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History Final Study Guide

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Compass Rose
This tells you the directions: North, South, East, and West
Cardinal Points
Points on a compass: North, South, East, and West
Intermediate Points
Points on a compass: Northwest, Southwest, Northeast, and Southeast
Longitude
Other Word for Meridians on a map
Meridian
Other Word for Longitude on a map
Latitude
Other Word for Parallels on a map
Parallel
Other Word for Latitude on a map
Absolute Location
Location used with exact grid address on a map
Relative Location
Location (For example,) He's near the PE Locker Room
Isthmus
Narrow Strip of Land between 2 Bodies of Water
Oceans, Seas, Rivers, and Lakes
4 Major types of bodies of water
Mountains, Hills, Plains, and Plateaus
4 Major Landforms
Plateau
Raised, flat area of land
Elevation
Height above the land above sea level
Relief
Difference of heights in 2 physical features
Tribe
Group with common territory, language, culture, value, religion, and social structure
Adobe
Building material out of earth and straw
Pueblos
Homes built of adobe by Native Americans
Hunter-gatherers
These people hunted animals, and gathered berries for food
Corn, Beans, and Squash
The 3 Sisters
Clan
Family with a common ancestor
Sapa Inca
The "King of the Incas"
Immigrants
People who move to another place to make a permanent home there
Regions
Parts of the earth that share common characteristics
Timberline
Elevation where trees don't grow anymore
Weather
Condition of the earth's atmosphere over a short period of time
Climate
Usual pattern of weather in an area over a long period of time
Contiguous
(This means, like they are all together with nothing separating them)
Aqueduct
Structure that carries water
Causeway
Raised highway over water
Maize
Corn
Potlatch
Feast held by wealthy families of the Northwest
Terrace
Leveled off strip of land
Tribute
People paid this when they lost wars
Precipitation
Moisture that falls as rain, snow, or sleet
Glaciers
Large, thick bodies of slowly moving ice, found in mountains, and polar regions
Virtue
Good Characteristic
Bering Strait
What body of water (Today) was the land bridge on? (Asian Hunters)
Beringia
The land bridge the asian hunters went across
Tenochitlan
Capital of the Aztec Empire
Cuzco
Capital of the Inca Empire
Mound Builders
People who built mounds
Mississippians
Most successful Mound Builders
Anasazi
Cliff-Dwelling Tribe
Mound Builders and Anasazi
2 Major Native American cultures living in the present US 2,000 years ago
Maya
These people were extremely skilled farmers, master builders, built pyramids, they studied the sky and made calenders
Aztec
These people built 3 causeways, built aqueducts, and had a rigid noble system
Inca
These people conquered by peaceful means, and they built a road system
Plains Indians
These people followed bison, acquired horses, and counted coo
Iroquois
These Indians sided with Britain, built longhouses, and formed a confederation
Algonquin
These Indians sided with France, built roundhouses, and were weaker than their rivals
Asian Hunters
The First people who arrived in America
Rise
The Ice Age made the water level ____
Pacific, Atlantic, Indian, and Arctic
Major Oceans of the world
Asia, Africa, North America, South America, Antarctica, Europe, and Australia
Major Continents of the world
Tropic of Cancer
23.5º North Latitude
Tropic of Capricorn
23.5º South Latitude
Tropics
Area between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn
Equator
Main line of Latitude
Prime Meridian
Main line of Longitude
International Dateline
180º East Longitude
Gulf of Mexico
Large body of water west of Florida that connects to the Atlantic Ocean
Chesapeake Bay
Bay east of our nation's capital
Mississippi River
Largest River by volume in the US
Ohio River
River that forms a border between Indiana and Kentucky
Missouri River
River that forms a border between Iowa and Nebraska
Hudson River
River that empties into NY Harbor
Colorado River
River that flows through the Grand Canyon
Columbia River
River that flows into the Pacific from the Northwest
Rio Grande
River that forms the border between Texas and Mexico
Cape Cod
This looks like a fishhook
Superior, Michigan, Huron, Erie, Ontario
Great Lakes
Rocky Mountains and Appalachian Mountains
Borders of the Great Plains
Appalachian Mountains
Main Mountain Chain in East USA
Rocky Mountains
First mountain chain west of the Great Plains
Sierra Nevada Mountains
Mountain range that separates California and Nevada
Environment affects Lifestyle
Major idea of Unit 1, with all of the Native American Tribes
Lords
These people ruled their manors
Serfs
Peasants who would work for protection
Manor
Large estate a lord lived in
Caravel
Small ship with a broad bow
Gunpowder
Without this, most weapons would not be made
Printing Press
With the invention of this, Marco Polo was able to publish his book
Colony
Settlement made by a parent company
America
England's colony
Presidios
Spanish settlements: Military
Pueblos
Spanish settlements: Economic
Missions
Spanish settlements: Religious
Peninsulares
Highest Spanish social class, born in Spain
Creoles
2nd Highest Spanish social class, had Spanish parents but were born in New Spain
Mestizos
3rd Highest Spanish social class, people of mixed Spanish and Indian
Conquistador
Spanish conquerer in 16th Century America
Astrolabe
Instrument that tells Latitude
Cartographer
Mapmaker
Louisiana
Area in the Mississippi Valley claimed by Robert de la Salle
Navigation
Science of piloting ships
Northwest Passage
Waterway through America to Asia
Viceroy
Governor of the Spanish Empire ruling in the Americas
Age of Exploration
Period during the 1400's and the 1500's during which sailors sailed and mapped the world
Mutiny
To seize control of the ship from the captain and officers
Plantation
A Large Farm
Indies
Indonesian Islands off the Asian Coast, and Columbus thought he was on these
Bahamas
The Islands Columbus was on (He thought he was on the West Indies)
Hispaniola
One of the first islands Columbus landed on
Cuba
Another one of the first islands Columbus landed on
New Spain and Peru
The 2 sections the Spanish claim was divided into
Mexico City and Lima
Present day capitals of Mexico, and Peru
Santo Domingo
1st Permanent Spanish settlement in America
St. Augustine
First permanent city in America
Lima
Current capital of Peru
Quebec
1st permanent French settlement in America
Isthmus of Panama
Balboa and his men walked across this isthmus
476
Year of the Fall of Western Rome
711-1492
Years of the Reconquest
1453
Year of the Fall of the Byzantine Empire
1492
Year of the 1st voyage of Columbus
1517
Year that the Reformation began
1519
Year that Cortes entered the Aztec Empire
1531
Year that Pizzaro entered the Inca Empire
1608
Year of the founding of Quebec
15th-17th Centuries
Centuries of the Age of Exploration
Lief Ericson
1st European in America
Marco Polo
Wrote Description of the World
Dias
This man sailed to the tip of Africa, then came back to Portugal
De Gama
This man sailed from Portugal around Africa to India
Columbus
This man claimed America for Spain
4
# of Columbus' voyages
Taino
The Indians Columbus met
Prince Henry
This man started the School of Navigation
Amerigo Vespucci
America was named after this man, who was the first to say America was a new continent
Ponce de Leon
This man looked for the Fountain of Youth, but ended up in Florida
Cabot
This man made the first English Claim in America
Montezuma
Aztec Emperor
Pizarro
This man conquered the Inca
Atahualpa
This man was taken captive by Francisco Pizzaro of the Spaniards
Cartier
This man sailed up the Saint Lawrence River and claimed Canada for France
De Champlain
This man established Quebec, and he's called the Father of New France
De la Salle
This man claimed the Mississippi for France
Magellan
This man's crew was the 1st to circumnavigate the globe
Balboa
This man claimed the Pacific, but he didn't realize that was the largest ocean in the world
Coronado
This man explored the Grand Canyon
De Soto
This man looked for the 7 cities of gold but found the Mississippi River
Quetzalcoatl
The Aztecs thought Cortes was this God
Fall of the Byzantine Empire
This event influenced exploration, because no one could travel to Asia by land anymore
Crusades
Series of wars fought by European Christians
Middle Ages
Period during which feudalism replaced centralized government and the Roman Catholic Church became a powerful force in Europe
Renaissance
Revival of interest in the arts
Protestant Reformation
Reformation in the Roman Catholic Church which improved the church
Reconquest
Time of attempting to recapture Spain from the Moors
Treaty of Tordesilla
In this event, the Pope divided the world between Spain and Portugal
Greek
These people were the best mapmakers and made the most contributions to mapmaking
King
The person the Middle Class supported
Italy
Country that started the Renaissance with all of their trade
God, Glory, Gold
The Motivating Factors for the Age of Exploration
Social, Political, Economic, and Technology
The Permissive Factors for the Age of Exploration
Portugal
Country that started the Age of Exploration
1492
In this year, Spain was re-conquered, and Columbus Sailed
Germany
The mapmaker who named America was from this country
Spain
Country that was brutal to the Native Americans
Spain
Country that had the biggest impact on America
Overextended, Strict Trade Control, and Social Structure
Spain's weaknesses
France
Nation that treated the Natives the best
Separatists
Those who left the Anglican Church
Pilgrims
Another name for Separatists
Plymouth Colony
Colony founded by the Separatists
Puritans
Members of the Anglican who wanted to purify the church
Massachusetts Bay Colony
Colony founded by the Puritans
Mercantilism
Theory that a state's power depends on its wealth
Capitalism
Theory that money is needed to start and run a business
Textiles
Fabrics
Joint-Stock Company
Form of business organization; pooled funds of many investors or stockholders who can independently sell their shares of the company
Burgesses
Elected representatives to a lawmaking body in the English colonies
House of Burgesses
This is a group of citizen representatives in the colonies, who elect and do political stuff
Mayflower Compact
Agreement made by Pilgrim leaders that ensured self-government
Fundamental Orders of Connecticut
First American constitution or plan of government
New England
These colonies produced 1 crop per season, fished, whaled, built ships, traded, and had great schools
Middle Colonies
These colonies produced many cash crops such as wheat, beef, and pork, they were known as the Breadbasket Colonies, they were wealthy, they were Protestant, and had private schools
Southern Colonies
These colonies were agricultural, they produced rice, indigo, and tobacco, they had swamps, they had lots of either wealthy people or slaves, and they had self-sufficient plantations
Cavaliers
People who sided with Charles I in the English Civil War
Roundheads
People who supported Parliament in the English Civil War
Indigo
Plant that produces a blue dye
Navigation Acts
Laws passed by England to control colonial trade
Middle Passage
Forced trip between Africa and America made by enslaved Africans
Triangular Trade Route
Regular trading route that formed a triangle between West Indies, colonial America, Europe, and West Africa
Massachusetts School Law of 1647
The first public school system was set under this law
Charter
Official document granting the right to settle and trade
Indentured Servant
Person who agreed to work for a colonial employer for a specified time in exchange for passage to America
Proprietor
Individual who received legal and exclusive right to a colony
Tolerance
Acceptance of different beliefs
Import
Trade product brought into a country
Export
Product that originates in one place and is sold in another
Rural
To be outside a city
Urban
Relating to that within a city
Legislature
Lawmaking body
Subsistence farming
When farmers produce only enough to feed and maintain their families
Naval Stores
Products of pine forests used in wooden shipbuilding and maintenance
Patroon
Landowner in the Dutch colonies who received rent, taxes, and labor from tenant farmers
Plantation
Large farm worked by many laborers
Slave Codes
Laws that denied enslaved Africans most of their rights
Apprentice
One who is bound to a master without pay to learn a craft or trade
Artisan
Person trained in a skill or labor
Frontier
Thinly settled area on the outer limits of a colony
Libel
Act of punishing harmful statements
Gentry
Highest social class of the American colonies
Yankees
Members of the Union Army in the Civil War
1588
Year of the Defeat of the Spanish Armada
1607
Year of the start of Jamestown
1620
Year of the start of Plymouth
1630
Year of the start of the Massachusetts Bay Colony
1630-1643
Years of the Great Migration
1642-1649
Years of the English Civil War
1660
Year of the Restoration
1688
Year of the Glorious Revolution
Drake
First sailor to actually make it with his crew around the world
John Smith
This man arrived in Jamestown and took charge
Roger Williams
This man was banned from Massachusetts and founded Rhode Island
Thomas Hooker
This man founded Connecticut and wrote The Fundamental Orders of Connecticut
Metacomet
Chief of the Wampanoags
King Phillip
Another name for Metacomet
James, Duke of York
This man captured New York
James Oglethorpe
Founder of Georgia
William Penn
This man founded Pennsylvania
Quakers
These people followed William Penn, who was one of these people
Lord Baltimore
This man founded Maryland
Squanto
Indian who helped the English when they were in the Starving Time
Defeat of the Spanish Armada
This event marked the beginning of English Naval Power
Massachusetts
Many people left this colony to start new ones
Rise of Capitalism
With this event, much money was produced
Enclosure Movement
With this event, a manpower pool of tenant farmers was produced
English Reformation
With this event, Exploring was promoted to spread England's religion
Starving Time
This event killed many of the first Americans
English Civil War
With this event, English people wanted to get away, so they went to America
Restoration
With this event, more people agreed with the English Church
Glorious Revolution
This event influenced the Bill of Rights to be written
Great Migration
This name was used to describe all the English migrating
King Philip's War
This event was influenced by all of the English who hated the Indians
Internal Stability, Change in Economy, English Reformation, and Richard Hakluyt
4 Forces of English Migration to America
Trial by Jury and to be Taxed by Those you Elect
2 Rights as Englishmen Americans kept
Tobacco
Without this, Virginia would fail
Tobacco
This is how Virginia was successful
Slaves
A huge deal in Virginia, who evolved over a long period of time
Labor
There was a shortage of this in America
English, German, and Scotch-Irish
The main immigrant groups coming to America
Higher
The status of women in America compared to England
White Male Property Owner over 21
Requirements for voting
Separatists
The contributions of these people were making a religious community in America
Colonial Unity
The effect of different nationalities in America
Roanoke
The English tried to make a settlement here, but it failed
Jamestown
1st permanent English settlement in America
Tidewater
This was one of the nicest places to stay in America, and the rich stayed here
Boston
Capital of the Massachusetts Bay Colony
Deism
God created the universe, then left
Atheism
There is no God
Agnosticism
You can't tell if there's a God
Life, Liberty, and Property
Man's Natural Rights
Revival
Period of Religious Awakening
Albany Plan
Join or Die
Proclamation of 1763
This says you can't settle west of the Appalachian Mountains
Stamp Act
1st Attempt of Direct Taxation by Parliament
Stamp Act Congress
9 Colonies sent delegates to ask for repeal of the Stamp Act in this event
Declaratory Act
Parliament has the authority to bind the colonies in any case whatsoever
Townshend Acts
Tax on imports
Import Taxes
Taxes on stuff you get from another country
Writs of Assistance
Blank Search Warrants
Sons of Liberty
Group formed by Samuel Adams against the Stamp Act
Daughters of Liberty
Group of women formed against the Stamp Act
Committees of Correspondence
Organized network for passing along news of British activity to the colonies
Coercive Acts
Boston Port Act, Massachusetts Government Act, Administration of Justice Act, Quartering Act, Quebec Act (All were illegal under British Law)
Boycott
Agreement made to refuse to buy goods dealing with another country
Suffolk Resolves
This says that the Intolerable Acts are Illegal: Don't follow them
Declaration of Rights
This says Parliament has no rights to tax (us)
Olive Branch Petition
Letter of peace drafted by the Second Continental Congress to Britain
Common Sense
Pamphlet written to convince the colonists it was time to become independent
Proclamation for Suppressing Sedition
This says the colonies are in rebellion
Shot heard round the world
The first shot fired in the American Revolution
Declaration of Independence
Document stating the thirteen colonies were separate from Great Britain
Continentals
Money made by America worth almost nothing
Gentry
Highest American social class
Blockade
Something that prevents stuff from moving in and out of an area
Social Mobility
Opportunity for a person to move from one social class to another
Hessians
Hired German soldiers who fought with England
Loyalist
Colonist who sided with Great Britain during the American Revolution
Patriot
Colonist who supported independence from England
Privateer
Armed, private ship that protected colonial ports
Pension
Payment for military service
England, France, Spain, and Russia
4 Countries who claimed land in North America
Ohio Valley
Crucial part of the French and Indian War
Valley Forge
This is where Washington's army was really trained
Galileo
This man confirmed the Copernican theory and discovered the laws of motion
Newton
This man made the laws of gravity
Locke
This man announced man's natural rights
Jonathan Edwards
Preacher who wanted to rekindle the Puritan flame
Pontiac
Leader of an Indian alliance who captured forts and frontier settlements
George Washington
This man was sent by the 2nd Continental Congress, to fight the French
William Penn
Leader of the Quakers, who focused on capturing Canada
James Wolfe
This man captured Quebec
Samuel Adams
Founder of the Sons of Liberty
Crispus Attucks
1st Black to die for the revolutionary cause
Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, and John Jay
The 3 Americans at the signing of the Treaty of Paris
John Paul Jones
Sailor of the USS Bohomme Richard who was known as the Father of the American Navy
Francis Marion
Swamp Fox
General Cornwallis
One of the best British officers who won the Battle of Long Island
Enlightenment
Period of questioning
Great Awakening
Religious Revival
French and Indian War
Part of the 7 Years War
Thomas Jefferson
Writer of the Declaration of Independence
Thomas Paine
AKA T-Pain, Writer of Common Sense
Boston Massacre
Event in which British soldiers fired into an angry crowd
Boston Tea Party
Event where 342 Chests of Tea were dumped into NY Harbor
Bunker Hill
Most of this battle took place on Breed's Hill
Trenton and Princeton
These 2 Battles gave America hope
Saratoga
Turning point of the war
Yorktown
Major battle of the War
Neglect to Control
Policy change after the French and Indian War
Conservative Revolution
Why the American Revolution was unique
1650-1775
Years of the Enlightenment
1730-1740
Years of the Great Awakening
1754-1763
Years of the French and Indian War
1756-1763
Years of the 7 Years War
July 4, 1776
Date the Declaration of Independence was approved
1777
Year of Saratoga
1781
Year of Yorktown
1776-1783
Years of the American Revolution
1215
Signing of the Magna Carta
14th-16th centuries
Renassiance (1350-1550)
absolute monarchy (humans coldn't make disicions for themselves were made selfish and violent so gov. should make decisions for them
What was absolutism
gold and silver
What is bullion
reached the tip of Africa and renamed it Cape of Good Hope
What did Bartholomeu Dias do
traitor in the American vs. Britian war
Benedict Arnold
to travel around the world
What does Cirumnavigate mean
nations began competing for markets and trade goods, new business methods developed to invest money
What was the Commercial Revolution
what didi the jewish give to America?
conenant and ten commandments
what did the greek give 2 america?
democracy and maps
what did Romans give to America?
rule of law and republic
what is the concept of natural law?
gave people certain rights that the gov. shouldnt take away
what were the 2 principles of the english system of gov.?
limited and representative gov.
what are the 3 parts of colonial gov.?
governor, council, and assembly
what was the very 1st charter?
virginia company charter
what were the cash crops of the southern colonies?
tobacco,rice, and indigo
what were the types of colonies?
royal, charter, and propritory
where was the enlightenment centered?
france
what principle was established by the magna carta?
limited gov.
what was the puritan emphasis on education?
everyone should be educated to be able to read the bible
what was there a seperation of in the Rhode Island gov.?
church and state
what industry was capitalism started in?
textiles
what crop saved jamestown?
tobacco
who thought that gov should be divided into 3 branches?
montesque
who said you dont need to control economy?
smith
who was the 1st to reach india?
de gama
who did columbus sail for and where was he from
sailed for spain but was from italy
when did they start looking for the northwest passage?
after the fall of the Byzantine empire
who did cabot sail for and where was he from?
was italian sailing for england
who was responsible for the victory in the french & indian war
william pitt
what is encomienda?
native americans were forced 2 work for the profit of an individual spaniard