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Human Growth and Development
Terms in this set (82)
Freud's stages are psychosexual while Erik Erikson's stages are
Freudian stages (in order)
oral, anal , phallic , latency, and genital
Erikson stages of psychosocial development
Infant(0-1yr)Trust vs. Mistrust"HOPE"
Toddler(1-3yr) Autonomy vs. Shame and doubt"WILL"
Preschool(3-6yr)-Initiative vs. Guilt"Purpose"
School(6-11yr)-Industry vs. Inferiority"Competence"
Young Adult(21-40yr)Intimacy vs isolation"Love"
(40'60yr) Generative lifestyle vs. stagnation or self absorption"Care"
(>65)Ego integrity vs. despair"Wisdom"
Erik Erikson -ego psychologist belives
in a man's power of reasoning to control behavior
Psychodynamic theory emphasizes on
what theorist created a developmental stage that covers the entire life span
Jean Piaget stages (in order )
sensoritmotor (child motor skills), preoperation, concrete operations, formal operation
Jean Piaget used his findings from
his own children
A child masters conservation in the Piagetian stage known as
concrete operation ages 7-11
what age range is during the sensorimotor stage
birth- 2 years old
what age range is during the formal operation stage
what age range is during the preoperation stage
2-7 years old
which theorist expanded on Piaget's moral of development
Lawerence Kohlberg created
3 levels of morality - precoventional, conventionals, postconventioal
the child cannot see the viewpoint of someone else
created by Kohlberg to assess the level of moral development. Remember the husband trying to get medication for his wife.
Identity crisis goes with what theorist?
In Kholberg's first or preconventional stage, the individual's moral behavior is driven by
Kholberg second stage of development ( conventional) is characterized by
desire to live up to society's expectations and the desire to conform.
Kholberg highest level is postconventional the individual
has self-imposed moral and ethics ; create their own moral principle rather than relying on society and family
The zone of proximal created by
zone of proximal development
describes the difference a child's performance without teacher vs what they are capable of which the teacher's help
certain behaviors will not manifest themselves until the necessary stimuli are present in the environment, hereditary factors
Two theorists that are classified as maturationists
Freud and Erikson
in which Eriksonian stage does the midlife crisis occur
generativity versus stagnation
The statement: "Males are better than females when performing mathematical calculations" is
true according to research by Eleanor Maccoby and Carol Jacklin
We often refer to individuals as conformists. Which of these individuals would most likely conform to his or her peers?
13 year old male middle school student because conformity peaks in the early teens.
Harry Harlow's experiments with baby monkeys suggest
the baby monkey was more likely to cling to a terry cloth (hotel washcloths) surrogate mother than a wire surrogate mother.
Harry Harlow's concluded that
contact comfort is important in the development of the infant's attachment to his mother.
Freud psychosexual stages (in order)
oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital
In adolescence (suicide rates)
males commit suicide more often than females, but females attempt suicide more often
The fear of death
is greatest during middle age.
In Freudian theory, attachment is a major factor
which evolves primarily during the oral stage. Occurs which the child is still an infant and during this time attachment is important.
The Freudian developmental stage which "least" emphasizes sexuality is
Latency. is the only Freudian developmental stage which is not primarily psychosexual in nature.
hiding meaning in the dream
In terms of parenting young children
boys are punished more than girls.
When developmental theorists speak of nature or nurture they really mean
how much heredity or environment interact to influence development
Developmental is cephalocaudal which means
head to foot
Piaget's final stage is known as the formal operational stage. In this stage
abstract thinking emerges and problems can be solved using deductions.
Kholberg has _________ stages of moral development which follows into ______ levels
Kholberg 3 stages of develoment
preconventional, conventional, postconventional
Freud's Oedipus Complex occurs in what psychosexual stage
Elenaor Gibson is known for the
The visual cliff is
A device which uses a glass sheet which stimulates a drop-off. By six month infants will not attempt a drop off. This notes the depth perception in humans
Theorists who believe that development merely consists of quantitative changes are referred to as
A mother hides a toy behind her back and a young child does not believe the toy exists anymore. The child has not mastered
object permeance and representational thought
the intellectual ability of a child to picture something in their mind
In Piaget's developmental theory, reflexes play the greatest role in the
what age rage is sensorimotor stage
preoperational stage age
concrete operational stage
formal operational stage
An expert who has reviewed the literature on TV and violence would conclude that
watching violence tends to make children more aggressive
According to the Freudians, if a child is severely traumatized, he or she may _________________a given psychosexual stage
become fixated at (because he/ she feels safe )
A counselor who uses the term instinctual technically means
behavior that manifests itself in all normal members of a given species
A child who focuses exclusively on a clown's red nose but ignores his or her other features would be illustrating the Piagetian concept of
Centration which means focusing on a key feature of a given object or situation
teachers should teach less, children in concrete operations learns best from their own action and experimentation (Formal operation)
Freud and Erikson agreed that
each developmental stage needed to be resolved before and individual can move to the next stage
The reason adult females in U.S wear high heel shoes
A child fantasizes that a car or rock is talking to them. This concept is related to
Piaget's preoperational stage (age 2-7 years old)
Elementary school counseling and guidance services
did not begin to gain momentum until 1960s
1. ability to do create work or raise a family
2. the opposite of stagnation
3. productive ability to create a career, family, and leisure time
A person who can look back on their life with few regrets
ego-integrity in Erikson integrity vs despair stage
A successful integrity vs despair stage means
the belief that one's life served a purpose.
Sensoritmotor is to Piaget as oral is to Freud and as ________ as to Erikson
trust vs mistrust
Which theorist was most concerned with maternal deprivation?
When developmental comes to an halt, counselors say that the client
suffers from fixation
Kholberg created three levels of morality. Freud felt morality developed from
Which theorist would be most likely to say that agression is an inborn tendency
Konrad Lorenz, compared humans to wolves or baboons
A critical period
1. makes imprinting possible
2. signifies a special time when a behavior must be learned or the behavior wont be learned at all
3. marks importance of heredity and environment development
often decreases with parenthood and is lowest prior to a child leaving home
To research the dilemma of self-actualization, Maslow
interviewed the best people he could find who escaped the psychology of the average.
____________ factors cause Down Syndrome the most common type known as trisomy 21
The balance between assimilation and accommodation per Paiget is called
Counselor who are maturationists
allow clients to work through early conflicts
Per Robert Kegan "holding environment means
the client can make meaning in the face of a crisis and can find new direction
The anal retentive personality is
Mary Ainstworth created the
strange situation experiment which includes attachment security in children with adults.
a pattern of attachment in which an infant avoids connection with the caregiver, as when the infant seems not to care about the caregiver's presence, departure, or return
Clings to caregiver, gets upset, but resists comfort (e.g., may act angry)
a relationship in which an infant obtains both comfort and confidence from the presence of his or her caregiver
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