." Hansberry's work was the first play by an African-American woman to be produced on Broadway.
lyric (closed-form poem)
short poem about personal feelings and emotions - moves listener/reader from story of ballad to emotion-often accompanied by musical instrument when read
Samuel Taylor Coleridge/William Wordsworth
magical realism or meta fiction
combination of extraordinary elements of fantasy and mundane elements of reality
The main character of Kafka's novella The Metamorphosis
wakes up to discover he has been transformed into an insect. This transformation is commonly considered to symbolize the emptiness and meaninglessness of the character's life, and by extension, modern life in general.
"Maman died today. Or yesterday maybe, I don't know. I got a telegram from the home: 'Mother deceased. Funeral tomorrow. Faithfully yours.' That doesn't mean anything. Maybe it was yesterday." This quote was written from whose perspective?
Mersault - In the beginning of The Stranger, Mersault learns that his mother has died. He shows no emotion.
masculine-one-syllable words to give feeling of strength or impact
feminine - use rhyme of two or more syllables to give feeling of softness and lightness
less involved in imitating real life and more concerned with symbolism - Plays performed by guilds that depict biblical events
Medieval Period (455 CE - 1485 CE)
Old English(Anglo-Saxon)Period 428- 1066
Middle English Period 1066 - 1450
Late or "High" Medieval Period 1200 - 1485
Melville's "Moby Dick"
is representative of The American Renaissance period of American literature which took place between 1830 and 1860
allows reader to see the world through the eyes of another
ex: Roald Dahl - Charlie and the Chocolate Factory - reader sees world through Charlie's eyes...desire for candy becomes overpowering, just like it does for Charlie
defining one thing in terms of something very different
tenor - thin being defined
vehicle - thing doing the defining
You (tenor) are a hungry wolf (vehicle) in sheep's clothing.
key to understanding is to uncover similarities between the tenor and the vehicle
essay organization modes is an arrangement that focuses on the similarities that tie the experiences together
meter and feet
iambic pentameter - each line contains 5 measures of 1 unstressed & 1 stressed syllable
monometer - one foot
dimeter - two feet
trimeter - three feet
tetrameter - four feet
heptameter - seven feet
octameter - eight feet
is the use of a word or phrase intimately associated with a concept as a substitute for that concept.The use of the phrase "The White House" as a substitute for "the President" is an example of the use of metonymy
Middle English Period
1066 - 1450
Norman French armies invade and conquer English under William I. End of Anglo-Saxon hierarchy and emergence of 12th Century Renaissance. French chivalric romances, French fables, great scholastic and theological works.
miracle plays, morality plans, interludes are types of
late medieval drama, written in a variety of verse and forms
process of assessing strategies students use in their reading - teacher records additions, omissions, alterations while student reads
MLA citation within writing
Murphy believes that immigration is vital to our economic prosperity (98).
MLA - Modern Language Association
used for liberal arts and humanities
Davis, Anita Price. Reading Instruction Essentials. Boston: American Publishing Company, 2005.
deliberate /radical attempt by early 2th century artists to break from traditional artistic contentions by presenting fragmented, opaque, eclectic, and convoluted images juxtaposed to romanticized classical images and ideologies
Modernism (movement in literature)
1st decades of 20th century - modernist can describe the content and form of a work - experimentation and realization that knowledge is not absolute
Albert Einstein (theory of relativity), Max Planck (quantum theory), Sigmund Freud (theories of unconscious)
Modern Period (1914 - 1945)
In Britain, W.B. Yeats, Seamus Heaney, Dylan Thomas, W.H. Auden, Virginia Woolf, Wilfred Owen - In America, Robert Frost, Flannery O'Connor, writers of the Lost Generation like Ernest Hemingway, Gertrude Stein, F. Scott Fitzgerald, William Falkner - Harlen Renaissance marks rise of black writers...James Baldwin, Ralph Waldo Ellison - realism dominant, but disillusionment after WW1 leads to new experimentation
describe or limit the meaning of a word or group of words
Adjectives and adjective phrases or clauses can modify a noun
ex: The red boat won the race.
The boat that won the race was a red one.
Adverbs and adverbial phrases or clauses can modify a verb
Tomorrow I will begin driving.
When I am older, I will begin driving.
dramatize early Christian principles and precepts; graphically show the final punishment for not following Christian doctrine - focus on Christian doctrine not on domestic behaviors
Most frequent means of referencing materials used in a paper
MLA citations, APA citations, and CMS citations
The most recent approach to using computers to support writing instruction
focuses on sharing written work with others (C). Schools are increasingly taking advantage of local area networks to allow students to share their work with teachers and with each other. This use of technology simplifies the process of peer review.
describe a student's strengths, weaknesses, behaviors, progress, and any other information to supplement information that is conveyed in a report card - can be helpful if parent is not present at a parent-teacher conference
The Newberry Medal
awarded to the most distinguished contribution to children's literature published in America. Begun in 1922, it is the oldest and one of the most respected awards for children's literature.
language acquisition is innate - not acquired...innate set of rules about languages referred to as Universal Grammar
No pain, no gain.
generalization - Not all gain is painful and not all pain results in gain but it is generally true that growth involves some level of suffering.
Nothing Gold Can Stay
Nature's first green is gold,
Her hardest hue to hold.
Her early leaf's a flower;
But only so an hour.
Then leaf subsides to leaf.
So Eden sank to grief,
So dawn goes down to day.
Nothing gold can stay.
The line "So Eden sank to grief" is an example of an allusion.This line is an allusion to the story of Adam and Eve in the Bible. An allusion is a reference to a myth, story, or work of art. Usually this reference is indirect, and the reader must determine its significance.
novels of Carlos Fuentes, Gabriel Garcia Marquez, and Isabel Allende
are often called examples of magical realism
Novels that have a framing narrative
begin with a story that sets the stage for a main story or collection of stories. They present a "story within a story." - Frankenstein, Wuthering Heights, The Arabian Nights
In Greek mythology, nymphs always take the shape of maidens. They live in natural settings, like mountains or trees
ode (type of lyric - closed form poem)
longer than an elegy and explores topics other than merely death
Old English (Anglo Saxon) Period
428 - 1096
Dark Ages - Rome fell - barbarian tribes move into Europe - Angles, Saxons, and Jutes migrate to Britain - displacing native Celts into Scotland, Ireland, and Wales - epic poems
Beowulf, The Wanderer, The Seafarer
Order of periods in English literature
Old English, Middle English, Renaissance, neoclassical, romantic Victorian, modern
order of plot
chronological/sequential - events occur in order
OR more random order:
flashback - plot moves back and forth from present to past
foreshadowing-hints of the future or things to come
realistic story with a moral - teaches a lesson (didactic) - can be true.
ex: The Good Samaritan, The Prodigal Son
70 CE - 455 CE
Early Christian writings - Saint Augustine, Tertullian, Saint Cyprian, Saint Ambrose, and Saint Jerome
Christianity spreads across Europe and Roman Empire suffers dying convulsions
barbarians attack Rome - city falls completely
patterns of action in plot
suspense-state of uncertainty or not knowing
cliff-hanger-endings left unresolved
foreshadowing-clues given for future actions
sensationalism-use of emotionally charged words, expressions, or events to provoke a strong reaction in reader
climax-highest point of interest in story ...possible false climax featured
denouement-ending of the book
1)open-leaves questions unanswered/unresolved
2)closed-answers all questions
person versus person conflict.
The conflict between Rainford's and General Zaroff in "The Most Dangerous Game" indicates
philosophical movement in nineteenth century America that opposed materialism and championed individualism, freedom, and spirituality?
Transcendentalism - Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry David Thoreau were transcendentalists.
The play, The Cherry Orchard, was written by
Anton Chekhov. It was his last play and premiered in 1904.
Play titles should be underlined or italicized
Songs, poems and essays are small works or part of the whole and are therefore set apart with quotation marks. Large or complete works are always underlined or italicized.
The plot builds conflict,
which is central to any good story. Without conflict of some kind, there is nothing to drive the action.
Plutarch's "Life of Pericles"
is an example of the writing of The Roman Classical period of literature which took place between the 1st century BC to the 2nd-5th century AD.
poem created 'backwards'
Edgar Allen's process for writing "The Raven" began with the determining of effect, and then the whole plot is set; then the web grows backwards from that single effect. Poe's "tales of ratiocination," e.g. the Dupin tales, are written in the same manner. "Nothing is more clear than that every plot, worth the name, must be elaborated to its denouement before anything be attempted with the pen" (Poe, 1850).
writing that is not prose
stanza - group of lines where there is often a metrical order and repeated rhyme
rhyme - corresponding sounds, to rhyme schemes, metrical order
point of view
1st person - story told through eyes of one central character- uses I, me, and my
2nd person - uses word you
3rd person-story told through character-uses he, she, it, they
omniscient - narrator knows all about characters and actions, and shares information with audience or reader
limited omniscient - narrator does not share all information about all characters or events
objective - tell happenings without voicing an opinion - never reveals what the characters are thinking or feeling
Point of View in writing
choose to tell a story, express an opinion, attempt to persuade, or describe something from a point of view -- depending on the purpose of the piece and the intended effect of the writing
1st person often more emotional impact
Pope's "The Rape of the Lock"
English Neoclassical period which took place during the 17th and 18th centuries
1)develop skills students can use in high school
2)will assist students in meeting course outcomes relating to reading and writing
post hoc ergo propter hoc fallacy
based on the mistaken idea that if one event precedes another, the first event must have caused the second
Postmodern Period (1945 onward)
experiment with metafiction and fragmented poetry - T.S. Eliot, George Bernard Shaw, Samuel Beckett, Sir Tom Stoppard, John Fowles, Italo Calvino, Allen Ginsberg, Thomas Pynchon -
Multiculturalism leads to increasing canonization of non-Caucasian writers - Langston Hughes, Toni Morrison, Sandra Cisneros, Zora Neale Hurston -
Magic realists - Gabriel Garcia Marquez, Luis Borges, Alejo Carpentier, Gunter Grass, Salman Rushdie flourish with surrealistic writings embroided with conventions of realism
poets who attempted to return to the ideas of truthfulness, simplicity, and art prior to the Italian Renaissance
present participle of the verb cry is
Crying - A participle is a verb used as an adjective, such as the crying baby. The present participle typically ends with -ing.
words that can replace a noun
reciprocal-each other, one another
intensive-myself, yourself, himself, etc
reflexive-myself, yourself, herself, etc
Pulitzer prizes for literature
Alice Walker for The Color Purple
Harper Lee for To Kill a Mockingbird
Toni Morrison for Beloved
Purpose for writing
to explain or inform
to express personal thoughts, feelings, or opinions
OR a combination of any of these
Reader response theory
states that readers play an important part in creating the meaning of a text. According to this theory, readers use their imagination and personal experiences to become, in a sense, co-creators of the text.
reading aloud to students increases
amount of time students read
motivation to read more
builds topic background knowledge and comprehension
19th century literary movement attempting to replicate everyday life situations as realistically as possible.
language that is spoken or written and received by others as listening or reading...to receive language must be able to process, comprehend, retain, or integrate spoken or written language
recursive approach to writing
students feel free to change their plans and outlines as they develop their draft - a cyclical process. The process begins with prewriting and planning, moves on to drafting, and then moves on to editing and revising. At any point in this process, a writer may return to an earlier stage. For example, during the drafting stage, a writer may decide to go back and revise the outline for the project
the relationship between Odysseus and Ulysses
The character is called Odysseus in Greek mythology. He is referred to as Ulysses in Roman mythology.
Renaissance and the Reformation (1485 - 1660)
Early Tudor Period (1485 - 1558)
Elizabethan Period (1558 - 1603)
Jacobean Period (1603 - 1625)
Caroline Age (1625 - 1649)
Commonwealth Period or Puritan Interregnum (1649 - 1660)
Research writing techniques
establish time frame
choose topic...then narrow it down
locate identified sources - electronic/paper
record bibliography info on cards
**Note style required APA, MLA, etc
1660 - 1700
British king's restoration to the throne after long period of Puritan domination in England - symptoms include dominance of French and classical influences on poetry and drama
John Dryden, John Lock, Sir William Temple, Samuel Pepys, Aphra Behn, Jean Racine, Jean-Baptiste Moliere
Rhyme, alliteration and Onomatopoeia are all elements of sound
Rhyme is the repetition of an identical or similar stressed sound or sounds at the end of a word. Alliteration is simply the repetition of sounds. Onomatopoeia occurs when the sound of a word echoes or suggests its meaning.
rhyme in open-form poems
poet has no rules of rhyme pattern or meter- may be rhyme, but if there is, it may be w/o formal pattern - lines break at any point - dashes used - play with words - modern
end rhyme - rhyming occurs at end of lines
internal rhyme-one rhyming word occurs within the line
"Stay gold, Ponyboy. Stay gold..." is said by Johnny just before he died in the novel 'The Outsiders'. He was making a partial reference to a poem by which poet?
Robert Frost poems
"Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening," "Mending Wall," and "After Apple Picking" - describe rural life in New England
Robert Louis Stevenson's "Requiem" is an example of an elegy. An elegy is a mournful lament for the dead.
Robert Louis Stevenson's "Requiem" is an example of an elegy. An elegy is a mournful lament for the dead.
idealized view of life where characters, setting, and action are better than what one would experience in real life - may or may not feature a love story - always involve fantasy
Romanticism (movement in literature)
18th-19th centuries - began in Germany and England
emphasized imagination, fancy and freedom, emotion, wildness, beauty of the natural world, rights of the individual, nobility of the common man, attractiveness of the pastoral life
Honore de Balzac, Gustave Flaubert, George Eliot, Fyodor Dostoevsky, Leo Tolstoy
Which of the following literary periods does Samuel Taylor Coleridge's work represent?
1790 - 1830
write about nature, imagination, and individuality in England... Samuel Taylor Coleridge, William Blake, John Keats, Percy Bysshe Shelley, Johann von Goethe - In America, transcendental period...Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry David Thoreau - Gothic writings overlap with romantic and Victorian periods - Gothic = precursor to horror novels - Ann Radcliffe, Monk Lewis, Victorians like Bram Stoker, Edgar Allen Poe, Nathaniel Hawthorne
is a 15-line poem made up of three stanzas. Each line of this type of poem has 8 to 10 syllables.
enables user to rate quality of student performance according to predetermined set of criteria and standards
documents reading as student reads out loud to evaluate reading level and to note explicit types of miscues
several thoughts incorrectly joined together and not grammatically correct
ex: I like to eat ice cream my mother went to the store after she got off work.
Sagwa - Chinese Siamese Cat was written...
Amy Tan 1994...also wrote The Moon Lady 1992 and The Joy Luck Club
form of imitative ridicule with a subject matter that focuses on social inequities and human corruption...it does not necessarily alter the lives of individuals
A scene must first advance the plot & demonstrate the characters.
You should be able to name to yourself what each scene brought out, how it developed the characters, how it showed action or led toward consequences.
to separate independent clauses not joined by a coordinating conjunction
to separate independent clauses separated by a conjunctive adverb
to separate items in a series with internal commas
incomplete thought and not grammatically correct.
ex: Working in the mall in town.
A Shakespearean sonnet
ends with a rhymed couplet. The rhyme scheme of a Shakespearean sonnet is ABAB CDCD EFEF GG
shared inquiry approach
leader & group: participants guided in reading their own interpretation of writing -- active approach uses text, one's own experience, and reasoning to reach interpretation.....examples: debate, socratic seminar
Simone de Beauvoir 9The author of The Second Sex) was a lifelong partner of
Jean-Paul Sartre (existentialist author)
half rhyme, off rhyme, near rhyme, or approximate rhyme - used to surprise reader - used to give reader a let-down or express disappointment
monologue in which actors speak their thoughts and feelings aloud - may be in prose and does not necessarily relate to the existence of God
Some of the students gave the teacher a standing ovation.What is the simple subject of this sentence?
To find the subject of a sentence, place the words who or what before the verb. The answer to that question will be the subject.
is a poem that consists of 14 lines. John Keats and William Shakespeare were among the writers that wrote this type of poetry.
sonnet (closed-form poem)
-14 lines-most recognizable-"little song" - Petrarchan/Italian - octave of 8 lintes & sestet of 6 lines - abbaabba-cdecde - written in iambic pentameter with varied rhyming scheme
Shakespearean/English- lines of three groups of four lines(quatrains) and two rhyming lines (couplet) - abab cdcd efef gg
Sophocles' "Oedipus Rex" is an example of what period of literature?
Greek Classical and Hellenistic
dialect or diction of characters in story - author reveals thoughts of characters to inform readers about character - appearance can also help reader understand character - what others say about character important
stage direction "aside"
actor directly addresses the audience, while out of hearing of the other actors
Second Language Acquisition Theory
1) acquisition-learning hypothesis
2) monitor hypothesis
3) natural order hypothesis
4) input hypothesis
5) affective filter hypothesis
Strategies for identifying a subject
listing interests and experiences
keeping a personal journal
using pieces of literature to inspire
completing an interest inventory
A misrepresentation of an opponent's position - This device is considered a dishonest rhetorical approach. It is easy, but unfair, to attack an opponent's position if it is presented in a negative, distorted way
changing stress of syllable to another to change meaning and pronunciation - noun record...verb record
is nothing more than a way of looking at your story materials so that it's organized in a way that is both logical and dramatic. Structure is a process, not a rigid format. Structure in fiction is static, not dynamic.
The structure of a story is...
internal. However, the form of a story is external. The two interrelate, but are not exactly the same thing.
The way an author uses words to formulate ideas is best described as style. Style is one way that one writer's work is distinguished from another's.
makes writing more appealing and clarifies meaning
denotation, connotation, alliteration, consonance, assonance, onomatopoeia, rhythm, imagery, hyperbole, under-statement, wordplay, symbolism
Surrealism (movement in literature)
another movement in 20th century - works feature element of surprise, unexpected juxtapositions, and non sequitur - began in Paris - aimed to free people from false rationality and restrictive customs and structures - aligned with communism and anarchism
Swift's "The Battle of the Books"
example of the English Neoclassical period which took place during the 17th and 18th centuries.
Symbolism (movement in literature)
reached its peak in last two decades of 19th century -began in France - aimed to evoke an order of being beyond the 5 senses - express in words the highly complex feelings
ex: symbol of flag stands for nation or movement
empty cupboard stands for poverty, hopelessness, despair
textual criticism - recension
selection of the most trustworthy evidence on which to base a text (after examination of all possible material
Themes of "The Great Gatsby"
The divide between the new and old rich (classism), that certain classes believe themselves superior (elitism) and that the old rich believe themselves above reproach (morality), regardless of the sin.
There are six recognized stages to the writing process
The stages are prewriting, drafting, revising, editing, publishing, evaluating.
A thesis statement
is needed for any type of document. This includes research and position papers as well as book reviews.
wrote Common Sense during the eighteenth century. It was published in 1776. The pamphlet made the case for independence from Great Britain in simple but eloquent language.
Three witches make prophecies
in Macbeth. Their prophecy that Macbeth will become king of Scotland leads him to murder Duncan, the current king.
To Kill a Mockingbird
book that is set in the Great Depression. This novel, by Harper Lee, is set in a small town in the South during the 1930s.
author's attitude toward the writing, the reader, the subject and/or the people, places, and events in a work - serious, ironic, sad, happy, private, public, angry, affectionate, bitter, nostalgic, etc.
1)condescension-talks down to reader
3)irony-incongruity between expectations/happenings
5)parody-humorous/ridiculing imitation of something else
6)sentimentality-excessive use of feelings/emotions
tone is the mood or attitude conveyed by the writing.
The words dull, dark, soundless, oppressively, alone, dreary, and melancholy are all words that describe which of the following aspects of a story?
suggests settings, characters, and themes that appear and reappear in literature
flood, for instance, is a common theme in literature
ancient stories - handed down over generations
ex: parable, fable, fairy tales, folktales, myths, legends
is an eight-line poem that repeats entire lines. Thomas Hardy is among the writers who have used this style.
foot that has 2 syllables in which 1st is long or stressed, and the 2nd is short and unstressed
Shakespeare used in line from Macbeth:
DOUble,DOUble, TOIL, and TROUble...
a figure of speech in which words are used in a sense different from their literal meaning e.g. poor little rich girl, seeking one's fortune
TV shows, Titles of books, Newspapers
are large or complete works and should be underlined or italicized
types of characters
round-fully described or revealed
flat-not fully developed, described, or revealed
dynamic-developing or changing
types of irony
verbal irony - contrast between what is said/what is meant
situational irony - discrepancy between what happens/what reader expects to happen
dramatic irony-contrast between what a character believes or says/what reader understands to be true
types of plot
progressive-requires reading entire story to find answers
episodic-chapters/episodes related but have story of itself
types of setting
backdrop-not essential to plot...could happen anywhere (figurative setting serves as illustration
integral-essential to the plot
types of themes
survival of the unfittest - regardless of events, they manage to endure/survive
picaresque - journey brings excitement/
reversal of fortune - played out as a change/
complete turnabout in circumstances of character(s)
A typical direction for paragraph development
is from the general to the specific (C). A paragraph often begins with a general statement and then provides specific details to back it up.
action - phrases/words that show actions....write
state of being - is, are, am, was, were
transitive - need a direct object .... beat the rug
intransitive - do not require an object...was singing
Charles Dickens, George Eliot, and Thomas Hardy ...The Victorian era in British literature is often defined as beginning with the Reform Act of 1832 and ending with the death of Queen Victoria in 1901.
Victorian Period and 19tj Century
1832 - 1901
sentimental novels - Elizabeth Browning, Alfred Lord Tennyson, Matthew Arnold, Robert Browning, Charles Dickens, Bronte sisters - PreRaphaelites like Christina and Dante Rossetti and William Morris idealize and want morality of the medieval world - marked by intellectual movements of aestheticism and "the decadence" in writings - Walter Pater, Oscar Wilde - In America, naturalist writers like Stephan Crane, Walt Whitman, Emily Dickinson
courtly love poem from medieval times - 5 3-lined stanzas (tercets) with rhyme scheme of aba, and then 4-line stanza (quatrain) with rhyme scheme abaa - repetition of poem's 1st line as last line of 2nd and 4th tercets - 3rd line is last line of 3rd and 5th tercet - two lines appear again rhyming lines at end of poem "Do Not Go Gentle into that Good Night" Dylan Thomas
volunteered as a nurse in army hospitals during the Civil War. He wrote about his experiences in Memoranda During the War.
What dialect was common throughout the book 'The Catcher in the Rye'?
Salinger characterized the Early American dialect with frequent use of 'goddam' and 'and all'. Rural English is not an actual dialect. Colonial is an Americanized form of British and older than the time of this story. British English is even more formal than colonial and has an emphasis on stronger nasal tones than Colonial or Early American.
"What's best for the children"
is an appeal to emotion. It attempts to persuade the reader through emotions rather than logic. "What's best for the children" has been described as a "thought-terminating cliche."
When Hamlet says "that was to this Hyperion to a satyr," he is comparing
Hamlet is comparing his father to his uncle. His father was like Hyperion, the god of light. His uncle is like as a satyr, a creature that is half man and half beast.
Which literary period did Mark Twain contribute to?
Mark Twain's work is representative of the Realist literary movement which took place between 1855-1900. The Realist movement was characterized by works that were objective and that used multiple voices to tell a story.
Which of the following is the LEAST credible source for writing a paper?
Word of mouth is the least credible source. This source can be manipulated from its original form and content.
Which of the following literary forms was the last to develop? Epic poem, lyric poem, tragedies
The novel was the last of these forms to develop. Epic poetry, tragedies, and lyric poetry have existed since the time of ancient Greece. Novels came into existence in the seventeenth century.
Which of the following poets celebrated members of the "Beat Generation"?
Allen Ginsburg (A) is best known for the poem "Howl" (1956), in which he celebrates his friends in the Beat Generation. The Beat Generation was a group of writers who rejected mainstream American values and embraced spontaneity and creativity.
Which of the following were used as a form of symbolism in Edgar Allen Poe's "Masque of the Red Death"?
castle represented a form of protection from illness spread outside the castle. However, it also was meant to be a closed space, but strangers still could come in; suggesting that control (over the plague) was an illusion.
While Whitman and Dickinson
write about death and dying; and show an appreciation for nature (from different perspectives); they are most consistent in their view of the after life.
Who is Mephistopheles in Faust by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
In Faust, Mephistopheles is a devil. Faust sells his soul to Mephistopheles for knowledge
Who vs Whom
The word "who" is used as a subject in a sentence. The word "whom" is used as an object.
Who wrote Save Me the Waltz?
Zelda Fitzgerald - wife of F. Scott Fitzgerald - only novel, semi-autobiographical account of her life and marriage
was the only one of these women who wrote about life on the American frontier. Her best-known novels, O Pioneers! and My Antonia, are set in Nebraska.
The word "dog"
is an example of a concrete noun. A concrete noun names a thing that is tangible. Concrete nouns can be either proper or common.
playful and creative use of words for a witty effect
pun - two meanings of a word/two similar sounding words are deliberately confused
general idea of the direction of essay will take but will be ultimately refined and clarified as the essay develops
Works written during the Harlem Renaissance Era
The Chinaberry Tree, Not Without Laughter, Infants of the Spring
Writer of 1st draft of Declaration of Independence
Abraham Lincoln (Benjamin Franklin and John Adams contributed)
wrote about life in New England
Anne Bradstreet - poet and essayist who lived in Massachusetts in the seventeenth century. Nathaniel Hawthorne - The Scarlet Letter, a novel set in Puritan Boston.
Arthur Miller - The Crucible, a play about the Salem witch trials of 1692 and 1693.
The year 1944 was
the last year Anne made an entry in her diary. Her last entry was recorded on August 1, 1944.
The Yellow Wallpaper
chronicles a woman's nervous breakdown. This mental deterioration makes the narrator unreliable.