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PCOM SD human physiology: transport of gases, respiratory regulation

iron, polypeptide protein

The 2 parts of hemeglobin are heme, which is ________ and globin, ____________ ____________.

red meat

Name the #1 source of iron in the human diet.

spleen, bone marrow, liver

Red blood cells live for 120, then go to the __________ to be broken down and stored in ___________ ____________ or the ____________.


Oxygen combines with heme to create _______________.


T or F: The loading & unloading of oxygen between lungs & tissues is reversible.


The iron ion allows _____ molecules to bind to it.


This type of hemoglobin is carried away from the lungs via the pulmonary artery.

alpha, beta, 2

The "globin" in hemoglobin is made up of what two types of polypeptide chains? How many chains of each are in 1 hemoglobin?

unconjugated bilirubin

When heme is pulled out by the SP it becomes non-iron heme or _______________ __________ that is sent to the liver via the blood.


UNconjugated bilirubin becomes conjugated in what organ?


This process creates an overabundance of unconjugated bilirubin that does not make it to the liver.


An excess of conjugated bilirubin that causes a back-up of bile creates ___________.


In what parts of the body does oxygen disassociate with hemoglobin via diffusion?

more saturated

As partial pressure of oxygen increases, does hemoglobin become more or less saturated with oxygen?

Bohr affect

When an increased amount of oxygen dissociates from hemoglobin and enters tissues during events such as exercise, this is called the ___________ _________.


During vigorous exercise, tissues receive a greater amount of oxygen due to increased _____________ of oxygen from hemoglobin.

temperature, partial pressure of carbon dioxide, blood ph (level of free hydrogen), amount of 2,3 DPG/BPG in the blood

Name the 4 factors influencing oxygen dissociation from hemoglobin.

2,3 DPG or BPG

Name the compound that is a by-product of glycolysis and has a greater affinity to hemoglobin than oxygen.

greater, increases

2,3 DPG has a ___________ (greater or lesser) affinity to hemoglobin than oxygen and therefore ____________ (increases or decreases) dissociation of oxygen from hemoglobin.

carbon monoxide

Name the compound that prevents dissociation of oxygen from hemoglobin to tissues.


Carbon monoxide bound to hemoglobin creates ____________.

dissolved in plasma, combines with hemoglobin, as bicarbonate ion in blood plasma

Name the 3 ways in which blood transports carbon dioxide from the tissue cells to lungs.

bicarbonate ion in blood plasma

Out of the 3 ways in which blood transports carbon dioxide from the tissue cells to lungs, which one is the most predominant method?


When carbon dioxide combines with hemoglobin to create carbaminohemoglobin, with which molecule does it combine - heme or globin?

heme, globin

There is no competition between oxygen and carbon dioxide for binding sites with hemoglobin because oxygen combines with __________ and carbon dioxide combines with ____________.

carbon monoxide

Name the compound that compete with oxygen for binding sites on heme.

internal respiration

Gas exchange from tissue cells into red blood cells (RBC) is known as _____________ _________________.

carbonic anhydrase

The reaction of converting carbon dioxide and water to carbonic acid occurs faster in red blood cells due to the presence of ____________ ____________ in red blood cells.


During the carbon dioxide to carbonic acid reaction, blood ph remains stable because ______________ acts as a buffer by binding with hydrogen, causing the release of oxygen into plasma.

chloride, chloride shift

During carbon dioxide transport, bicarbonate ions move from the rbc's to plasma. To compensate for this diffusion of bicarbonate, __________ moves from the plasma into rbc's. This ion exchange process is called the ___________ ___________.

external respiration

Gas exchange within the lungs is knows as ___________ ________________.

carbon dioxide

During external respiration, high oxygen content makes hemoglobin a less effective buffer to hydrogen, releasing hydrogen from hemoglobin into RBC leading to increased hydrogen in cells. Hydrogen then binds to bicarbonate, dissociates into water and __________ _____________ creating higher levels of this gas in the alveoli which is then exhaled out.

erythropoietin, erythropoesis

If there is low oxygen content in blood (low RBC levels), the kidneys release _______________ to stimulate _______________ in red bone marrow.


Carbon dioxide plus hemoglobin creates __________________.


Deoxyhemoblogin or reduced hemoglobin is written as _____.


Oxyhemoglobin is written as _______.

gray matter, pons, medulla oblongata

The respiratory center is located in pockets of _________ __________ in the __________ and ____________ ____________ of the brain stem.


Groups of nerve cell bodies in the gray matter of the brain is called __________.

medulla oblongata

The Medullary Rhythmicity Center/area is located in what area of the brain stem?

ventral respiratory group (VRG), dorsal respiratory group (DRG)

Name the 2 clusters of neurons in the MO that are critical to respiration.

ventral respiratory group (VRG)

This part of the medullary rhythmicity center contains autorhythmic ("self-firing") inspiratory and expiratory neuron groups that take turns firing "on" & "off" to establish the respiratory rate.

peripheral stretch, chemoreceptors

The dorsal respiratory group (DRG) influences the VRG by modifying it based on input from _____________ _____________ and ________________.

carbon dioxide, oxygen

The peripheral stretch receptors located in the aortic arch and carotid artery indirectly sense _________ ___________ or partial pressure of ____________ concentration in the blood.

a) X, b) IX

If the partial pressure of oxygen falls very low, the vagus nerve and the glossopharyngeal nerve are affected. Provide the cranial nerve numbers of the a) vagus nerve & b) glossopharyngeal nerve.

rate & depth

What 2 aspects of respiration does the pontine respiratory group affect?

limbic system, proprioceptors

Besides the VRG, DRG & pontine respiratory centers, name 2 other systems that affect the rate of respiration.

overinflation of the lungs

The Hering-Breurer Reflex or Inspiration Reflex is the body's regulatory mechanism to prevent what?

stretch, inhibitory

Special receptors in the alveoli, pleura & bronchioles of the lungs sense __________ and send ____________ impulses to the VRG.

Hering-Breurer reflex or inspiration reflex

What is the term for the the body's regulatory mechanism to prevent overinflation of the lungs?

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