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31 terms

AP english essay terms

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personal essays
essays that tell anecdotes with a larger theme that affects us all
literary essays
personal essays with a plot
exploratory essays
an overt explanation of a particular subject
rhetorical essays
essays with an easily recognized persuasive purpose
political essays
essays that attempt to alter the course of history by persuading people to take action
opinion essays
essays that attempt to change minds and attitudes
rhetoric
study of the technique and rules for using language effectively (especially in public speaking)
logical arguments
arguments that use logic to change something
deductive logical arguments
present general principles from which they draw a conclusion; "men are tall, bob is a man, therefore bob is tall"
inductive logical arguments
offer many examples and from these abstract a conclusion of general application; "kobe is tall, shaq is tall, therefore all men are tall"
major premise
statement that applies to all things within a particular category; "men"
minor premise
asserts something about a particular case; "bob is a man"
conclusion
follows the premises logically; "bob is tall"
valid
if the conclusion follows logically from the premises then the argument is valid
sound argument
thorough
truth test
do you agree with all the premises?
unsound argument
not thorough
false premise
an error in premise
analysis
breaking down an argument into parts
evaluate
truth and validity
enthymemes
a rhetorical practice that leaves a premise out
sufficiently large sample
large group of people
accurate sample
true
representative sample
many different people or groups
ethos
writer's self presentation or moral standing
ethical arguments
tools like dress and posture that help us persuade
pathos
the emotional state of the audience
pathetic arguments
arguments that elicit emotions
honest emotion
powerful emotion that tempts us to suspend judgment and complements logic
dishonest emotion
asks us to substitute emotion for logic
anecdotal
a single case rendered in emotionally charged language