36 terms

Chemistry Vocabulary

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Properties
Elements are categorized, or arranged in groups by their
Metals
Solid at room temperature, shiny, ductile, and malleable. Iron, Copper, and Tin are examples.
Metals, Nonmetals, and Metalloids
Elements are divided into three main categories called
Nonmetals
Gas at room temperature. Poor conductors of thermal energy and electric current. Generally dull, no luster (shine), and not malleable. Helium, Neon and Sulfur are examples.
Element
A pure substance that cannot be separated into simpler substances by physical or chemical means. Is a chemical substance that makes up all other substances. Composed of one kind of atom. They are grouped into families with similar characteristics and classified on the periodic table.
Atomic Number
This indicates the number of protons there are in the nucleus of an element
Group or Family
A column of elements having similar properties
Atomic Mass or Weight
Equal to the combined number of protons and neutrons in an atom of a particular element
Metalloids
Have properties of both metals and nonmetals
Physical Properties
Observations and measurements are ways you can describe an object. Examples are color, size, shape, texture, state of matter, density, boiling point, and conductivity.
Atom
The smallest component that makes up an Element
Periodic Table
A visual showing the arrangement of elements
Compound
Substance composed of two or more different elements. They each have a unique set of physical and chemical properties such as boiling point, density, color, conductivity, and reactivity.
Boiling Point
Is the temperature at which a liquid turns into a gas
Chemical Change
Occurs when a new product or substance is created with a different atomic structure than the original substance(s). These new substances have different physical and chemical properties than the original elements and/or compounds.
Chemical Properties
They are not seen as they are determined by the arrangement of atoms in the molecules making up the object. Examples include pH, flammability, and reactivity. They are characteristics that can be used to describe matter.
Chemical Reaction
Is the process in which substances undergo chemical changes that involves the rearranging of atoms in a substance to form a new substance with new properties.
Closed System
Means the number and kind of atoms in the reactants are the same as the number and kind of atoms in the products. During a chemical reaction, none of the reactants escape to the outside as the new product is formed. The number and kinds of elements and/or compounds is the same, the atoms just rearrange themselves.
Conductivity
Is the degree to which a substance will allow heat or electricity to flow through the substance
Density
Is a relationship between mass and volume. It allows you to compare the mass of objects for a specific volume. This determines whether an object sinks or floats.
Molecule
Is a combination of two or more atoms. The atoms can be the same or different. Examples: ozone (O3), water (H2O).
Halogens
Nonmetal reactive gases; Group 17. Substances that are dull and brittle, having low conductivity and low boiling points.
pH Paper
Is a tool used to determine if a substance is acidic, neutral or base
Physical Change
Is a change in the size, shape or color of a substance. Atoms have not rearranged themselves so the object is still the same object after the change has occurred. A change that alters the form or appearance of material but does not make the material into another substance.
Reactants
When a chemical reaction occurs, the substances you begin with are called the
Products
When a chemical reaction occurs, the new substances you end with are called the
Mass
The amount of matter in a substance. This is a physical property.
Classification of Substances
Method used to group or categorize substances by their physical and chemical properties.
Noble Gases
Almost completely non reactive gases; Group 18
Alkali Metals
Highly reactive metals; Group 1
Alkaline Earth Metals
Less reactive metals; Group 2
Transition Metals
Groups 3-12
Boron, Carbon, Nitrogen, Oxygen (BCNO)
Groups 13-16
Volume
The amount a space an object takes up. This is a physical property.
Triple Beam Balance
Tool used to measure mass.
Physical Properties
Characteristics that can be used to describe matter - mass, volume, density, weight, shape, color, hardness, boiling point, conductivity.