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Info on Memory


the process of storing information or experiences for potential future retrieval

Three Stages of Memory

1) Encoding
2) Storage
3) Retrieval

Three Types of Memory Stores

1) Sensory stores
2) Short Term Stores
3) Long Term Stores

Sensory Store

briefly held sensory information of a specific sensory modality

Iconic Store

a sensory store, which briefly holds visual information

Echoic Store

a sensory store which briefly holds auditory information

Short Term Store

A storage with a limited capacity
Seven plus/minus two chunks of information

Long Term Store

a storage with unlimied capacity that holds information for long periods of time

Baddeley's Working Memory Model

1) Central Executive Control
(limited attentional capacity)

2) Articulatory-Phonological Loop
(verbal and auditory info storage)

3) Visuo-Spatial Sketchpad
(visual and spatial info storage)

4) Episodic Buffer
(info from other 2 components
and LTM interact/integrate)

Declarative Memory

a type of LTM that involves conscious and explicit recollection of events and facts

Non-declarative Memory

a type of LTM that involves unconscious implicit recollections of events and facts demonstrated by behavioral changes

Semantic Memory

a type of declarative memory that invovles the recollection of facts

Episodic Memory

a type of declarative memory that involves the recollection of daily events that usually don't have personal significance

Autobiographical Memory

a type of declarative memory that involves the recollection of personal and significant life events

Flashbulb Memory

a type of declarative memory that the recollection of extremely significant events

Procedural Memory

a type of non-declarative memory that involves the implicit recollection of how to perform different actions

Prospective Memory

a recollection of things to do in the future

Six Types of Memory Tests

1) Recognition Test
2) Free Recall Test
3) Cued Recall Test (similiar words and their spelling)
4) Wrod Fragments
5) General Knowledge Test (about the words)
6) Perceptual Identification Task
(briefly show word/ask to say it aloud)


Pround impairment in memory
Loss of declarative memory
Intact non-declarative memory (overlearned info/actions)

Anterograde Amnesia

Inabilty to learn new information after the onset of the disturbance

Retrograde Amnesia

Inability to recall info/events prior to the onset of the disturbance

Organic or Neurological Amnesia

Pround impairment in memory due to brain injury

Psychogenic Amnesic

Pround impairment in memory due a extreme traumatic event (s)

Seven Sins of Memory

1) Transience
2) Absentmindedness
3) Blocking
4) Suggestibility
5) Bias
6) Misattribution
7) Persistence


a type of forgetting

Decreases accessibility of information over time


a type of forgetting

Insufficient attention when encoding or retrieval of information
(action slip)


a type of forgetting

Temporary inaccesibility to information stored in memory
(tip of the tongue, forgetting lines


a type of distortion in memory

Implanting or creating false memories with leading questions


a type of distortion in memory

Forming distorted memories based on prior knowledge, experiences, expectations


a type of distortion in memory

Attributing a memory of an idea to the wrong source


A pathological remembrance

a memory that cannot be forgotten though you want to forget.

Receny Effect

Under a free recall test of words, the last few items are more likely to be recalled than the first few items or the middle items

Transfer Appropriate Processing

Test performance is best when how you study the information is similar to how you are tested

State Dependent Memory

Test performance is best when your mood while studying is similar to your mood during the test

Mood Congruence

Your memories are congruent/similar to your mood
If you are depressed then you tend to have negative memories

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