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47 terms

basic nursing UNIT 4

BMTcp beginning
STUDY
PLAY
Three-point gait
Both crutches and the injured leg are advanced followed by the uninjured leg, which isbrought to the crutches. The patient must take small steps and keep the head up to maintain balance
Swing-through gait
Both crutches are advanced then the legs swing past the crutches. Crutches are brought forward past the feet and the gait is repeated. Useful for patients with good balance
Sim's position
A side-lying position that has the patient on either side with the top leg flexed up toward the abdomen.
Two-point gait
The crutch and opposite leg area dvanced together. the second crutch and opposite leg are advanced next
Lithotomy
A position where the patient is lying supine with the knees and hips flexed
105 degrees
What temperature can must the water temperature be no greater than
Contracture
permenantly flexed joint that occurs with shortened muscle tissue
Draw-Sheet Method
a method of transferring a patient from a bed to a stretcher by grasping and pulling the loosened bottoms sheet of the bed
Orthostatic hypotension
blood pressure decreases rabidly in relation to position changes from lying to sitting to standing.
30seconds time 2. Count to 60 when its abnmormal.
look for rate, rhythm, depth, sound
Respiration assessment includes?
1 1/2" in adults 1" in infact
How far do you insert rectal thermometer
Diarrhea..... perineal/ rectal surgery
Contraindications for a rectal temperature include..?
Children under 6, mouth breathers, oral or nasal surgery, unconscious
Contraindications for Oral thermometer include...?
Apnea
Absence of breathing
Dyspnea
labored or difficult breathing
Tachycardia
heartbeat above 100bpm
bradycardia
slow heartbeat below 60 bpm
Febrile
with fever
afebrile
without fever
immunodeficiency diet
high caloric intake, increase protein, add seasonings, add thickening agents to liquid, small frequent meals.
Jaundice
Yellowish color to the skin and eyes
Paraplegia
paralysis characteried by motor or sensory loss in the lower limbs and trunk
quadriplegia
paralysis of the arms legs and trunks of the body below the level of an associated injury to the spinal cord
hemiplegia
paralysis of one side of the body
presbycusis
Inability to hear high frequency sounds.
CAUSES:: 1) genetic factos, 2)prenatal abnormalitities, 3)trauma, 4) diseases
meninere's disease
chronic disease of the inner ear
Dementia
usually a progressive condition marked by deteriorated congnitive functioning often accompanied by emotional apathy
Swing-to gait
Same as the swing-through gait except the legs are brought to the crutches only. Useful for patients withpoor balance and for wet or slippery surfaces
Otits media
infection of the middle ear
Tinnitus
ringing in the ears
macular degeneration
a gradual loss of acute, central, and color vision in the elderly
glaucoma
accumulation of fluid inside the eye that exerts pressure on the optic nerve, eventually causing blindness
presbyopia
an age related decreased ability to focus on near objects
delirium
an acute mental disturbance characterized by confused thinking and disrupted attention usually accompanied by disordered speech and hallucinations
make sure elbow is 30 degree; top pads must be 1.5"- 2" below axilla; bottom of crutch is 4-6" to the side of foot and 4-6" to the front
How do you properly fit crutches?
elbow must be flexed 15-30 degress; can my be level with hip; bottom of cane must be 6" infront of the foot and 6-10" to the side of food
How do you properly fit a cane?
Four-point gait
One crutch is advanced followed by the opposite leg, second crutch is advanced followed by the second leg. Steps must be kept small until a rhythem is established.
just below waist; elbows ins 15-30 degres; must be infront of patient
How do you fit a walker?
Stethoscope
Transmits scound from patient's body to examiner's ear
cataracts
clouding of the lens
Glaucoma
Accumulation of fluid inside the eye that exerts pressure on the optic nerve, eventually causing blindness
Vertigo
Dizziness
jaundice, fever, limp body, eating poorly, hard/watery stools, redness around cord stump.
What are the signs and symptoms of illness in infants....?
1400-1800
How many calories does a chil need per day??
TYPE 1 diabetes
Insulin dependent, most common in children and young adults, sudden onset, pancreas does not produce insulin, requires daily insulin injections
TYPE 2 diabetes
non-insulin dependent, usually develops after age 30, hereditary, pancreas secrets some insulin but not enough, can be treated with diet and exercise, patients may be overweight.
gestational diabetes
develops during pregnancy, usually goes away after baby is born