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Information taken from REA Praxis II book

6 stages of language acquisition and development

1)prelinguistic stage - silent period...crying, cooing, babbling
2)holophrastic stage - one-word communication
3)two-word stage
4)telegraphic stage - may omit some syllables in words, substitute sounds
5)intermediate dev stage
6)adult stage


capable of being


a pretended, ironic refusal of something that one wants or denial of something about a person that is not true

acronym formation

forming word form initials of group of words - AIDS...NASA

ad hominem argument

uses some irrelevant information about an opponent to attack an opponent's argument


modifies or limits a noun or pronoun
1)descriptive-names quality of car
2)limiting-restricts meaning or indicates qty or #
3)possessive-her jacket, their house
4)demonstrative-this automobile
5)interrogative-Which car belongs to you?
6)numerical-one ticket, second half of school year
7)comparative/superlative-indicate degree...bigger,biggest

Adventures of Huck Finn

written in the Modern period - Mark Twain


limits or describes verb, adjective, or another adverb
John walks slowly.
John walks very slowly.
John walked outside earlier.


adding a prefix or suffix to a word

Age of Johnson
1750 - 1790

transition toward upcoming romanticism
Dr. Samuel Johnson, James Boswell, Edward Gibbon, Robert Burns, Thomas Gray, William Cowper, George Crabbe, Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, Thomas Paine

Albert Camus and Jean Paul Sartre

are associated with existentialism. This philosophical movement, which began in the nineteenth century, values human freedom and responsibility. Existentialists consider more traditional schools of philosophy too far removed from human experience.

Albert Carnus

commonly described as an existentialist. In simple terms, existentialists believe that each individual creates meaning in life through free will, choice, and personal responsibility

The "Allegory of the Cave"

was written by Plato. It is a part of The Republic.

All in a hot and copper sky
The bloody Sun, at noon,
Right up above the mast did stand,
No bigger than the moon.

Samuel Taylor Coleridge (D) was the only one of these poets who used the type of ballad stanza seen in these lines. These lines are an excerpt from Coleridge's poem "The Rime of the Ancient Mariner."


repetition of initial sounds in two or more words in a sentence or phrase


repetition of consonant (consonance) or repetition of a verb (assonance)

all languages contain two basic sounds

vowels and consonants


reference to historical, literary, or otherwise generally familiar character or event that helps make an idea understandable

An allusion is an indirect reference to a literary work.

The phrase "like an albatross around his neck" is an allusion to Coleridge's poem "The Rime of the Ancient Mariner."


use of words that allow alternative interpretations - may expand literal meaning, but may promote errors in understanding

American English

1921 - people in America desired a distinct and independent dialect

American poet Carl Sandburg

wrote biographies of Abraham Lincoln


sentence that changes its grammatical structure in the middle , often to suggest disturbance or excitement


foot consisting of 3 syllables in which 1st two are short or unstressed and final one is long or stressed
Twas the NIGHT before CHRISTMAS, when all THROUGH the HOUSE...


the act of

Anna Karenina

written by Leo Tolstoy. It was published in 1877

Anne Bradstreet, Nathaniel Hawthorne, Arthur Miller

wrote about life in New England

Anne Sexton

was an acclaimed confession poet who dealt with her long battle with depression in her work. She won a Pulitzer Prize in 1974.


type of personification. Both living and non-living objects take on human characteristics.


contrast of words and ideas

APA - American Psychological Association

used in social sciences

Davis, Anita Price. (2005). Reading instruction essentials. Boston: American Publish Company.

APA format

commonly used for sciences


wise sayings, generally short and written.


god of music, poetry, and the arts - also considered the god of medicine and healing


sometimes is an extended metaphor or an address to an absent person or to an abstract or nonhuman entity

apostrophe example - John Donne's "The Sun Rising"

Busy old fool, unruly Sun
Why dost thou thus
Through windows, and through curtains, call on us?
--addressing of an absent person or a personified thing rhetorically


add 's to singular nouns and indefinite pronouns
add 's to singular nouns ending in s
add only ' to plural nouns ending in s or es
add 's to plural nouns not ending in s
add 's to last word in compound words or groups
add 's to last name when indicating joint ownership
add 's to both names if intent shows ownership by each person
Possessive pronouns change forms w/o addition of '
Use possessive form of a noun preceding a gerund

An argument that used fear

indicates the use of which of an appeal to emotion. An appeal to emotion uses fear, security, pity, flattery, etc. to help prove a written or stated argument.

Aristotelian logic

use of narrative is an effective form of argument that "should not be considered innocent moments of entertainment in political communication"

Aristotle's "Organum" is an example of what period of literature

Greek Classical and Hellenistic period


a, an, the


repetition of vowel sounds

Audience of writing

Who will be reading my work
How old are they
What background do they have in subject
What interests/opinions might they have
Are there words/terms I should define

Augustan Age
1700 - 1750

Imitation of Virgil and Horace's literature in English letters - principal English writers include Joseph Addison, Sir Richard Steele, Jonathan Swift, Alexander Pope, Francois-Marie Arouet Voltaire


essential element in juvenile fiction - must be believable and convincing

author of The Picture of Dorian Gray

Oscar Wilde 1890

author of Up from Slavery

Booker T. Washington - It tells the story of his childhood as a slave and his work as a pioneer in providing educational opportunities for African-Americans.

The author that most likely wrote a poem that began, "anyone lived in a pretty how town"?

E.E. Cummings (A), who often wrote his name as e.e. cummings. Cummings is renowned for his fractured syntax. He does not follow the rules that govern the construction of normal English sentences

The Awakening

was written by Kate Chopin. It was published in 1899.


similar to clipping...self-destruct from self-destruction and burger from hamburger

ballad (closed-form poem)

short poem comprised of short verses intended to be sung or recited - simple in theme and author anonymous - center on love and hate, lust and murder, knights, and the supernatural

Ballad Stanza example

All in a hot and copper sky
The bloody Sun, at noon,
Right up above the mast did stand,
No bigger than the moon.

The ballad stanza has four lines. The first and third lines have four stressed syllables, and the second and fourth lines have three. Only the second and fourth lines rhyme.

Before reading a short story by Nathaniel Hawthorne, a teacher works with students to construct a semantic map of words related to the setting and time period of the story. The main reason for doing this is

To help students relate their prior knowledge to the plot and themes of the story.


won Toni Morrison a Pulitzer Prize in 1988. It was adapted into a film the same year.

The best time for a student to proofread a paper is

After the revision stage.

The best time to conduct a conference with a student about a writing project

is during the revision stage, while there is still an opportunity for the student to do something about the issues that come up in the conference.

"Big Six" poets that helped shape Romantic poetry

Percy Shelley, William Wordsworth, William Blake, John Keats, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, and Lord Byron.


focuses on the development of a person from childhood to adulthood

biographical criticism

uses knowledge of author's life experiences to gain better understanding of the writer's work.

blank verse (closed form poetry)

unrhymed, but has strict rhythm - rules - must be written in iambic pentameter
Shakespeare, John Milton


combining two words to form new word...breakfast and lunch = brunch, smoke and fog = smog


taking words from another language....jam and tote (African) macho and spaghetti (European)

Bound morpheme

cannot stand alone

brand names as common words

name of product acts as a noun or verb

Breaking away from ongoing action to give necessary background facts is which of the following?

The exposition conveys necessary background facts. It is a paragraph or it can go on for about a page or so. It's the author telling the reader something instead of showing the reader something.

Byron, Shelley, and Keats

are commonly classified as Romantic poets

The Caldecott Medal

is awarded to the most distinguished picture book published in America each year

Caroline Age
1625 - 1649

John Milton, George Herbert, Robert Herrick, and "Sons of Ben" write during reign of Charles I and his Cavaliers.

Carolingian Renaissance
800 - 850

emerges in Europe -
Central Europe - texts include medieval grammars, encyclopedias, etc.
Northern Europe - marks setting of Viking sagas

Catcher in the Rye protagonist is a student

Holden Caufield The novel chronicles his experiences in New York after being expelled from a private prep school in Pennsylvania

cause and effect

rhetorical technique that a pharmaceutical sales representative might use when trying to convince doctors to prescribe certain medications to their patients

Cavalier poets

Herrick, Carew, Lovelace,Ben Jonson....wrote in polished, lyrical, erotically charged poems of gallantry and courtship....followers of King Charles I

centaurs in Greek mythology

half horse & half man

Chapter titles

part of the whole book and should be set w/i quotation marks.


personalities that make up the story
protagonist - good, positive character in story
antagonist - bad or evil character in story


heroic couplet

Chicago Manual of Style (CMS)

standard for academic publishing outside the sciences.`

Chomsky - Poverty of Stimulus argument

Children still manage to learn language even though most people make many mistakes while talking - interrupt or correct themselves, change their minds

Chomsky stages of language

1st prelinguistic stage - includes crying, cooing and babbling.
4th stage - telegraphic stage - when a child is likely to leave out some syllables in words
5th stages - intermediate

Chomsky - Universal Grammar

basis upon which all languages are built 1) children acquire mother language with ease 2) children deduce rules from language they hear

circular reasoning

logical fallacy

citations most often used for science


Classes of pronouns

The classes of pronouns include personal, relative and indefinite. Interrogative and demonstrative are also classes of pronouns.

Classical Greek Period
800 - 200 BCE

Golden Age of Greece
sophisticated age of the polis (city-state) and early democracy
Gorgias, Aesop, Plato, Socrates, Aristotle, Euripides, Sophocles

Classical Period (1200 BCE-455 CE)

Homeric or Heroic Period 1200-800 BCE
Classical Greek Period 800-200 BCE
Classical Roman Period 200 BCE - 455 CE
Paristic Period 70 CE- 455 CE

Classical Roman Period
200 BCE - 455 CE

Greece culture gives way to Roman power - Plautus and Terence
Rome in dictatorship under Julius Caesar then monarchical empire of Caesar Augustus
period later known as Roman Imperial period
Ovid, Horace, Virgil


group of words that contain a subject and predicate
independent - complete thought
dependent (subordinate) - incomplete thought


shortening words...math for mathematics and doc for doctor

closed-form poem

poet adheres to form, number of lines, rhyme scheme, meter, and/or shape

cognitive language

language that is received, processed into memory, integrated with knowledge

collective noun

represents a group of people or things


to introduce a list (one item may constitute a list)
to introduce a list preceded by as follows or the following
to separate two independent clauses when 2nd clause is restatement or explanation of 1st
to introduce word or word group that is restatement, explanation, or summary of the 1st sentence
to introduce a formal appositive
to separate introductory words from a quotation, if the quotation is formal, long, or paragraphed separately


reflects the people and the place - may describe the discovery of new lands - not the same as realism

The Color Purple

Alice Walker's novel focuses on the life of African-American women in the South during the 1930s.


Shakespeare's plays Twelfth Night and As You Like It are classified as


in a series
with a long introductory phrase
to separate sentences with two main ideas
to separate an introductory subordinate clause
to slow the flow of the sentence
with nonrestrictive elements
to set off direct quotations
to set off contrasting elements
in dates

Commonwealth Period or Puritan Interregnum 1649 - 1660

Under Oliver Cromwell's Puritan dictatorship, John Milton continues to write; other writers of the period include Andrew Marvell and Sir Thomas Browne

complex-compound sentence

contains two independent clauses and at least one dependent clause
ex: I am going to college, and Susan is going when she gets her paperwork completed.

complex sentence

has a dependent clause and an independent clause
ex: Because I missed the bus, I will be late for school.

complex sentence

contains an independent clause and a dependent clause


joining two or more words - stopwatch...skateboard

compound sentence

made up of two independent clauses
joined by a coordinating conjunction (and, but, so) OR
a correlative conjunction (either-or, neither-nor) OR
a semicolon
ex: My mom cooked eggs for me, and she fixed oatmeal for my brother.

concrete noun

can be experienced with one of your five senses: you can see, hear, smell, taste and feel them

conditional sentence

states true implications and hypothetical scenarios as well as their end results


one character reveals thoughts and ideas
ex: Laura Ingalls Wilder's books - reader knows exactly what Laura is thinking, but not what Mary is thinking

The conflict between Atticus vs. Bob Ewell in "To Kill a Mockingbird"

indicates person versus person conflict.

conflict in plot

unsettled issues in story to keep reader interested
man vs man
man vs self
man vs society
man vs nature
man vs supernatural


word that connects words, phrases, and clauses
coordinating - join of equal rank... and, but, or, nor
subordinating - although, after, because, if


impression or feeling a word gives beyond its exact meaning


impression or feeling a word gives beyond its exact meaning

connotation of a word

is based on the meaning that we bring to it. It can be as the result of emotional or cultural factors.


involves sounds of words - repetition of consonant sounds, especially at the end of stressed syllables

content page entries

listed in order of occurrence in the book


using a word in one category and then in another with change - noun comb...verb comb

correlative conjunction

pair of words that link balanced words, phrases, or clauses. The correlative conjunctions are both/and, either/or, just as/so, neither/nor, not only/but also, whether/or

couplet (closed-form poem)

2 line stanza usually has end rhyme
heroic couplet is end-stopped


grappled with the idea of nature versus nurture because he saw the importance of both

creative comprehension

requires readers to respond emotionally to something they read...thinking of another way of treating a situation, another way of solving a problem, speculating whether plot could have occurred in another place or time

critical comprehension

one of the highest levels of understanding - requires reading and thinking beyond the printed text .... true/false, fact/opinion, detecting propaganda, recognizing bias/fallacies, identifying stereotypes, making assumptions

cultural criticism

focuses on historical, social, and economic contexts of a work


foot is 3 syllables in which 1st is long or stressed and next 2 are unstressed or short
TAKE her up TENderly...

Death of a Salesman, The Crucible, A Raisin in the Sun

Realistic dramas

declarative sentence

makes a statement

deductive reasoning

discuss text and identify the facts

deductive reasoning

involves discussing the text and identifying the facts

Delimiting a topic for writing
(going more narrow)

limit subject to 1 person/1 example
limit subject to specific time or place
limit subject to specific event
limit subject to specific condition,purpose,procedure


precise meaning of a word


saying exactly what is meant

dependent clause

phrase or string of words that contains a subject and verb, but does not express a complete thought
ex: because I do not feel good

Derivational morphemes

alter the meanings of a word, their parts of speech or both

diagnosis of reading errors

search for patterns of errors to target remediation


subdivision of a language related to regional differences and/or social class...may differ in sound, vocabulary, and grammar

Dickens, Charles.

correct MLA format for the author's name in a citation for the book David Copperfield?

Dickens published many novels in installments.

This is known as serial publication. Some critics have suggested that Dickens' novels are so long because he was paid for each installment.


author's choice of words...dialect of characters


not or away from/apart

Don Juan

was written by Lord Byron


misuse of language - often deliberate and calculating to mislead
ex: physical persuasion instead of torture
preowned instead of second-hand


compositions in prose or poetry that present in pantomime or in dialogue "the conflict or contrast of character"
on stage, for television

Dryden's "The Conquest of Granada"

is an example of the English Neoclassical period which took place during the 17th and 18th centuries.

Early Tudor Period
1485 - 1558

War of the Roses ends in English with Henry VII claiming the throne - Martin Luther's split with roman Catholic church marks emergence of Protestantism - first Protestant church in England - Edmund Spenser (poet)


English dialect with African influence

E.E. Cummings' works

sometimes repeated a letter in such a way that it was visually interesting to see and sometimes more visually relevant to the meaning of the poem itself. He broke words and sentences in half between lines to create different sounds or emphasis, which wouldn't be as impactful if one only heard his poems.

effective praise

should be authentic and low key


serious poem lamenting the death of an individual or group of individuals


mournful poem for the dead

elegy (type of lyric - closed form poem)

poem with mournful lament for someone or for something, such as love or an idea

Elizabethan Period
1558 - 1603

Queen Elizabeth I saves English from both Spanish invasion and internal squabbles. Her reign marked by early works of Shakespeare, Christoper Marlowe, Thomas Kyd, and sir Philip Sidney.

Elizabeth Barrett Browning

(1806-1861) wrote during the Victorian era

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