Material Versus Immaterial Misstatements
Misstatements are usually considered material if the combined uncorrected errors and fraud in the financial statements would like have changed or influenced the decisions of a reasonable person using the statements
Assurance is a measure of the level of certainty that the auditor has obtained at the completion of the audit. Auditing standards (AU 230) financial statements are free of material misstatements. (the auditor is not a insurer or guarantor of the correctness of the financial statements.
1. evidence results from testing a sample of a population
2. contain complex estimates
3. fraudulently prepared financial statements are often extremely difficult
Errors Versus Fraud SAS 99 (AU 316)
error is an unintentional misstatement, whereas fraud is intentional.
Fraud, distinction between misappropriation of assets, often called defalcation or employee fraud and fraudulent financial reporting, often called management fraud.
an atittude that includes a questioning mind and a critical assessment of audit evidence. The auditor should not assume that management is either honest or dishonest.
direct-effect illegal acts
Violations of laws or government regulations by the entity or its management or employees that produce direct and material effects on dollar amounts in financial statements
indirect-effect illegal acts
most illegal acts effect the financial statement only indirectly. Ex: material fines and sanctions from violating environmental protection laws, violations of insider securities trading regulations. Hard to trace. Auditors provide NO ASSURANCE that indirect-illegal acts will be detected.
1. Audits are performed by dividing the financial statements into smaller segments or components. The division makes the audit more manageable & aids in the assignment of tasks to diff member of the audit team.
2. After the audit of each segment is completed, including interrelationships with other segment, the results are combined. A conclusion can then be reached about the financial statements taken as a whole.
3. A common way to divide an audit is to keep closely related types (classes) of transactions and account balances in the same segment
transaction-related audit objectives
For any given class of transactions, several audit objectives must be met before the auditor can conclude that the transactions are properly recorded
presentation and disclosure-related audit objectives
relates to the presentation and disclosure of information in the financial statements
-implied or expressed representations by management about classes of transactions and the related accounts and disclosures in the financial statements. In most cases they are implied.
-These assertions apply to classes of transaction, account balances, and presentation disclosures.
transactions and events that have been recorded have occurred and pertain to the entity
all transactions and events that should havebeen recorded in the fina stmts are included
audit tests indlue search for missing sequence numbers, confirmation with customers and vendors
primarily a test of UNDERSTATEMENT
amounts and other data relating to recorded transactions and events have been recorded appropriately
transactions and events have been recorded in the correct accoutning period
audit tests include examining shipping and receiving documents, confirmations with customers and vendors, examination of bank stmts, etc.
on fina stmts...
prove assets, liabilities and equity actually existed
audit tests include counting cash and inventory, confirming receivables with customers
Valuation and allocation assertion
all accounts have been properly valued and cost prop. allocated bw bs and is, assets, liabilities, and equity interests are included in the financial statements at appropriate amounts and any resulting valuation or allocation adjustments are appropriately recorded
right and obligations assertion
entity holds and controls the rights to assets
all liabilities shown are obligations of the entity
audit tests include verifying ownership of title to items shown as assets; confirming that liabilities are not obligations of a different entity
Occurrence and Rights and Obligations assertion
This assertion addresses whether disclosed events have occurred and are the rights and obligations of the entity. ex. If the client discloses that it has acquired another company, it asserts that the transaction has been completed
Classification and Understandability assertion
relates to whether amounts are appropriately classified in the financial statements and footnotes, and whether the balance descriptions and related disclosures are understandable.
Management Assertions about Classes of Transactions
General Transaction-Related Audit Objective
b. Posting and summarization
Management Assertions about Account Balances
3. Valuation and allocation
4. Rights and obligations