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Week 4: Vocabulary Selection, Representation, Organization, and Layout of AAC Systems (Ch. 5 and 6)
Terms in this set (67)
FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE AAC VOCABULARY AND MESSAGE SELECTION
What is message/vocabulary selection?
The process of choosing words, messages, and symbols that are present on a communication board or device and allows the individual to convey thoughts, ideas, opinions and needs.
The purpose/goal of message selection is to allow an AAC user to...
•Communicate during conversations
•Participate at home, school, work and recreational activities
•Learn their native language
•Establish and maintain social roles
•Get personal needs met
•Guide personal and medical care
What factors do you think will influence message selection?
Factors that influence message selection
•Cultural and linguistic variables
Message that support interactions
•Information sharing (Narration/storytelling)
•Wrap up remarks
Pick a message type and with a partner, write a list of the messages that might be included.
Example - Greetings and small talk
How can I possibly predict everything the AAC user will need to say, for every situation, for the rest of their lives?!
TYPES OF VOCABULARY
Types of Vocabulary
•Words we use every day that carry the main meaning (e.g., objects, places)
•Provide structure to messages (e.g., articles, prepositions, etc.)
•Words that are unique and specific to the individual
•Common and high frequency words that are flexible and can be used in any situation (e.g., it, that, can, you, etc.)
Vocabulary selection for pre-literate individuals
•Essential messages to cover basic communication needs
•Words to encourage language and vocabulary growth
Developmental Vocabulary: Lahey and Bloom (1977)
•Substantive (people, places, things)
•Relational (e.g., big, little)
Vocabulary selection for literate individuals
•Will typically formulate messages letter-by-letter and word-by- word
•Time enhancement (e.g., Please wait...)
•Message acceleration (e.g., word/phrase prediction)
•Social media, Email, etc.
VOCABULARY SELECTION RESOURCES AND TOOLS
Commonly used vocabulary selection strategies
•Vocabulary selection tools and resources
•Blank sheet or categorical framework
•Environmental or ecological inventories
•Language models in AAC technology
Example: Vocabulary Selection Questionnaire for Preschoolers
Example: Vocabulary Selection Questionnaire for School-Aged Children
https://www.dropbox.com/s/fpudr0 dh0wg6qtn/Vocabulary%20Questi onnaire.doc
Example: Vocabulary Selection Questionnaire for Adults
http://tdvox.web- downloads.s3.amazonaws.com/Sn ap/Training/Aphasia_Topic%20Inte rest%20Inventory.pdf
Representation, Organization, and Layout of AAC Systems (Ch. 6)
•Using multiple modes to communicate effectively.
•Low tech AAC
•High tech AAC
•Can be used in combination and when communication breakdowns occur.
Dr. John Costello, Director, Augmentative Communication Program at Boston Children's Hospital - Video
List all the ways YOU communicate. Why are some modalities more effective in certain situations?
•For individuals who have difficulty understanding spoken language, augmented input may be beneficial.
What is Augmented Input?
-When the communication partner touches and uses the AAC in combination with their speech to support understanding and learning how and when to use their AAC system.
-Also, may be referred to as: modeling, aided language input, supplemented input.
Discuss the importance of supporting multimodal communication strategy for AAC users.
REPRESENTATION OF VOCABULARY CONCEPTS
Vocalizations and Natural Speech
-Unable to vocalize
AAC can be used to...
•Increase intelligibility of speech (e.g., establishing topic)
•Clarify speech when not understood by unfamiliar partners.
•Communicate more complex messages.
Motor behaviors produced with the intent to communicate.
(Crais, Watson, & Baraneck, 2009)
•Hand gestures (e.g., thumbs up/down)
•Facial expressions (e.g., smiling, frown)
•Body movements/postures (e.g., miming)
•Eye movements (e.g., rolling eyes)
-Enhanced gestures/simplified signs paired with spoken word that represent a small number of concepts relevant to infants and toddlers (e.g., more, play, drink).
-Was initially adopted by parents with children without disabilities.
-Preliminary research shows that children who learn baby signs do better on receptive and expressive language tests.
Manual Sign Systems
True language system with rules for pragmatics, semantics, syntax, and morphology.
•Tactile signing used to support language and comprehension for individuals with deaf-blindness.
•Pro-tactile ASL: A new language for the DeafBlind- https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9GrK3P15TYU
Originally developed in the UK, Makaton is a unique language program that uses symbols, signs and speech to enable people to communicate. It supports the development of essential communication skills such as attention and listening, comprehension, memory, recall and organization of language and expression.
Discuss the PROS and CONS of unaided representations.
Real, Partial, or Associated Objects
•Concrete and easy to understand.
•Can use readily available items in the environment.
•Communication will be restricted.
•May be bulky and awkward to use.
•Easy to obtain.
•Used to represent things that are important and meaningful.
•Poor quality of the photo (e.g., background "noise") may cause confusion.
•May be difficult to represent some things with a photograph.
•Easily accessibly (e.g., Boardmaker).
•Representation for both concrete and abstract concepts.
•Can be used by both children and adults.
•Wide variety of options.
•Many considerations in selecting the most appropriate symbol set from a wide variety of options.
Picture Communication Symbols (PCS)
most widely used symbol type in AAC devices
•Individual can communicate any message.
•Rate enhancement (e.g., word prediction) options are often available.
•Requires strong literacy skills.
ORGANIZATION OF SYMBOLS ON GRID DISPLAYS
•Graphic symbols organized in rows and columns
•Grid displays can be helpful way to support:
Schematic or Activity Grid Displays
A grid display that includes vocabulary specific to an event or activity.
•Easy to understand.
•Support symbol learning.
•Reduces the need to navigate.
•Low-tech can be placed in specific locations
•Multiple displays are needed, making it difficult to manage and navigate.
•Displays may not be readily available.
•Symbols may appear on multiple displays, in inconsistent locations.
Taxonomic Grid Displays
A grid display that includes vocabulary specific to a group or category (e.g., clothing, animals, places).
•Easy for partner to understand.
•May be beneficial for people who need to clarify messages or establish the topic.
•Typically developing children don't use this type of organization until 6-7.
•Typically requires a lot of navigation.
Semantic-Syntactic Grid Displays
A grid display organized by parts of speech.
•Intended to facilitate language learning.
•Many pre-made language page sets available.
•Different language strategies require knowledge on the part of the AAC team to choose the most appropriate option.
Semantic-Syntactic Grid Displays pic
Pragmatic Organization Dynamic Displays (PODD)
A grid display system that combines several vocabulary organization strategies.
•Includes predictable vocabulary through out.
•Reduced number of page turn to create a message.
•Both low and high-tech versions available.
•Requires communication partner training.
•Books require time to print, laminate, and construct.
•Limited research on effectiveness for language development.
Alphabetical Grid Displays
Grid displays organized alphabetically.
•Words organized in a familiar way (for literate individuals)
•Require some literacy skills.
•May be difficult to add new words.
AlphaCore - https://amyandpals.com/alphacore-videos/
Chronological Grid Displays
Grid displays organized in a chronological sequence of events.
•Can support transition to next event or activity.
•Help orient individuals to time.
•Support positive behavior.
•There aren't any. These are awesome and work well for many people.
Grid Displays to Support Literacy
•Always include the written text on graphic symbols.
•Gradually fade symbols over time
•Provide access to keyboards.
-Organization of letters (QWERTY, ABC, Frequency of use, etc.)
Visual Scene Displays
•Communication displays with integrated scenes (e.g., photos) of meaningful or motivating events.
•Can be used for both young children and adults.
•Can be used to transition to literacy.
•Personal photos must be integrated to be meaningful.
•Does not support more advanced morphological or syntactic development.
Compare and contrast VSDs for young children vs. adults with acquired disabilities.
Encoding and Prediction Techniques
Strategies used provide an efficient way to access a large vocabulary set.
-Reduce the number of selections required to create a message.
-Can support spelling for those who are learning literacy skills.
-Provide grammatical support.
-Rate enhancement for those using alternative access methods (e.g., scanning).
PaTTan video series with Lauren Enders:
There are many high-tech AAC options, including both dedicated AAC devices and AAC apps that run on off-the-shelf devices. In this first session of a two-part webinar, we will focus on available robust AAC apps that run on iOS (Apple-based) tablets. We will examine each app, highlight its unique features, and discuss how specific features can be used to address specific user needs.
Part 1 Notes: AAC Apps
-now we have more apps
-Aided Language Stimulation is essential component regardless of the system selected
-if we expect output, they need to see other people using AAC
-AAC apps can be loaded onto consumer devices
-Tablet-based not appropriate for everyone
-Go straight to dedicated who need alternative access to communication and access their environment
Pros and Cons of AAC Apps
-no built in switch ports
-no phone support
What makes an AAC app robust
-pre programmed whole messages
-core words (generative language)
-model these even if not learning yet
-exploration is important
-select button size and array with the smallest buttons (most buttons per screen) that the individual can see and access independently
-folder based is categorical, can require numerous navigations, words repeated in different spots
-knowledge of categories
-motor plan based
-maintain consistent motor plan
-require fewer navigations to get to desired buttons
-has companion on apple watch
-core based (crescendo and gateway)
-comprehensive scanning controls
-if someone needs space behind buttons, specific number of rows, etc
-switch interface and scanning
TouchChat Word Power
-play audio files
-light version for modeling
-includes ability to create visual scenes
-I then goes to verbs (increases their utterance)
Grid for iPad
-phonics (letter sounds)
-magic wand for verb conjugation
-core-based and activity
-need PCS symbols
-core word prediction and topic based
-breaks into quadrants and makes it easier to click
-need PCS symbols
-I made a mistake
-symbols in word prediction
Snap + Core First
-free trial without speech
-core first lessons/books
-topic based screens
-use PCS symbols
-keyboard with some prediction
LAMP Words for Life
-based on unity language system and Minspeak
-vocabulary builder: allows to hide/show easily with lists
-referring to several different topics under symbol
-consistent motor planning
-can direct select
Speak for Yourself!
-no word requires more than 2 navigations
-hold that thought feature
-babble: maintains buttons that are hidden (toggle feature)
-beginners vocab template
-always navigates back to home screen
-no word duplication
-for those who need a lot of words hidden
-Smarty Symbols are used
-have difficulty navigating beyond 2 screens
-web based/remote programming
-identify when modeling starts and stops
-runs on any tablet
-undo button in the edit mode
-almost between folder and motor based
-uses open sourced symbols
-device other than iPad
-it does scan (along with clicker communicator, prolo)
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