iron, polypeptide protein
The 2 parts of hemeglobin are heme, which is ________ and globin, ____________ ____________.
spleen, bone marrow, liver
Red blood cells live for 120, then go to the __________ to be broken down and stored in ___________ ____________ or the ____________.
alpha, beta, 2
The "globin" in hemoglobin is made up of what two types of polypeptide chains? How many chains of each are in 1 hemoglobin?
When heme is pulled out by the SP it becomes non-iron heme or _______________ __________ that is sent to the liver via the blood.
This process creates an overabundance of unconjugated bilirubin that does not make it to the liver.
As partial pressure of oxygen increases, does hemoglobin become more or less saturated with oxygen?
When an increased amount of oxygen dissociates from hemoglobin and enters tissues during events such as exercise, this is called the ___________ _________.
During vigorous exercise, tissues receive a greater amount of oxygen due to increased _____________ of oxygen from hemoglobin.
temperature, partial pressure of carbon dioxide, blood ph (level of free hydrogen), amount of 2,3 DPG/BPG in the blood
Name the 4 factors influencing oxygen dissociation from hemoglobin.
2,3 DPG or BPG
Name the compound that is a by-product of glycolysis and has a greater affinity to hemoglobin than oxygen.
2,3 DPG has a ___________ (greater or lesser) affinity to hemoglobin than oxygen and therefore ____________ (increases or decreases) dissociation of oxygen from hemoglobin.
dissolved in plasma, combines with hemoglobin, as bicarbonate ion in blood plasma
Name the 3 ways in which blood transports carbon dioxide from the tissue cells to lungs.
bicarbonate ion in blood plasma
Out of the 3 ways in which blood transports carbon dioxide from the tissue cells to lungs, which one is the most predominant method?
When carbon dioxide combines with hemoglobin to create carbaminohemoglobin, with which molecule does it combine - heme or globin?
There is no competition between oxygen and carbon dioxide for binding sites with hemoglobin because oxygen combines with __________ and carbon dioxide combines with ____________.
Gas exchange from tissue cells into red blood cells (RBC) is known as _____________ _________________.
The reaction of converting carbon dioxide and water to carbonic acid occurs faster in red blood cells due to the presence of ____________ ____________ in red blood cells.
During the carbon dioxide to carbonic acid reaction, blood ph remains stable because ______________ acts as a buffer by binding with hydrogen, causing the release of oxygen into plasma.
chloride, chloride shift
During carbon dioxide transport, bicarbonate ions move from the rbc's to plasma. To compensate for this diffusion of bicarbonate, __________ moves from the plasma into rbc's. This ion exchange process is called the ___________ ___________.
During external respiration, high oxygen content makes hemoglobin a less effective buffer to hydrogen, releasing hydrogen from hemoglobin into RBC leading to increased hydrogen in cells. Hydrogen then binds to bicarbonate, dissociates into water and __________ _____________ creating higher levels of this gas in the alveoli which is then exhaled out.
If there is low oxygen content in blood (low RBC levels), the kidneys release _______________ to stimulate _______________ in red bone marrow.
gray matter, pons, medulla oblongata
The respiratory center is located in pockets of _________ __________ in the __________ and ____________ ____________ of the brain stem.
ventral respiratory group (VRG), dorsal respiratory group (DRG)
Name the 2 clusters of neurons in the MO that are critical to respiration.
ventral respiratory group (VRG)
This part of the medullary rhythmicity center contains autorhythmic ("self-firing") inspiratory and expiratory neuron groups that take turns firing "on" & "off" to establish the respiratory rate.
peripheral stretch, chemoreceptors
The dorsal respiratory group (DRG) influences the VRG by modifying it based on input from _____________ _____________ and ________________.
carbon dioxide, oxygen
The peripheral stretch receptors located in the aortic arch and carotid artery indirectly sense _________ ___________ or partial pressure of ____________ concentration in the blood.
a) X, b) IX
If the partial pressure of oxygen falls very low, the vagus nerve and the glossopharyngeal nerve are affected. Provide the cranial nerve numbers of the a) vagus nerve & b) glossopharyngeal nerve.
limbic system, proprioceptors
Besides the VRG, DRG & pontine respiratory centers, name 2 other systems that affect the rate of respiration.
overinflation of the lungs
The Hering-Breurer Reflex or Inspiration Reflex is the body's regulatory mechanism to prevent what?
Special receptors in the alveoli, pleura & bronchioles of the lungs sense __________ and send ____________ impulses to the VRG.