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Introduction to Child development
Terms in this set (23)
What are the domains of development in children?
Development is described in three domains, but growth in one domain influences the other domains.
What is the physical domain?
Body size, proportion appearance, brain development, motor development, perception capacities, physical health.
What is the cognitive domain?
Though processes and intellectual abilities including attention, memory, problem solving, imagination, creativity, academic and everyday knowledge, metacognition, and language.
What is the social/emotional domain?
Self-knowledge (Self-esteem, metacognition, sexual identity, ethnic identity), moral reasoning, understanding and expression of emotions, self-regulation, temperament, understanding others, interpersonal skills and friendships.
What are the periods of growth?
· Preschool to puberty
Rate of growth
· Puberty: early
· Post puberty
Decline in rate of
What are some factors that influences growth?
· Environment: Hazard,
seasonm climate and
What are the factors influencing development?
· Heredity and
· Gender differences
expectation: (do as I
say not as I do is not
· Prenatal influences
· Television and mass
Sigmund Freud and the psychosexual theory:
· Was based on his therapy with troubled adults.
· He emphasized that a child's personality is formed by the ways which his parents managed his sexual and aggressive drives.
What is Freud' theory of psychosexual development?
All human behavior is energized by psychodynamic forces of the:
Id: or unconscious mind (pleasure and gratification)
Ego: or conscious mind (the reality principle)
Superego: or conscience or moral arbitrator (the ideal)
Erick Erickson: Psychosocial theory:
· Extended on Freud's theories.
· Believed that development is life-long.
· Emphasized that each stage, the child acquired attitudes and skills resulting from the successful negotiation of the psychological conflict.
What are the 8 stages of Erick Erickson's psychosocial development?
· Basic trust vs mistrust (birth to 1 year)
· Autonomy bs shame and doubt (ages 1 to 3)
· Initiative vs guilt (ages 3-6)
· Industry vs inferiority (Ages 6-11)
· Identity vs identity confusion (adolescence)
· Intimacy vs isolation (young adulthood)
· Generative bs stagnation (middle adulthood)
· Integrity vs despair (the elderly)
Jean Piaget: Cognitive developmental theory
· Children's construct their understanding of the world through their active involvement and interactions.
· Studied his 3 children to focus not on what they knew but how they knew it.
· Described children's understanding as their "schemas" and how they use:
What is the first Piaget's cognitive developmental stage?
· Sensory motor:
Ages birth-2: the
infant uses his
senses and motor
What is the second Piaget's cognitive developmental stage?
Ages' 2-7: the child
objects and is able
to use symbolic
What is the third Pieaget's cognitive developmental stage?
· Concrete operations:
7-11: the child logical
What is Piaget's last developmental stage?
· Formal operations:
Ages 12 and up: the
use of logical
operations in a
systemic fashion and
with the ability to use
What is Kohlberg's theory of moral development?
Obedience and Punishment (Infancy)
Conformity and interpersonal accord (school age)
Authorirty and social order (school age)
Social Contract (teens)
Universal principles (adulthood)
· Stage 0:
· Stage 1: intuitive-
· Stage 2: mythical
· Stage 3: synthetic
· Stage 4:
What is the development of self-concept?
· Body image:
picture or mental
image of one's own
These are the
foundation of many
Often it means
helping the parents
with their own body
images issues, so
children can learn.
Confidence in one's
own worth and
Albert Bandura and Social Learning:
· Stressed how children learn by observation and imitation.
· Believed that children gradually become more selective in what they imitate.
The role of play and its importance:
· Children can learn through play what adults are unable to teach them.
o Learn about their world and they deal with and operate within their environment.
· Play should follow a directional trend of simple to complex.
What does play do and what character of funciton of play influences?
· Play enhances:
o Moral standards
· Play is therapeutic at any age.
· Purpose is to quickly and reliably identify at risk children for further investigation.
· Screening versus diagnostic tests.
- Denver II is the most widely used developmental screening tool
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