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35 terms

Cognitions & Affect (Memory)

Info on Memory
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Memory
the process of storing information or experiences for potential future retrieval
Three Stages of Memory
1) Encoding
2) Storage
3) Retrieval
Three Types of Memory Stores
1) Sensory stores
2) Short Term Stores
3) Long Term Stores
Sensory Store
briefly held sensory information of a specific sensory modality
Iconic Store
a sensory store, which briefly holds visual information
Echoic Store
a sensory store which briefly holds auditory information
Short Term Store
A storage with a limited capacity
Seven plus/minus two chunks of information
Long Term Store
a storage with unlimied capacity that holds information for long periods of time
Baddeley's Working Memory Model
1) Central Executive Control
(limited attentional capacity)

2) Articulatory-Phonological Loop
(verbal and auditory info storage)

3) Visuo-Spatial Sketchpad
(visual and spatial info storage)

4) Episodic Buffer
(info from other 2 components
and LTM interact/integrate)
Declarative Memory
a type of LTM that involves conscious and explicit recollection of events and facts
Non-declarative Memory
a type of LTM that involves unconscious implicit recollections of events and facts demonstrated by behavioral changes
Semantic Memory
a type of declarative memory that invovles the recollection of facts
Episodic Memory
a type of declarative memory that involves the recollection of daily events that usually don't have personal significance
Autobiographical Memory
a type of declarative memory that involves the recollection of personal and significant life events
Flashbulb Memory
a type of declarative memory that the recollection of extremely significant events
Procedural Memory
a type of non-declarative memory that involves the implicit recollection of how to perform different actions
Prospective Memory
a recollection of things to do in the future
Six Types of Memory Tests
1) Recognition Test
2) Free Recall Test
3) Cued Recall Test (similiar words and their spelling)
4) Wrod Fragments
5) General Knowledge Test (about the words)
6) Perceptual Identification Task
(briefly show word/ask to say it aloud)
Amnesia
Pround impairment in memory
Loss of declarative memory
Intact non-declarative memory (overlearned info/actions)
Anterograde Amnesia
Inabilty to learn new information after the onset of the disturbance
Retrograde Amnesia
Inability to recall info/events prior to the onset of the disturbance
Organic or Neurological Amnesia
Pround impairment in memory due to brain injury
Psychogenic Amnesic
Pround impairment in memory due a extreme traumatic event (s)
Seven Sins of Memory
TAB SBM P
1) Transience
2) Absentmindedness
3) Blocking
4) Suggestibility
5) Bias
6) Misattribution
7) Persistence
Transience
a type of forgetting

Decreases accessibility of information over time
Absentmindedness
a type of forgetting

Insufficient attention when encoding or retrieval of information
(action slip)
Blocking
a type of forgetting

Temporary inaccesibility to information stored in memory
(tip of the tongue, forgetting lines
Suggestibility
a type of distortion in memory

Implanting or creating false memories with leading questions
Bias
a type of distortion in memory

Forming distorted memories based on prior knowledge, experiences, expectations
Misattribution
a type of distortion in memory

Attributing a memory of an idea to the wrong source
Persistence
A pathological remembrance

a memory that cannot be forgotten though you want to forget.
Receny Effect
Under a free recall test of words, the last few items are more likely to be recalled than the first few items or the middle items
Transfer Appropriate Processing
Test performance is best when how you study the information is similar to how you are tested
State Dependent Memory
Test performance is best when your mood while studying is similar to your mood during the test
Mood Congruence
Your memories are congruent/similar to your mood
If you are depressed then you tend to have negative memories